1. Budapest – Budapest is the capital and most populous city of Hungary, one of the largest cities in the European Union and sometimes described as the primate city of Hungary. It has an area of 525 square kilometres and a population of about 1.8 million within the limits in 2016. Budapest became a single city occupying both banks of the Danube river with the unification of Buda and Óbuda on the west bank, the history of Budapest began with Aquincum, originally a Celtic settlement that became the Roman capital of Lower Pannonia. Hungarians arrived in the territory in the 9th century and their first settlement was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241–1242. The re-established town became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century, following the Battle of Mohács and nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule, the region entered a new age of prosperity, and Budapest became a global city after its unification in 1873. It also became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a power that dissolved in 1918. Budapest was the point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Hungarian Republic of Councils in 1919, the Battle of Budapest in 1945. Budapest is an Alpha- global city, with strengths in arts, commerce, design, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, services, research, and tourism. Its business district hosts the Budapest Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks and it is the highest ranked Central and Eastern European city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index. Budapest attracts 4.4 million international tourists per year, making it the 25th most popular city in the world, further famous landmarks include Andrássy Avenue, St. It has around 80 geothermal springs, the worlds largest thermal water system, second largest synagogue. Budapest is home to the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, the European Police College, over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, Central European University and Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Budapest is the combination of the city names Buda and Pest, One of the first documented occurrences of the combined name Buda-Pest was in 1831 in the book Világ, written by Count István Széchenyi. The origins of the names Buda and Pest are obscure, according to chronicles from the Middle Ages, the name Buda comes from the name of its founder, Bleda, brother of the Hunnic ruler Attila. The theory that Buda was named after a person is also supported by modern scholars, an alternative explanation suggests that Buda derives from the Slavic word вода, voda, a translation of the Latin name Aquincum, which was the main Roman settlement in the region. There are also theories about the origin of the name Pest. One of the states that the word Pest comes from the Roman times. According to another theory, Pest originates from the Slavic word for cave, or oven, the first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celts before 1 ADBudapest
2. Buda Castle – Buda Castle is the historical castle and palace complex of the Hungarian kings in Budapest, and was first completed in 1265. In the past, it has been called Royal Palace and Royal Castle and it is linked to Clark Ádám Square and the Széchenyi Chain Bridge by the Castle Hill Funicular. The castle is a part of the Budapest World Heritage Site, the first royal residence on the Castle Hill was built by King Béla IV of Hungary between 1247 and 1265. It is uncertain whether it was situated on the tip of the hill or on the northern elevation. The oldest part of the palace was built in the 14th century by Stephen, Duke of Slavonia. Only the foundations remain of the keep, which was known as Stephens Tower. The Gothic palace of King Louis I was arranged around a courtyard next to the keep. King Sigismund significantly enlarged the palace and strengthened its fortifications, Sigismund, as a Holy Roman Emperor, needed a magnificent royal residence to express his prominence among the rulers of Europe. He chose Buda Castle as his residence, and during his long reign it became probably the largest Gothic palace of the late Middle Ages. Buda was an important artistic centre of the International Gothic style, construction began in the 1410s and was largely finished in the 1420s, although some minor works continued until the death of the king in 1437. The palace was first mentioned in 1437, under the name fricz palotha, the most important part of Sigismunds palace was the northern wing, known as the Fresh Palace. On the top floor was a hall called the Roman Hall with a carved wooden ceiling. Great windows and balconies faced toward the city of Buda, the façade of the palace was decorated with statues, a and coat-of-arms. In front stood the bronze statue of Sigismund, later repaired by King Matthias Corvinus. The southern part of the residency was surrounded with narrow zwingers. Two parallel walls, the so-called cortina walls, run down from the palace to the River Danube across the steep hillside, the most imposing structure, the Broken Tower, on the western side of the cour dhonneur, remained unfinished. The basement of the tower was used as a dungeon, the top floors were probably the treasury of the royal jewels, the last phase of large-scale building activity took place under King Matthias Corvinus. During the first decades of his reign the king finished the work on the Gothic palace, the Royal Chapel, with the surviving Lower Church, was likely built at that timeBuda Castle – Buda Castle seen across the Danube
3. Simontornya Castle – The Simontornya Castle is a Renaissance castle in Simontornya, Hungary. The Tower was built in the 13th century by Simon among the swamps of the Sió river, the name Simontornya means Simons Tower. Nearly all owners of the castle made some alterations throughout the centuries, the Lackfis built a new gothic wing in the 14th century, altered the old Tower, and added an arcaded loggia to the back-front. After the extinction of the House of Garai in 1482, the castle belonged to Queen Beatrix. Mózes Buzlay, marshall of King Ulászló II improved the castle into a palace with the help of Italian masters. After Buzlays death the castle was taken over by the Turks in 1545 and this event marked the beginning of a new era with an emphasis on military requirements. During the nearly 150 years of minor alterations and refinements were constantly being made. Simontornya, the center of a sandjak was recaptured by Louis William, in just two years major alterations turned the castle into a fortress. During the revolution against the Habsburgs, led by Prince Francis II Rákóczi, the fortress was captured by the Austrian army in 1709 housing troops until 1717. The castle fortress was later donated to the House of Limburg-Stirum and it has been used as a barn by all new owners until 1960, when archeological excavations startedSimontornya Castle – The Simontornya Castle
4. Esztergom – Esztergom, is a city in northern Hungary,46 kilometres northwest of the capital Budapest. It lies in Komárom-Esztergom county, on the bank of the river Danube. Esztergom was the capital of Hungary from the 10th till the mid-13th century when King Béla IV of Hungary moved the seat to Buda. Esztergom is the seat of the prímás of the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary, the city has the Keresztény Múzeum, the largest ecclesiastical collection in Hungary. Its cathedral, Esztergom Basilica is the largest church in Hungary, the Roman town was called Solva. The medieval Latin name Strigonium is usually derived from Slavic, proto-Slavic stregti – to watch, to guard, present participle stregom, strägom – a guard post Similar place names are Strzegom or Střehom. The Hungarians added a vowel in front of the group of consonants. The initial o in later Slavic forms could evolve independently from a prepositional form vъ Strägome > vo Strägome > v Osträgome like Slovak Bdokovce > Obdokovce, Psolovce > Obsolovce, another theory is based on the form Estrigun from the 12th century. Proto-Bulgaric estrogin käpe, estrigim küpe - a leather armor, other etymologies are Serbo-Croatian strgun - a tanner or a combination of Ister and Gam referring to the nearby river Hron. The first early medieval mention is ſtrigonensis comes, other names of the town are Croatian Ostrogon, Polish Ostrzyhom, Serbian Ostrogon and Estergon, Slovak Ostrihom and Czech Ostřihom. The German name is Gran, like the German name of river Garam, Esztergom is one of the oldest towns in Hungary. Esztergom, as it existed in the Middle Ages, now rests under todays town, the results of the most recent archeological excavations reveal that the Várhegy and its vicinity have been inhabited since the end of the Ice Age 20,000 years ago. The first people known by name were the Celts from Western Europe, a flourishing Celtic settlement existed on the Varhegy until the region was conquered by Rome. Thereafter it became an important frontier town of Pannonia, known by the name of Salvio Mansio, Salvio, by the seventh century the town was called Stregom and later Gran, but soon reverted to the former, which evolved into Esztergom by the thirteenth century. The German and Avar archaeological finds found in the reveal that these people settled there following the period of the migrations that were caused by the fall of the Roman Empire. At about 500 AD, Slavic peoples immigrated into the Pannonian Basin, in the 9th century, the place was part of Great Moravia, afterwards of the Principality of Nitra. In Old Slavonic language, it was called Strěgom, as it was strategic point of control for the Danube valley, the Magyars entered the Pannonian Basin in 896 AD and conquered it systematically, succeeding fully in 901. In 960, the prince of the Hungarians, GézaEsztergom – Esztergom
5. Castle of Eger – The Castle of Eger is a castle in Eger, Hungary. Historically, it is known for repelling the Turkish attack in 1552 during the Siege of Eger, the first castle was built on the high hill named Várhegy at Felsőtárkány near Eger. During the Mongol invasion in 1241, this castle was ruined, on the hill, a new castle was built, and it developed rapidly. In 1470 a Gothic palace was built, in 1552, a Turkish army of 35, 000-40,000 soldiers attacked the castle which had 2, 100-2,300 defenders. The siege failed as the Turks suffered heavy casualties, a total of 1,700 of the defenders survived. After that Turks besieged the castle again in 1596, resulting in a Turkish victory, in 1701, the Austrians exploded half of the castle. Archaeological excavations only started in 1925 and the castle was used by the army as barracks until 1957, official website The castle in picturesCastle of Eger – An entrance of the Eger Castle
6. Csesznek – Csesznek is a village in Zirc District, Veszprém county, Hungary. The village is famous for its medieval castle, the medieval castle of Csesznek was built around 1263 by the Jakab Cseszneky who was the swordbearer of the King Béla IV. He and his descendants have been named after the castle Cseszneky, between 1326 and 1392 it was a royal castle, when King Sigismund offered it to the House of Garai in lieu of the Macsó Banate. In 1482 the male line of the Garai family died out, in 1527, Baron Bálint Török became its owner. During the 16th century the Csábi, Szelestey and Wathay families were in possession of Csesznek, in 1561, Lőrinc Wathay repulsed successfully the siege of the Ottomans. However, in 1594 the castle was occupied by Turkish troops, in 1635, Dániel Esterházy bought the castle and village and from that time on Csesznek was the property of the Esterházy family until 1945. Cseszneky family Jakab Cseszneky Lőrinc Wathay Bálint Török Sándor Simonyi-Semadam A website about the village, a website about the village and the castle, made by local civiliansCsesznek – Csesznek
7. Palaces and mansions in Hungary – There are more than 2000 castles and mansions today in Hungary, with about 700 of them under protection. Castle construction thrived during the politically tranquil 18th century, which one of the most important periods of construction in the history of the cultural development of the country. The style of these castles varies according to age and region, in spite of being modelled sometimes on foreign examples and built by foreign masters, they still bear the stamp of a style rooted in the Hungarian way of life. Throughout the Middle Ages, while the country struggled to survive wars followed by 150 years of Turkish occupation, most of the castles were destroyed. Besides the older Esterházy wealth, the riches of the Festetiches, Battyanyis, Pállfys, Károlyis, many aristocratic families used their wealth to develop their property through architecture. No longer desiring to live in the forts built on top of hills. The nobility loved arts and sciences and lived within fine social norms, there are a lot of similar features in these buildings, which are now considered as Hungarian characteristics. The picture of Hungarian castles would not be complete without mentioning the gardens arounds them, since the era of Louis XIV, gardens were even more important than the buildings themselves. Hungarian nobles planned their gardens after the parks of French castles, the baroque garden strove for order and union. The 19th century brought a new way of thinking, the English example can be felt in the social and political life of the country, and their influence is seen in the castles of the nobility as well. Above all, the taste of the 19th century changed the style of the gardens, botanical interest came into prominence, it was fashionable to collect special and rare plants. After the monopoly of the baroque, the reflected the idea of back to nature. After the second World War the castles and their beautiful gardens became mainly state or co-operative property, most of them functions today as museums, houses of culture, schools, sanatoriums or other public buildingsPalaces and mansions in Hungary – Eszterháza, Fertőd
8. Hungary – Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken language in Europe. Hungarys capital and largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom, by the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Hungarys current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic, in the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power and has the worlds 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 188 countries measured by the IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds 36th largest exporter and importer of goods, Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a security and universal health care system. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and part of the Schengen Area since 2007, Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group. Well known for its cultural history, Hungary has been contributed significantly to arts, music, literature, sports and science. Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe and it is home to the largest thermal water cave system, the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe, and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. The H in the name of Hungary is most likely due to historical associations with the Huns. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Medieval Greek Oungroi, according to an explanation the Greek name was borrowed from Proto-Slavic Ǫgǔri, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the name for the tribes who later joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. The Hungarians likely belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance and it is possible they became its ethnic majority. The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar and ország, the word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeriHungary – Italian fresco depicting a Hungarian warrior shooting backwards
9. History of Hungary – For the history of the area before this period, see Pannonian basin before Hungary. The oldest archaeological site in Hungary is Vértesszőlős, where palaeolithic Oldowan pebble tools, the Roman Empire conquered territory west of the Danube River between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century AD, Pannonia, among the first to arrive were the Huns, who built up a powerful empire under Attila the Hun in 435 AD. Attila was regarded in past centuries as a ruler of the Hungarians. They entered what is now Hungary in the 7th century AD, the Avar Khaganate was weakened by constant wars and outside pressure, and the Franks under Charlemagne managed to defeat the Avars to end their 250-year rule. Árpád was the leader who unified the Magyar tribes via the Covenant of Blood and he led the new nation to the Carpathian Basin in the 9th century. Between 895 and 902 the whole area of the Carpathian Basin was conquered by the Hungarians, an early Hungarian state was formed in this territory in 895. The military power of the nation allowed the Hungarians to conduct successful fierce campaigns, Prince Géza of the Árpád dynasty, who ruled only part of the united territory, was the nominal overlord of all seven Magyar tribes. He aimed to integrate Hungary into Christian Western Europe by rebuilding the state according to the Western political and social models, Géza established a dynasty by naming his son Vajk as his successor. This decision was contrary to the dominant tradition of the time to have the eldest surviving member of the ruling family succeed the incumbent. By ancestral right, Prince Koppány, the oldest member of the dynasty, should have claimed the throne, Koppány did not relinquish his ancestral rights without a fight. After Gézas death in 997, Koppány took up arms, the rebels claimed to represent the old political order, ancient human rights, tribal independence and pagan belief. Stephen won a victory over his uncle Koppány and had him executed. Hungary was recognized as a Catholic Apostolic Kingdom under Saint Stephen I, Stephen was the son of Géza and thus a descendant of Árpád. Stephen was crowned with the Holy Crown of Hungary in the first day of 1000 AD in the city of Esztergom. Pope Sylvester II conferred on him the right to have the cross carried before him, with full authority over bishoprics. By 1006, Stephen had solidified his power by eliminating all rivals who either wanted to follow the old traditions or wanted an alliance with the Eastern Christian Byzantine Empire. Then he initiated sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a feudal state, complete with forced ChristianizationHistory of Hungary – Grand Prince Árpád crossing the Carpathians. A detail of the Arrival of the Hungarians, Árpád Feszty 's and his assistants' vast (1800 m²) cycloramic canvas, painted to celebrate the 1000th anniversary of the Magyar conquest of Hungary, now displayed at the Ópusztaszer National Heritage Park in Hungary.
10. History of Christianity in Hungary – The history of Christianity in Hungary began in the Roman province of Pannonia where the presence of Christian communities is first attested in the 3rd century. Accordingly, Christianity had existed in the territory of Hungary before the Hungarians settled there around 900 AD. The reception of Christianity was enforced by legislation in the reign of Gézas son, although some tenets of pagan belief were incorporated into the Christian vocabulary of the Hungarian language, nearly all the basic words of its religious terminology are of Slavic origin. The earliest religious texts written in vernacular survived from the end of the 12th century, the multiethnic Kingdom of Hungary emerged on the frontier of the Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and pagan worlds. Thus Hungarian monarchs frequently assisted the Papacy in its efforts to expand the borders of Catholicism by waging wars against their countrys pagan, schismatic, Protestant ideas, namely Lutheranism, started to spread in the German-speaking towns in the 1520s. Despite Lutheranisms initial success, the majority of the population adhered to the more radical theology of Calvinism by the second half of the century. The idea of freedom of religion was also first enacted in this period by the Decree of Torda of 1568, the equal status of the received denominations – the Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic, Reformed, Evangelical, Orthodox, and Unitarian Churches – was first declared in 1848. Although in 1947 all discrimination against other denominations was abolished, Church activities soon became subject to state supervision due to the introduction of the Communist regime, following the regimes fall, state interference in Church affairs ceased by the passage of a new law concerning religion in 1990. Transdanubia, the territory of modern Hungary west of the river Danube, similarly to other parts of the Roman Empire, most altars in the province were dedicated to Jupiter, who in this respect was followed by Silvanus. Aquincum became an important center of the cult of Mithras in the region, local Christian communities were first attested in 303 when Bishop Quirinus of Sescia was executed in Savaria under the Diocletianic Persecution. The new faith struck firm roots after its position had been consolidated throughout the Roman Empire in 313, the large Christian necropolises in Sopianae and Savaria are dated to this period. However, due to invasions, refugees from Pannonia started to arrive in other parts of the Roman Empire from the early 5th century. Among these displaced peoples were the inhabitants of Scarbantia who fled to Italy taking Saint Quirinuss relics with them, Martin of Tours, the patron saint of France, was also born in Pannonia. The towns of the province were ruined around 430 by the Huns, thereafter parts of the former province were controlled by the Ostrogoths, while the Gepids established themselves east of the river Tisza. A tablet of lead from this period discovered at Hács bore the Gothic text of parts of the Gospel of John, similarly to the Goths, the Gepidic nobility also adopted Arianism, an heretical strain of Christianity. The Reihengräber cemeteries found in the territory under Gepidic control, for instance at Szentes, are characterized by inhumation graves laid out in rows with an east–west orientation. Transdanubia was occupied in the early 6th century by the Lombards whose original cremation rite was replaced with a new habit of burying unburnt bodies in this period, in 567 the Avars subdued the Gepids, and in the next year forced the Lombards to flee to Italy. According to Paul the Deacon, the last remnants of the local Christian population also left Pannonia around that time, however a number of assemblages from the Early Avar period point to such a considerable Roman or early Bzyantine influence that they are grouped into the specific Keszthely cultureHistory of Christianity in Hungary – Ruins of the 9th-century church at Zalavár
11. Economy of Hungary – The Hungarian economy is the 57th-largest economy in the world with $265.037 billion annual output, and ranks 49th in the world in terms of GDP per capita measured by purchasing power parity. Hungary is a market economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade. The country had more than $100 billion of exports in 2015, with a trade surplus of $9.003 billion, of which 79% went to the EU. Hungarys productive capacity is more than 80% privately owned, with 39. 1% overall taxation, on the expenditure side, household consumption is the main component of GDP and accounts for 50% of its total, followed by gross fixed capital formation with 22% and government expenditure with 20%. As of 2015, the key trading partners of Hungary were Germany, Austria, Romania, Slovakia, France, Italy, Poland, major industries include food processing, pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, information technology, chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical goods, and tourism. Hungary is the largest electronics producer in Central and Eastern Europe, electronics manufacturing and research are among the main drivers of innovation and economic growth in the country. In the past 20 years Hungary has also grown into a center for mobile technology, information security. The unemployment rate was 4. 3% in January 2017, down from 11% during the crisis of 2007–08. Hungary is part of the European single market which represents more than 508 million consumers, several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union members and by EU legislation. Large Hungarian companies are included in the BUX, the Hungarian stock market index listed on Budapest Stock Exchange, well-known companies include the Fortune Global 500 firms MOL Group, the OTP Bank, Gedeon Richter Plc. Magyar Telekom, CIG Pannonia, FHB Bank, Zwack Unicum, besides these, Hungary has large number of specialised small and medium enterprises, for example many automotive industry suppliers and technology start ups, among others. Budapest is the financial and business capital of Hungary. 4%, on the national level, Budapest is the primary city of Hungary for business, accounting for 39% of the national income. The city had a gross metropolitan product of more than $100 billion in 2015, Budapest is also among the Top100 GDP performing cities in the world, as measured by PricewaterhouseCoopers. In a global city competitiveness ranking by EIU, Budapest is ranked above Tel Aviv, Lisbon, Moscow and Johannesburg, the Hungarian National Bank—founded in 1924, after the dissolution of Austro-Hungarian Empire—is currently focusing on price stability with an inflation target of 3%. In the age of feudalism the key factor was land. The new economic and social orders created private ownership of land, there are three forms of existence, the royal, ecclesiastical and secular private estate. The royal estate of the dynasty had evolved from the tribal lands. The origin of the private holdings dates back to the conquest tribal common estatesEconomy of Hungary
12. Military history of Hungary – The military history of Hungary includes battles fought in the Carpathian Basin and the military history of the Hungarian people regardless of geography. The first well established reference to Hungarians derives from Georgius Monachus work in the 9th century and it mentions that around 837 the Bulgarian Empire desired an alliance with the Hungarians. Although the Hungarians supposedly participated earlier at the Battle of Pliska in 811, the Hungarians began the conquest of the Carpathian Basin in 895. They continued to raid adjacent countries for many years, the Hungarians were able to defeat three major Frankish imperial armies between 907 and 910, however a military defeat in 955 forced them to withdraw and consolidate their gains. The strength of the Hungarian people arriving into the Carpathian Basin is well demonstrated by the failure of European countries in stopping them, the Magyars advanced as far as the Iberian Peninsula, the Coast of Normandy and city of Constantinople. The Magyar arts of war involved agility, speed, and precision and their armies were well-organized and the men were well trained and disciplined. They also carried sabers and spontoons, but the bow remained their armament of choice. The Magyars placed an emphasis on ranged fighting – their charges were usually preceded by a volley of arrows, the majority of their troops were trained to fight on horseback. The battle of Lechfeld, also known as the Battle of Augsburg in 955, in which Otto the Great and his army of the Holy Roman Empire defeated the Magyars, the Hungarians demonstrated a use of siege weapons, including a battering ram at the Siege of Ausburg. After that, Croatia was attached to the Hungarian kingdom, after Saint Ladislaus death, his nephew, the King Coloman of Hungary ascended to the Hungarian throne. The feudal lords of Croatia elected a new king, and tried to get rid of the Hungarian occupation, and then the Hungarians took up arms against Croatia, after this, Coloman was crowned as king of Croatia in 1102. The Hungarian chivalric army was at its best during the reign of Louis I, nevertheless, there were still light cavalry units in the army, consisting of, among others, Szeklers and the settling Kuns. On the winter of 1458 the 15 years old Mathias Corvinus was elected as king by the Hungarian nobility, during his reign he dealt with the noble factions, and created a centralized royal authority, supported mainly by the first permanent Hungarian mercenary army, the Fekete Sereg. Mathias favored the obsolete catapults over the modern cannons already employed by his father, light cavalry, formed by hussars and Jász mounted archers, regained part of their former role in the Fekete Sereg. On 2 September 1686 united Hungarian, Austrian and West-European troops liberated Buda from the Turkish occupation, by the end of the 17th century Christian armies led by Habsburgs conquered all the Turkish-ruled territories. Thereafter the Kingdom of Hungary was part of the Habsburg Monarchy, a decisive part of the fighting force – about four fifth, most of the time – was formed by the main arm of the time, infantry. The other arm, cavalry, still consisted mainly of cavalry, or units equipped with mail armor. Another two types of cavalry were dragoons and light cavalry, Hungarian hussars became internationally recognized, being a prime example of light cavalryMilitary history of Hungary – After the Battle of Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary fell apart. The southern part, as a result of Ottoman conquest, was annexed by the Ottoman Empire. The eastern region broke off from Hungary, and became a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire. Habsburg Austria claimed a section, known then as Royal Hungary.
13. List of Hungarian monarchs – For a list of presidents until present day, see List of heads of state of Hungary. For the semi-independent monarchs of Transylvania in the 16th and 17th centuries and this is a List of Hungarian monarchs, which includes the grand princes and the kings and ruling queens of Hungary. The Principality of Hungary established 895 or 896, following the 9th century Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin, the Kingdom of Hungary existed from 1000 until 1918. The Árpád dynasty, the descendants of Grand Prince Árpád. The rulers of the first half of the 10th century are often disputed, as the Hungarian nation consisted of several tribes led by various leadersList of Hungarian monarchs – Levedi
14. Hungarian nobility – The Hungarian nobility consisted of a privileged group of laymen, most of whom owned inheritable landed property, in the Kingdom of Hungary between the 1260s and 1946. Late 12th-century documents used the term noblemen in reference to the dignitaries of the royal court, most of these aristocrats were native lords, some even tracing their families origins back to tribal chiefs who lived at the time of the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin around 895. Other aristocrats were regarded as newcomers, because their ancestors came after the establishment of the kingdom around 1000, the immigrant knights contributed to the introduction of heavy cavalry and the spread of chivalric culture. According to scholarly theories, groups of Slavic or Romanian notabilities of the polities from the preceding the Hungarian conquest also survived. Beside the aristocrats, less illustrious individuals held landed property and were obliged to provide service throughout the kingdom. For instance, a group of armed serfs – the castle warriors – held estates in the lands attached to royal castles. Through the integration of the different classes of free and non-free warriors and they referred to themselves as royal servants to emphasize their direct contact to the monarch. They forced Andrew II of Hungary to spell out their liberties in the Golden Bull of 1222, the royal servants identification as noblemen was enacted in 1267. The highest royal officials had by that time were mentioned as barons of the realm, in short time, the counties transformed into the most important institutions of the self-government of noblemen. A decree of 1351 declared the principle of one and the liberty of all noblemen. Moreover, significant economic, political and social differences existed between the wealthiest noblemen and noblemen who themselves cultivated their tiny plots, the rich landowners employed impoverished noblemen in their households as their familiares. Through their familiares, they could control both the counties and the Diet, or parliament, according to customary law, only sons and male members of the noble families could inherit noble estates. Noblemens daughters were only entitled to the quarter which was to be given in money or movable property. Only the monarch had the power to promote a daughter to a son, if a nobleman died, his estates were divided among his sons in equal parts, which contributed to the impoverishment of noble families. A group of families bearing hereditary titles emerged in the middle of the 15th century. First the monarchs granted the title of count to noblemen. The law book also summarized the privileges, including their personal freedom. The Latin became the language of the nobility and it represented that Hungary belonged to the western states in the modern historical consciousness and served as a symbol of independence against German expansionHungarian nobility – The front page of the Tripartitum, the law-book summarizing the privileges of the nobility in the kingdom
15. Hungarian prehistory – This historiographical tradition disappeared from mainstream history after the realization of similarities between the Hungarian language and the Uralic languages in the late 18th century. Thereafter, linguistics became the source of the study of the Hungarians ethnogenesis. In addition, chronicles written between the 9th and 15th centuries, the results of research and folklore analogies provide information on the Magyars early history. They spread over vast territories, which caused the development of a separate Proto-Finno-Ugric language by the end of the millennium, linguistic studies and archaeological research evidence that those who spoke this language lived in pit-houses and used decorated clay vessels. The expansion of marshlands after around 2600 BC caused new migrations and they lived in settled communities, cultivated millet, wheat, and other crops, and bred animals – especially horses, cattle, and pigs. Loan words connected to animal husbandry from Proto-Iranian show that they had contacts with their neighbors. The southernmost Ugric groups adopted a way of life by around 1000 BC. The development of the Hungarian language started around 800 BC with the withdrawal of the grasslands, the history of the ancient Magyars during the next thousand years is uncertain, they lived in the steppes but the location of their Urheimat is subject to scholarly debates. According to one theory, they initially lived east of the Urals, other scholars say Magna Hungaria was the Magyars original homeland, from where they moved either to the region of the Don River or towards the Kuban River before the 830s AD. Hundreds of loan words adopted from Chuvash-type Turkic languages prove the Magyars were closely connected to Turkic peoples, Byzantine and Muslim authors regarded them as a Turkic people in the 9th and 10th centuries. An alliance between the Magyars and the Bulgarians in the late 830s was the first historical event that was recorded with certainty in connection with the Magyars, the Magyars were organized into tribes, each headed by their own voivodes, or military leaders. From their new homeland, which was known as Etelköz, the Magyars controlled the lands between the Lower Danube and the Don River in the 870s, the confederation of their seven tribes was led by two supreme chiefs, the kende and the gyula. The Kabars – a group of subjects of the Khazars – joined the Magyars in Etelköz. The Magyars regularly invaded the neighboring Slavic tribes, forcing them to pay a tribute, taking advantage of the wars between Bulgaria, East Francia, and Moravia, they invaded Central Europe at least four times between 861 and 894. A new Pecheneg invasion compelled the Magyars to leave Etelköz, cross the Carpathian Mountains, since the 1830s, archaeology has played an important role in the study of the Magyar prehistory. However, only twelve cemeteries in the steppes have yielded finds that show similarities to assemblages unearthed in the Carpathian Basin, the dating of those cemeteries is also controversial. These objects were dated to the late 9th century. The same archaeological sites also yielded vessels similar to the pottery of the neighboring Slavic territories, according to a scholarly theory, the oldest layers of Hungarian vocabulary show features of the territory in which the language emergedHungarian prehistory – The first page of the sole manuscript preserving the text of the Gesta Hungarorum, the earliest extant Hungarian chronicle
16. Pannonia – Pannonia was an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Julius Pokorny believes the name Pannonia is derived from Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European root *pen-, swamp, water, the Ionian Danube fleet reached as far as Boio-Aria, populated until the late 8th century CE by Celts and Slavs under Aryan rulers. Pliny the Elder, in Natural History, places the eastern regions of the Hercynium jugum and he also gives us some dramaticised description of its composition, in which the close proximity of the forest trees causes competitive struggle among them. But even he—if the passage in question is not an interpolated marginal gloss—is subject to the legends of the gloomy forest and he mentions unusual birds, which have feathers that shine like fires at night. Medieval bestiaries named these birds the Ercinee, the first inhabitants of this area known to history were the Pannonii, a group of Indo-European tribes akin to Illyrians. From the 4th century BC, it was invaded by various Celtic tribes, little is heard of Pannonia until 35 BC, when its inhabitants, allies of the Dalmatians, were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Siscia. The country was not, however, definitively subdued by the Romans until 9 BC, when it was incorporated into Illyricum, the frontier of which was thus extended as far as the Danube. After the rebellion was crushed in AD9, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, the date of the division is unknown, most certainly after AD20 but before AD50. The proximity of dangerous barbarian tribes necessitated the presence of a number of troops. Some time between the years 102 and 107, between the first and second Dacian wars, Trajan divided the province into Pannonia Superior, and Pannonia Inferior. According to Ptolemy, these divisions were separated by a line drawn from Arrabona in the north to Servitium in the south, later, the whole country was sometimes called the Pannonias. Pannonia Superior was under the legate, who had formerly administered the single province. Pannonia Inferior was at first under a praetorian legate with a single legion as the garrison, after Marcus Aurelius, it was under a consular legate, the frontier on the Danube was protected by the establishment of the two colonies Aelia Mursia and Aelia Aquincum by Hadrian. In the 4th-5th century, one of the dioceses of the Roman Empire was known as the Diocese of Pannonia. It had its capital in Sirmium and included all four provinces that were formed from historical Pannonia, as well as the provinces of Dalmatia, following the Migrations Period in the middle of the 5th century, Pannonia was ceded to the Huns by Theodosius II. After the collapse of the Hunnic empire in 454, large numbers of Ostrogoths were settled by Emperor Marcian in the province as foederati, afterwards, it was again invaded by the Avars in the 560s, the Slavs, who first settled c. This language and the culture became extinct with the arrival of the Magyars. The native settlements consisted of pagi containing a number of vici, the cities and towns in Pannonia were, The country was fairly productive, especially after the great forests had been cleared by Probus and GaleriusPannonia – Gerulata - a Roman military camp located near today's Rusovce, Slovakia.
17. Principality of Hungary – The Hungarians, a semi-nomadic people forming a tribal alliance led by Árpád, arrived from Etelköz which was their earlier principality east of the Carpathians. During the period, the power of the Hungarian Grand Prince seemed to be decreasing irrespective of the success of the Hungarian military raids across Europe, the tribal territories, ruled by Hungarian warlords, became semi-independent polities. These territories got united again only under the rule of St Stephen, the semi-nomadic Hungarian population adopted settled life. The chiefdom society changed to a state society, from the second half of the 10th century, Christianity started to spread. The principality was succeeded by the Christian Kingdom of Hungary with the coronation of St Stephen I at Esztergom on Christmas Day 1000, the Hungarian historiography calls the entire period from 896 to 1000 the age of principality. The ethnonym of the Hungarian tribal alliance is uncertain, the tribal name Megyer became Magyar referring to the Hungarian people as a whole. Written sources called Magyars Hungarians prior to the conquest of the Carpathian Basin when they lived on the steppes of Eastern Europe. In contemporary Byzantine sources, written in Greek, the country was known as Western Tourkia in contrast to eastern or Khazar Tourkia, the Jewish Hasdai ibn Shaprut around 960 called the polity the land of the Hungrin in a letter to Joseph of the Khazars. On the eve of the arrival of the Hungarians, around 895, East Francia, the Hungarians had much knowledge about this region because they were frequently hired as mercenaries by the surrounding polities and had led their own campaigns in this area for decades. This area had been populated, since Charlemagne’s destruction of the Avar state in 803. The newly unified Hungarians led by Árpád settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895, the East Frankish vassal Balaton Principality in Transdanubia was subjugated during a Hungarian campaign in the direction of Italy around 899-900. Great Moravia was annihilated between 902 and 907 and a part of it, the former Principality of Nitra, became a part of the Hungarian state. The south-eastern parts of the Carpathian Basin were under the rule of the First Bulgarian Empire, the control prior to the Hungarian settlement of territory of Solitudo Avarorum, where remnants of the Avars lived, has not yet been entirely clarified. The principality as a state, with a new-found military might. Three major Frankish imperial armies were defeated decisively by the Hungarians between 907 and 910, the Hungarians succeeded in extending the de iure Bavarian-Hungarian border to the River Enns, and the principality was not attacked from this direction for 100 years after the Battle of Pressburg. The intermittent Hungarian campaigns lasted until 970, however two military defeats in 955 and 970 marked a shift in the evolution of the Hungarian principality, the change from a ranked chiefdom society to a state society was one of the most important developments during this time. Initially, the Magyars retained a semi-nomadic lifestyle, practising transhumance, later, his new summer quarters were in Csallóköz according to this theory, however the exact location of the early center of the state is disputed. According to Gyula Kristó the center was located between the Danube and Tisza rivers, however the archaeological findings imply the location in the region of the Upper TiszaPrincipality of Hungary – A detail of the Arrival of the Hungarians, Árpád Feszty 's and his assistants' vast (1800 m 2) cyclorama, painted to celebrate the 1000th anniversary of the Magyar conquest of Hungary, now displayed at the Ópusztaszer National Heritage Park in Hungary
18. Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 was one of the many European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas. The revolution in the Kingdom of Hungary grew into a war for independence from the Austrian Empire, Czar Nicholas I answered, and sent a 200,000 men strong army with 80,000 auxiliary forces. Finally, the joint army of Russian and Austrian forces defeated the Hungarian forces, after the restoration of Habsburg power, Hungary was placed under brutal martial law. The anniversary of the Revolutions outbreak,15 March, is one of Hungarys three national holidays, the Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, even after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804. The administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire, Hungarys central government structures remained well separated from the imperial government. The country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary - located in Pozsony and later in Pest -, ignác Martinovics worked as a secret agent for the new Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold II, until 1792. In another of his works, Catechism of People and Citizens, he argued that citizens tend to oppose any repression and he also became a Freemason, and was in favour of the adoption of a federal republic in Hungary. As a member of the Hungarian Jacobins, he was considered a forerunner of revolutionary thought by some. He was in charge of stirring up a revolt against the nobility among the Hungarian serfs, for these subversive acts, Francis II, the Holy Roman Emperor, dismissed Martinovics and his boss, Ferenc Gotthardi, the former chief of the secret police. He was executed, together with six other prominent Jacobins, in May 1795, the Diet of Hungary had not convened since 1811. The frequent diets held in the part of the reign occupied themselves with little else but war subsidies. In the latter years of Francis I. the dark shadow of Metternichs policy of stability fell across the kingdom, but beneath the surface a strong popular current was beginning to run in a contrary direction. Hungarian society, not unaffected by western Liberalism, but without any help from abroad, was preparing for the future emancipation. In 1825 Emperor Francis II convened the Diet in response to growing concerns amongst the Hungarian nobility about taxes and this – and the reaction to the reforms of Joseph II – started what is known as the Reform Period. But the Nobles still retained their privileges of paying no taxes, the influential Hungarian politician Count István Széchenyi recognized the need to bring the country the advances of the more developed West European countries, such as England. It was an attack upon the constitution which, to use the words of István Széchenyi. In 1823, when the powers were considering joint action to suppress the revolution in Spain. The county assemblies instantly protested against this act, and Francis I was obliged, at the diet of 1823Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Artist Mihály Zichy 's painting of Sándor Petőfi reciting the National Poem to a crowd on March 15, 1848
19. Austria-Hungary – The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, and one region, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal, Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria-Hungary was a state and one of the worlds great powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908. The annexation of Bosnia also led to Islam being recognized as a state religion due to Bosnias Muslim population. Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I and it was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The realms full, official name was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship, one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This also meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, however, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was under the control of both Austria and Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungarys central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government, the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and later in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna. The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, despite Austria and Hungary sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities. Since the beginnings of the union, the government of the Kingdom of Hungary could preserve its separated. After the revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, from 1527 to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary maintained its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of the Habsburg-ruled territoriesAustria-Hungary – Franz Joseph I. (1885)
20. Hungary in World War I – At the outbreak of World War I, Hungary was part of the dualist monarchy, Austria-Hungary. Although there are no significant battles connected to Hungarian regiments, the troops fought faithfully and intrepidly, which was one of the causes of high losses. In 1914, Austria-Hungary was one of the powers of Europe, with an area of 676,443 km². On June 28,1914, Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, before entering the war, only the prime minister Count István Tisza hesitated, unconvinced that it was the best time to engage in battle. As soon as Germany promised to neutralize the Kingdom of Romania and promised that no territories of the Kingdom of Serbia would be annexed to Austria-Hungary, after the ultimatum sent to Serbia by Franz Josef I, the war broke out and soon spread over much of Europe and beyond. The second line of the army was the mobilized Landsturm of the Austrians Népfelkelés of Hungarians, in 1914, the Austrian-Hungarian army was facing its greatest challenge so far in history. After mobilisation, the forces were grouped to six armies. Between 1914 and 1918,9 million served in the army, in comparison to the other armies of Europe, Hungarys experienced veteran armed forces, technical equipment, and military expenditures were underdeveloped. The artillery was not sufficient, but it was developed later in the war. The correct supply of ammunition was not solved even by the end of the war, the armed forces lacked an adequate air force, it had only 42 military and 40 sport airplanes before the war. Unifying the multi-ethnic units was also a problem for the militarys leaders. The military forces of Austria-Hungary remained largely unified over the course of the war, in spite of their multi-ethnic nature, for the most part, troops from other ethnic groups within the empire were less likely to be placed in strategically critical positions and therefore had lower casualties. Lieutenant-general Josef Roth attacked the Russian 3rd army, and on the right wing, on December 11, colonel Ottmár Muhr died in a heroic defense leading the Sopron 9th cavalry regiment. Lieutenant-general Artur Arz, together with lieutenant-general Imre Hadfy, leading the 39th Kassa division, during the Siege of Przemysl, which defense was commanded by general Hermann Kusmanek, the main defence line, consisting of Hungarian troops, guarded the fortress for five months from November 1915. The defenders were commanded by Árpád Tamásy, leading the 23rd Szeged division, after the depletion of ammunition and food reserves, Przemysl capitulated, leaving 120,000 prisoners of war. On the Isonzo front, Hungarian forces participated in all twelve battles, on the Doberdo plateau and near Karst, the most serious battles were fought by Hungarians, who composed one third of the total armed forces. In particular, the 20th Nagyvárad and 17th Budapest common regiments distinguished themselves, on June 15,1918, near the river Piave, the 6th army commanded by Archduke József Ágost took over most part of mount Montello and held it until the end of the war. Decisive fights were carried out by the 31st Budapest common regiment, in Hungarian areas, this meant a death rate of twenty-eight per thousand persons - a level of loss exceeded within Austria-Hungary only by German AustriansHungary in World War I – Austro-Hungarian mountain corps in Tyrol
21. First Hungarian Republic – The First Hungarian Republic or by its contemporary name Hungarian Peoples Republic was a short-lived peoples republic that existed, apart from a 133-day interruption, from late 1918 until mid-1919. It was established in the wake of the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I, the Hungarian Peoples Republic replaced the Kingdom of Hungary and was in turn replaced by another short-lived state. Hungarian Peoples Republic was adopted as the name of the country on 16 November 1918. Following the collapse of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, the Gyula Peidl government restored the pre-communist name of the state on 2 August 1919, the Hungarian Peoples Republic was created by the Aster Revolution, which started in Budapest on 31 October 1918. That day, King Charles IV appointed the leader, Mihály Károlyi. Almost his first act was to terminate the personal union between Austria and Hungary. On 13 November, Charles issued a proclamation withdrawing from Hungarian politics, a few days later the provisional government proclaimed Hungary a peoples republic, with Károlyi as both prime minister and interim president. This event ended 400 years of rule by the House of Habsburg, the Entente considered Hungary a partner in the defeated Dual Monarchy, and dashed the Hungarians hopes with the delivery of successive diplomatic notes. Each demanded the surrender of land to other ethnic groups. On 20 March 1919, the French head of the Entente mission in Budapest gave Károlyi a note delineating the final postwar boundaries, Károlyi and Prime Minister Dénes Berinkey were now in an impossible position. They knew accepting the French note would endanger the countrys territorial integrity, Károlyi turned power over to a coalition of Social Democrats and Communists, the latter promised that Soviet Russia would help Hungary to restore its original borders. After the fall of the Soviet Republic on 1 August 1919, a decree was issued on 2 August restoring the form of government and the official state name back to Peoples Republic. During its brief existence, the Peidl government began to abrogate the edicts passed by the communist regime, on 6 August István Friedrich, leader of the White House Comrades Association, seized power in a bloodless coup with the backing of the Royal Romanian Army. The next day, Joseph August declared himself regent of Hungary, the state was formally dissolved by the new government on 8 August 1919. Hungarian Soviet Republic History of Hungary Revolutions and interventions in Hungary Richard Overy, History of the 20th Century, The Times, Mapping History. London,2003 Peter Rokai, Zoltan Đere, Tibor Pal, Revolution in Hungary and the Dissolution of the Multinational StateFirst Hungarian Republic – Proclamation of the people's republic on 16 November 1918.
22. Treaty of Trianon – The treaty regulated the status of an independent Hungarian state and defined its borders. It left Hungary as a state covering 93,073 square kilometres. Its population was 7.6 million, only 36% of the kingdoms population of 20.9 million. The areas that were allocated to neighbouring countries in total possessed a majority of non-Hungarian population, five of the pre-war kingdoms ten largest cities were drawn into other countries. The treaty limited Hungarys army to 35,000 officers and men, the principal beneficiaries of territorial division of pre-war Kingdom of Hungary were the Kingdom of Romania, the Czechoslovak Republic, and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. One of the elements of the treaty was the doctrine of self-determination of peoples. In addition, Hungary had to pay war reparations to its neighbours, the treaty was dictated by the Allies rather than negotiated and the Hungarians had no option but to accept its terms. The Hungarian delegation signed the treaty under protest on 4 June 1920 at the Grand Trianon Palace in Versailles, the treaty was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on 24 August 1921. The modern boundaries of Hungary are the same as those defined by the Treaty of Trianon except for three villages that were transferred to Czechoslovakia in 1947, the Hungarian government terminated its union with Austria on 31 October 1918, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian state. The de facto borders of independent Hungary were defined by the ceasefire lines in November–December 1918. On 1 December 1918, the National Assembly of Romanians in Transylvania declared union with the Kingdom of Romania, Slovakia, which became part of Czechoslovakia. That was signed on 6 December 1918, territories of Banat, Bačka and Baranja came under military control of the Kingdom of Serbia and political control of local South Slavs. The Great Peoples Assembly of Serbs, Bunjevci and other Slavs from Banat, Bačka, the ceasefire line had a character of temporary international border until the treaty. The city of Fiume was occupied by the Italian Army and its affiliation was a matter of international dispute between the Kingdom of Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Croatian-populated territories in modern Međimurje remained under Hungarian control after the agreement of Belgrade from 13 November 1918. After the Romanian Army advanced beyond this line, the Entente powers asked Hungary to acknowledge the new Romanian territory gains by a new line set along the Tisza river. Unable to reject these terms and unwilling to accept them, the leaders of the Hungarian Democratic Republic resigned, in spite of the country being under Allied blockade, the Hungarian Soviet Republic was formed and the Hungarian Red Army was rapidly set up. In the end, this invitation was not issuedTreaty of Trianon – Signing the Treaty on 4 June 1920 at the Grand Trianon Palace in Versailles, arrival of the two signatories, Ágost Benárd and Alfréd Drasche-Lázár
23. Hungary between the World Wars – This article is about the history of Hungary from October 1918 to November 1940. On October 31,1918, the Hungarian Democratic Republic was created by revolution that started in Budapest after the dissolution, the official proclamation of the republic was on November 16,1918, and Mihály Károlyi was named as the republics Prime Minister. This event also marked the independence of Hungary which had ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy for several centuries. The Hungarian Democratic Republic did not last long, another revolution in 1919 marked the end of this state and the creation of a new communist state known as Hungarian Soviet Republic. The rise of the Hungarian Communist Party to power was rapid, by February 1919, the party numbered 30,000 to 40,000 members, including many unemployed ex-soldiers, young intellectuals, and Jews. In the same month, Béla Kun was imprisoned for incitement to riot, Kun emerged from jail triumphant when the Social Democrats handed power to a government of Peoples Commissars, who proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic on March 21,1919. The communists wrote a constitution guaranteeing freedom of speech and assembly, free education, language and cultural rights to minorities. It also provided for suffrage for people over eighteen years of age except clergy, former exploiters, single-list elections took place in April, but members of the parliament were selected indirectly by popularly elected committees.5 hectares. Kun hoped that the Russian government would intervene on Hungarys behalf, in an effort to secure its rule in the interim, the communist government resorted to arbitrary violence. Revolutionary tribunals ordered about 590 executions, including some for crimes against the revolution, the government also used red terror to expropriate grain from peasants. This violence and the moves against the clergy also shocked many Hungarians. In late May, Kun attempted to fulfill his promise to restore Hungarys borders, the Hungarian Red Army marched northward and reoccupied part of Slovakia. Despite initial military success, however, Kun withdrew his troops about three weeks later when the French threatened to intervene and this concession shook his popular support. Kun then unsuccessfully turned the Hungarian Red Army on the Romanians, who broke through Hungarian lines on July 30, occupied Budapest, Kun fled first to Vienna and then to the Russian SFSR, where he was executed during Stalins purge of foreign communists in the late 1930s. A militantly anti-communist authoritarian government composed of officers entered Budapest on the heels of the Romanians. Estimates placed the number of executions at approximately 5,000, in addition, about 75,000 people were jailed. In particular, the Hungarian right wing and the Romanian forces targeted Jews for retribution, ultimately, the white terror forced nearly 100,000 people to leave the country, most of them socialists, intellectuals, and middle-class Jews. In March 1920, Admiral Miklós Horthy was named Regent and Sándor Simonyi-Semadam was named Prime Minister of the restored Kingdom of Hungary, Charles I of Austria was the last Emperor of Austria and the last King of HungaryHungary between the World Wars – Communist József Pogány speaks to revolutionary soldiers during the 1919 revolution
24. Hungary in World War II – During World War II, the Kingdom of Hungary was a member of the Axis powers. In the 1930s, the Kingdom of Hungary relied on increased trade with Fascist Italy, Hungary benefited territorially from its relationship with the Axis. Settlements were negotiated regarding territorial disputes with the Czechoslovak Republic, the Slovak Republic, in 1940, under pressure from Germany, Hungary joined the Axis. In 1941, Hungarian forces participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia, while waging war against the Soviet Union, Hungary engaged in armistice negotiations with the United States and the United Kingdom. Hitler discovered this betrayal and, in March 1944, German forces occupied Hungary, when Soviet forces began threatening Hungary, an armistice was signed between Hungary and the USSR by Regent Miklós Horthy. Soon after, Horthys son was kidnapped by German commandos and Horthy was forced to revoke the armistice, the Regent was then deposed from power, while Hungarian fascist leader Ferenc Szálasi established a new government, with German backing. In 1945, Hungarian and German forces in Hungary were defeated by invading Soviet armies, approximately 300,000 Hungarian soldiers and more than 600,000 civilians died during World War II, including among them at least 450,000 Jews and 28,000 Roma. Many cities were damaged, most notably the capital of Budapest, from the start of the German occupation of Hungary in 1944, Jews and Roma were deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp. By the end of the war, the toll was between 450,000 and 606,000 Hungarian Jews and an estimated 28,000 Hungarian Roma. Hungarys borders were returned to their status after its surrender. Unlike the ethnic Germans or Italians, however, ethnic Hungarians were not subject to expulsions from the countries in which they were residing after the war. In Hungary, the joint effect of the Great Depression and the Treaty of Trianon resulted in shifting the mood of the country towards the right. In 1932, the regent Miklós Horthy appointed a new Prime Minister, Gömbös was identified with the Hungarian National Defence Association. He led Hungarian international policy towards closer cooperation with Germany and started an effort to assimilate minorities in Hungary, Gömbös advocated a number of social reforms, one-party government, revision of the Treaty of Trianon, and Hungarys withdrawal from the League of Nations. The result of the 1935 elections gave Gömbös more solid support in parliament and he succeeded in gaining control of the ministries of finance, industry, and defense and in replacing several key military officers with his supporters. In October 1936, he died due to kidney problems without realizing his goals, Hungary used its relationship with Germany to attempt to revise the Treaty of Trianon. In 1938, Hungary openly repudiated the treatys restrictions on its armed forces, in 1935, a Hungarian fascist party, the Arrow Cross Party, led by Ferenc Szálasi was founded. Gömbös successor, Kálmán Darányi, attempted to appease both Nazis and Hungarian antisemites by passing the First Jewish Law, which set quotas limiting Jews to 20% of positions in several professionsHungary in World War II – Hungarian leader Miklós Horthy and German leader Adolf Hitler in 1938
25. Second Hungarian Republic – The Second Hungarian Republic was a parliamentary republic briefly established after the dissolution of the Kingdom of Hungary on 1 February 1946 and dissolved on 20 August 1949. It was succeeded by the Peoples Republic of Hungary, from September 1944 until April 1945, as World War II in Europe drew to a close, the Red Army occupied Hungary. The Siege of Budapest lasted almost two months and much of the city was destroyed and this meant that Hungarys borders were moved back to those that existed on 1 January 1938 and it lost the territories it had regained between 1938 and 1941. The Soviet Union also annexed Sub-Carpathia, some of which had part of Hungary before 1938. Between 1946 and 1948, half of Hungarys ethnic German minority were deported to Germany, the Soviets set up an alternative government in Debrecen on 21 December 1944 before capturing Budapest on 18 January 1945. Zoltán Tildy became the prime minister. In elections held in November 1945, the Independent Smallholders Party won 57% of the vote, the Hungarian Communist Party, now under the leadership of Mátyás Rákosi and Ernő Gerő, two survivors from the Hungarian Soviet Republic of 1919, received support from only 17% of the population. The Soviet commander in Hungary, Marshal Kliment Voroshilov, refused to allow the Smallholders Party to form a government, instead Voroshilov established a coalition government with the communists holding some of the key posts. Under Parliament, the leader of the Smallholders, Zoltán Tildy, was named president, Mátyás Rákosi became deputy prime minister. During 1945 and 1946, the currency, the pengő, was all. The only way to restore sanity to the economy was a new currency, lászló Rajk became minister of the interior and in this post established the security police. In February 1947 the police began arresting leaders of the Smallholders Party and it also pressured both parties to expel those members who werent willing to do the Communists bidding as fascists. Several prominent figures in both parties escaped abroad, later, Rákosi boasted that he had dealt with his partners in the government, one by one, cutting them off like slices of salami. By 1947, the Communists had all but emasculated the other parties in the coalition, the Communists were the dominant partners in the coalition Peoples Independence Front government. Nagy was replaced as minister by the more pliable Lajos Dinnyés. In October 1947, the Communists dropped all pretense of democracy, Rákosi gave the leaders of the non-Communist parties an ultimatum, cooperate with a new, Communist-dominated coalition government or go into exile. The Social Democratic Party effectively ceased to exist as an independent organization, other opposition leaders such as Anna Kéthly, Ferenc Nagy and István Szabó were imprisoned or sent into exile. The Republic of Hungary effectively ended in June 1948, when the Social Democrats were forced to merge with the Communists to form the Hungarian Working Peoples PartySecond Hungarian Republic – Tribute to Ferenc Nagy
26. Hungarian Revolution of 1956 – Though leaderless when it first began, it was the first major threat to Soviet control since the USSRs forces drove out Nazi Germany from its territory at the end of World War II. The revolt began as a student demonstration, which attracted thousands as they marched through central Budapest to the Parliament building, calling out on the using a van with loudspeakers. A student delegation, entering the building to try to broadcast the students demands, was detained. When the delegations release was demanded by the demonstrators outside, they were fired upon by the State Security Police from within the building, one student died and was wrapped in a flag and held above the crowd. This was the start of the revolution, as the news spread, disorder and violence erupted throughout the capital. The revolt spread quickly across Hungary and the government collapsed, thousands organised into militias, battling the ÁVH and Soviet troops. Pro-Soviet communists and ÁVH members were executed or imprisoned and former political prisoners were released and armed. Radical impromptu workers councils wrested municipal control from the ruling Hungarian Working Peoples Party, a new government formally disbanded the ÁVH, declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact, and pledged to re-establish free elections. By the end of October, fighting had almost stopped and a sense of normality began to return, after announcing a willingness to negotiate a withdrawal of Soviet forces, the Politburo changed its mind and moved to crush the revolution. On 4 November, a large Soviet force invaded Budapest and other regions of the country, the Hungarian resistance continued until 10 November. Over 2,500 Hungarians and 700 Soviet troops were killed in the conflict, mass arrests and denunciations continued for months thereafter. By January 1957, the new Soviet-installed government had suppressed all public opposition, public discussion about this revolution was suppressed in Hungary for more than 30 years. Since the thaw of the 1980s, it has been a subject of intense study, at the inauguration of the Third Hungarian Republic in 1989,23 October was declared a national holiday. During World War II Hungary was a member of the Axis powers, allied with the forces of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, Romania, in 1941, the Hungarian military participated in the occupation of Yugoslavia and the invasion of the Soviet Union. The Red Army was able to back the Hungarian and other Axis invaders. Fearing invasion, the Hungarian government began negotiations with the Allies. These ended when Nazi Germany invaded and occupied the country and set up its own pro-Axis regime, both Hungarian and German forces stationed in Hungary were subsequently defeated when the Soviet Union invaded the country in 1945. Towards the end of World War II, the Soviet Army occupied Hungary, immediately after World War II, Hungary was a multiparty democracy, and elections in 1945 produced a coalition government under Prime Minister Zoltán TildyHungarian Revolution of 1956 – A destroyed Soviet T34-85 in Budapest, 1956. The turret is lying behind the hull.
27. Geography of Hungary – With a land area of 93,028 square km, Hungary is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It measures about 250 km from north to south and 524 km from east to west. It has 2,106 km of boundaries, shared with Austria to the west, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia to the south and southwest, Romania to the southeast, Ukraine to the northeast, and Slovakia to the north. The country secured some boundary revisions from 1938 to 1941, In 1938 the First Vienna Award gave back territory from Czechoslovakia, in 1940 the Second Vienna Award gave back Northern Transylvania and finally Hungary occupied the Bácska and Muraköz regions during the Invasion of Yugoslavia. However, Hungary lost these territories again with its defeat in World War II, after World War II, the Trianon boundaries were restored with a small revision that benefited Czechoslovakia. Most of the country has an elevation of fewer than 200 m, although Hungary has several moderately high ranges of mountains, those reaching heights of 300 m or more cover less than 2% of the country. The highest point in the country is Kékes in the Mátra Mountains northeast of Budapest, the lowest spot is 77.6 m above sea level, located in the south of Hungary, near Szeged. The major rivers in the country are the Danube and Tisza, the Danube also flows through parts of Germany, Austria, Croatia, Slovakia, Serbia, and Romania. It is navigable within Hungary for 418 kilometers. The Tisza River is navigable for 444 km in the country, less important rivers include the Drava along the Croatian border, the Rába, the Szamos, the Sió, and the Ipoly along the Slovakian border. Lake Balaton, the largest, is 78 km long and from 3 to 14 km wide, Hungarians often refer to it as the Hungarian Sea. It is Central Europes largest freshwater lake and an important recreation area and its shallow waters offer good summer swimming, and in winter its frozen surface provides excellent opportunities for winter sports. Smaller bodies of water are Lake Velence in Fejér County and Lake Fertő, the countrys best natural resource is fertile land, although soil quality varies greatly. About 70% of the total territory is suitable for agriculture, of this portion. Hungary lacks extensive domestic sources of energy and raw materials needed for industrial development, main articles, Little Hungarian Plain, Transdanubia, Great Alföld. The Transdanubia region lies in the part of the country, bounded by the Danube River, the Drava River. It lies south and west of the course of the Danube and it contains Lake Fertő and Lake Balaton. The region consists mostly of rolling hills, Transdanubia is primarily an agricultural area, with flourishing crops, livestock, and viticulture. Mineral deposits and oil are found in Zala county close to the border of Croatia, the Great Alföld contains the basin of the Tisza River and its branchesGeography of Hungary – Topographic map of Hungary
28. Administrative divisions of Hungary – Administratively, Hungary is divided into 19 counties. In addition, the capital, Budapest, is independent of any county government, the counties and the capital are the 20 NUTS third-level units of Hungary. Since 1996, the counties and City of Budapest have been grouped into 7 regions for statistical and these seven regions constitute NUTS second-level units of Hungary. There are also 23 towns with county rights, sometimes known as counties in English. The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these belong to the territory of the respective county instead of being independent territorial units. The counties are subdivided into 174 districts as of January 1,2015. 23 districts of the city of Budapest are both administrative and self-government units. NUTS, HU Postal codes in Hungary - including a map of two digit zones Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Hungary Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of HungaryAdministrative divisions of Hungary – The 198 districts of Hungary (2013)
29. Counties of Hungary – Hungary is subdivided administratively into 19 counties and the capital city Budapest. The counties are subdivided into 174 districts. The capital Budapest is subdivided into 23 districts, there are 23 towns with countys rights, sometimes called urban counties. The local authorities of these towns have extended powers but they are not independent territorial unitsCounties of Hungary
30. Climate of Hungary – The climate of Hungary is characterised by its position. Hungary is in the west part of Central Europe, roughly equidistant from the Equator and it is also at least 500 kilometres from any main branches of the Mediterranean Sea. Its climate, like its whole geography, is as the result of changes during the Holocene Era. Hungarys climate is the result of the interaction of three major systems, the continental climate, the Oceanic climate, and the Mediterranean climate. The influence of all three systems are felt across the country at different times, which means that the weather is very changeable, the two most important factors influencing the climate of Hungary are its distance from the Atlantic and the prevailing westerly winds. The continental character of the Hungarian climate is far from being as extreme as in Eastern Europe, the depressions of the temperate zone follow in the path of the westerly winds and bring heavy rains to the country. The countrys situation within the region of the Carpathian Basin is also important. Hungarys climate is influenced by two more or less permanent action centres of the zone, the Icelandic Low and the Azores High. Depressions originating from the Iceland zone travel across the country bringing cool weather, when the Azores high gains the ascendancy, the weather is bright and dry, in winter and summer alike. From north to south, Hungary differs by only about 3 degrees of latitude, the seasonal variance in the angle of incidence of the Suns rays is, therefore, about 3°. The annual total insolation of the surface of the varies between 80 and 110 kcal/cm2. The seasonal distribution of sunshine varies between 70 kcal/cm2 in summer and 20 kcal/cm2 in winter and it varies a little by longitude, from 60 to 70 kcal/cm2 in the west to 100 to 110 kcal/cm2 in the south-east. The average hours of sunshine vary between 1,700 and 2,100 a year, the maxima at both are in July. The annual average of completely overcast days varies between 70 and 190, the actual hours of sunshine – that is, any sunshine on a day – reaches almost the half of that possible – 46%. Even in Hungary, the temperature is warmer than, for example, neighbouring Austria and this aberration or anomaly can be as much as 2.5 °C. Towards the east, this gradually diminishes, the average temperature in Hungary is 8 to 11 °C. The difference between the north and the south is only 3 °C, because of the small distance between south and north. For instance, the temperature in Southern England, Massif Central in France and Switzerland is the sameClimate of Hungary – Topographic map of Hungary
31. List of regions of Hungary – There are seven statistical regions of Hungary created in 1999 by the Law 1999/XCII amending Law 1996/XXI. Regions are groupings of the 19 counties and the capital city, northern Hungary includes the counties Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Heves and Nógrád. Northern Great Plain includes the counties Hajdú-Bihar, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok, and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, southern Great Plain includes the counties Bács-Kiskun, Békés and Csongrád. Central Hungary includes the county of Pest and the capital Budapest, central Transdanubia includes the counties Komárom-Esztergom, Fejér and Veszprém. Western Transdanubia includes the counties Győr-Moson-Sopron, Vas, Zala, southern Transdanubia includes the counties Baranya, Somogy and TolnaList of regions of Hungary
32. Politics of Hungary – Politics of Hungary takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic. The Prime Minister is the head of government of a pluriform multi-party system, while the President is the head of state, Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the parliament, the party system since the last elections is dominated by the conservative Fidesz. Hungary is an independent, democratic and constitutional state, which has been a member of the European Union since 2004, since 1989 Hungary has been a parliamentary republic. Legislative power is exercised by the unicameral National Assembly that consists of 199 members, members of the National Assembly are elected for four years. If the President dies, resigns or is unable to carry out his duties. Each cabinet nominee appears before one or more parliamentary committees in consultative open hearings, survive a vote by the Parliament, in Communist Hungary, the executive branch of the Peoples Republic of Hungary was represented by the Council of Ministers. The unicameral, 199-member National Assembly is the highest organ of state authority and its members are elected for a four-year term. The election threshold is 5%, but it applies to the multi-seat constituencies. A fifteen-member Constitutional Court has power to challenge legislation on grounds of unconstitutionality and this body was last filled on July 2010. Members are elected for a term of twelve years, the President of the Supreme Court of Hungary and the Hungarian civil and penal legal system he leads is fully independent of the Executive Branch. They have held the authority to legally binding decisions since late 2003. Note, with restructruring and reorganization, this information may change even within a governmental period, Ministers without portfolio, Zsolt Semjén, Tamás FellegiPolitics of Hungary – Parliament of Hungary.
33. Government of Hungary – The Government of Hungary exercises executive power in Hungary. It is led by the Prime Minister, and comprises ministers and it is the principal organ of public administration. The Prime Minister elected by the National Assembly and serves as the head of government, the Prime Minister is the leader of the party with the most seats in parliament. The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the right to dismiss them. Cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary committees, survive a vote in the National Assembly, the cabinet is responsible to the parliament. Since the fall of communism, Hungary has a multi-party system, the last Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 6 April 2014. This parliamentary election was the 7th since the 1990 first multi-party election, the result was a victory for Fidesz–KDNP alliance, preserving its two-thirds majority with Viktor Orbán remaining Prime Minister. It was the first election according to the new Constitution of Hungary which went into force on 1 January 2012, the new electoral law also entered into force that day. The voters elected 199 MPs instead of previous 386 lawmakers, list of cabinets since 1989, Following the Hungarian parliamentary election,2014, the current prime minister, Viktor Orbán is serving with his government since 6 June 2014. The Minister of Interior of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet, the current foreign minister is Sándor Pintér. Between 2006 and 2010 the ministry was split into the Ministry of Local Government, in 2010 the prior organization was restored. Ministry of Local Government Ministry of Justice and Law Enforcement The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet, the current foreign minister is Péter Szijjártó. The Minister of National Economy of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet, the current minister of national economy is Mihály VargaGovernment of Hungary – Hungary
34. Constitution of Hungary – The Fundamental Law of Hungary, the countrys constitution, was adopted on 18 April 2011, promulgated a week later and entered into force on 1 January 2012. It is Hungarys first constitution adopted within a framework and following free elections. The document succeeded the 1949 Constitution, originally adopted at the creation of the Hungarian Peoples Republic on 20 August 1949, both domestically and abroad, the 2011 constitution has been the subject of controversy. The government that enacted the charter has dismissed such assertions, saying it was enshrined lawfully, the constitution is divided into sections and articles as outlined below. Described as socially and fiscally conservative, the initiates a number of changes. In an effort to push the public debt below 50% of gross domestic product, the President is allowed to dissolve Parliament if a budget is not approved, and only companies with transparent activities and ownership structures are allowed to bid for government contracts. The powers of the head of the Hungarian National Bank are also limited, the life of a fetus is protected from the moment of conception, and although the move is seen as opening the possibility for a future ban or restrictions on abortion, existing laws were unaffected. Same-sex couples may register their partnerships, but marriage is defined as being between one man and one woman. A ban on discrimination does not mention age or sexual orientation, the constitution lowers judges mandatory retirement age from 70 to the general retirement age, which was 62 at the time of adoption and is set to rise to 65 by 2022. The provision also covers prosecutors, while the Prosecutor General and the head of the Curia are exempt, for centuries, the Hungarian constitution was unwritten, based upon customary law. There was no civil code either, lawyers worked with the Corpus Iuris Hungarici, following the advent of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, the Revolutionary Governing Council adopted a Provisional Constitution on 2 April 1919, providing for a Soviet-style political system. On 23 June, the National Assembly of Allied Councils adopted Hungarys first charter-like constitution, however, that regime was crushed two months later and Hungary returned to its historical, unwritten pre-1918 constitution. Despite the lack of a constitution, several constitutional laws were passed during the interwar period of the Kingdom of Hungary. Statute I of 1920 confirmed the monarchical form of government and vested legislative power in a diet, Statute XLVII dethroned the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. A second chamber was established by Statute XXII of 1926, successive constitutional acts increased the power of the regent, who was empowered to nominate forty senators at first, and during World War II, eighty-seven. Its basic features remained in place until 1989, although a number of important amendments were made, while the constitution guaranteed certain fundamental rights, their scope was limited by provisions stating they had to be exercised in harmony with the interests of the socialist society. In 1989, as the Communist regime crumbled, the legislature approved a constitutional revision that brought in a civil democratic form of government. After the opposition won free elections in 1990, references to democratic socialism, further modifications followed over the ensuing two decades, as successive plans for a new constitution did not reach fulfillmentConstitution of Hungary – 2011 postage stamp commemorating the constitution adopted that year
35. Elections in Hungary – Elections in Hungary are held at two levels, general elections to elect the members of the National Assembly, and local elections to elect local authorities. European Parliament elections are held every 5 years. The last National Assembly elected according to the old system was elected in 2010 and had been working until 2014, the National Assembly had 386 members, elected for a four-year term. 176 members were elected in single-seat constituencies,152 by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies, for the latter two, an election threshold of 5% is in effect. Or in case of two parties joint list, the threshold is 10%, in case of three or more parties, 15%, general elections in Hungary were held in two rounds until 2010, with a second, run-off round taking place two weeks after the first. From 2014 a one-round system replaced the existing system. After the polls close, The result in single-seat constituencies where turnout was below 50% is declared invalid. Any single-seat constituency where turnout was over 50% and one received over 50% of the votes is won by that candidate. In all remaining single-seat constituencies, the candidates who finished the first three plus any more candidates having received at least 15% of votes may enter the second round, the result for multi-seat constituencies where the turnout was over 50% is produced. In the second round, each voter may cast one vote for one candidate standing in the single-seat constituency. After the polls close, Any seats in single-seat constituencies where turnout was below 25%, all other single-seat constituencies will be won by the candidate who received the most votes. The result of multi-seat constituencies where turnout was below 25% is declared invalid, the parties passing the threshold are identified based on multi-seat constituencies with a valid result. Seats from these constituencies are distributed, the electoral laws were changed in 2012. The first elections to be according to the new system were organized in 2014. The 2014 elections were held on the 6th of April, the following significant changes had been issued in the electoral system, One round system instead of the two round system. No 50%, nor 25% turnout is necessary and this minority spokesman solution gives the opportunity to minorities to speak in the National Assembly even if they cannot gain the approximately 1% of all votes. Practically German and Romani minorities have the chance to have MP-s, the average population of constituencies used to be 57089 and will be 94789 in 2014. The constituency borders do not coincide with city or district borders, however they have to coincide with county borders, Budapest used to consist of 32 constituencies and will consist of 18 in 2014Elections in Hungary
36. Foreign relations of Hungary – Hungary wields considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs. The foreign policy of Hungary is based on four basic commitments, to Atlantic co-operation, to European integration, to international development, the Hungarian economy is fairly open and relies strongly on international trade. Hungary has been a member of the United Nations since December 1955 and member of European Union, the NATO, the OECD, the Visegrád Group, the WTO, the World Bank, the AIIB and the IMF. Hungary took on the presidency of the Council of the European Union for half a year in 2011, Hungarys capital city, Budapest is home to more than 100 embassies and representative bodies as an international political actor. Since 1989, Hungarys top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic, Hungary joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia. Hungary since 1989 has also improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing treaties with Romania, Slovakia. These renounce all outstanding claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Romania, Slovakia and Serbia periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up, Hungary since 1989 has signed all of the OSCE documents, and served as the OSCEs Chairman-in-Office in 1997. Hungarys record of implementing CSCE Helsinki Final Act provisions, including those on reunification of divided families, remains among the best in Central and Eastern Europe. Except for the short-lived neutrality declared by the anti-Soviet leader Imre Nagy in November 1956 and it was one of the founding members of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact and Comecon, and it was the first central European country to withdraw from those organizations, now defunct. After 1989, Hungary oriented more towards the West, joined NATO in 1999, as with any country, Hungarian security attitudes are shaped largely by history and geography. Hungarys foreign policy priorities, largely consistent since 1990, represent a response to these factors. Since 1990, Hungarys top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic, Hungary joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia. The Horn government achieved Hungarys most important foreign policy successes of the post-communist era by securing invitations to join both NATO and the European Union in 1997, Hungary became a member of NATO in 1999, and a member of the EU in 2004. Hungary also has improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing treaties with Romania, Slovakia. These renounce all outstanding claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Slovakia and Romania periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up. Hungary was a signatory to the Helsinki Final Act in 1975, has signed all of the CSCE/OSCE follow-on documents since 1989, Hungarys record of implementing CSCE Helsinki Final Act provisions, including those on reunification of divided families, remains among the best in eastern EuropeForeign relations of Hungary – Memorial to Hungarian freedom fighters of 1848-1849 at Protestant Cemetery in Şişli, Istanbul.
37. Law enforcement in Hungary – Law enforcement in Hungary is split among the Police and Border Guards, and the Customs and Excise Authority. Since 2006, the Police has been subject to the Ministry of Justice, due to Hungarys accession to the Schengen Treaty, the Police and Border Guards were merged into a single national corps, with the Border Guards becoming Police Officers. This merger took place in January 2008, the Customs and Excise Authority remained to be subject to the Ministry of Finance. The national police headquarters is located in Budapest, 13th District and it is nicknamed as Police Palace. In February,2007, the headquarters was the target of small fire, with multiple bullet holes being found in the building. The Hungarian Police is the main and largest governmental law enforcement agency in Hungary and it reports to the Ministry of the Interior and headed by the National Commissioner of the Police. It carries out general policing, patrolling, traffic policing, bordeg control and it is divided into twenty regional units one for the capital city Budapest and nineteen for the nineteen counties of Hungary. It mainly deals with counter-terrorist activities, the majority of the officers serving in the body are trained as SWAT officers to fight against armed criminals. They interfere when necessary in any case if asked for by the National Police or other authorities, since the service was established, the corruption within the public sphere in Hungary including law enforcement agencies decreased to some exttent. Up to now it has not been proven that the National Protective Service would have abused its powers granted by law in any way. The National Protection Service has established its own code of conduct, the National Security Service is one of the civilian secret services of Hungary under the direct control of the Minister of the Interior. The service rather fights against organised crime than dealing with counter-espionage nowadays, the Constitution Protection Agency is the main internal civilian secret service of Hungary under the control of the Minister of the Interior. In Hungary there are also municipal / local police forces with very limited jurisdictions, the most widespread form of local police organisations is the Közterület-felügyelet which can be found in the capital and larger towns in the country. If they recognise some serious crime, they are to call the National Police, many local government also employs so-called Mezőőrség in order to defend rural areas and infields. Államvédelmi Osztály Államvédelmi Hatóság Csendőrség Crime in Hungary Law Enforcement and Public Safety Service Police of Hungary Hungary Corruption Profile from the Business Anti-Corruption PortalLaw enforcement in Hungary – Headquarters of the Rendőrség in Budapest
38. Hungarian Defence Force – Hungarian Defence Forces is the national defence force of Hungary. The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Ministry of Defence jointly with Chief of staff administers the armed forces, including the Hungarian Ground Force, since 2007, the Hungarian Armed Forces is under a unified command structure. The Ministry of Defence maintains the political and civil control over the army, a subordinate Joint Forces Command is coordinating and commanding the HDF corps. In 2016, the forces had 31.080 personnel on active duty. In 2017, military spending will be $1.21 billion, about 0. 94% of the countrys GDP, in 2012, the government adopted a resolution in which it pledged to increase defence spending to 1. 4% of GDP by 2022. Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime, in a significant move for modernization, Hungary decided in 2001 to buy 14 JAS39 Gripen fighter aircraft for about 800 million EUR. Hungarian National Cyber Security Center is re-organized in 2016 in order to more efficient through cyber security. Hungary sent 300 strong logistics unit to Iraq in order to help the US occupation with armed transport convoys, one soldier was killed in action because of a roadside bomb in Iraq. During the 18th and 19th century, Hungarian Hussars rose to international fame, in 1848–49 HDF achieved incredible successes against better-trained and equipped Austrian forces, despite the obvious advantage in numbers on the Austrian side. In 1872, the Ludovica Military Academy officially began training cadets, by 1873 HDF already had over 2,800 officers and 158,000 men organized into eighty-six battalions and fifty-eight squadrons. During World War I out of the eight million men mobilized by Austro Hungarian Empire, during the 1930s and early 1940s, Hungary was preoccupied with the regaining the vast territories and huge amount of population lost in the Trianon peace treaty at Versailles in 1920. Conscription was introduced on a basis in 1939. The peacetime strength of the Royal Hungarian Army grew to 80,000 men organized into seven corps commands, during World War II the Hungarian Second Army was near to total devastation on banks of the Don River in December 1942 in Battle for Stalingrad. As of 2016 Global Peace Index shows, Hungary is one of the worlds most peaceful countries, since 2007, the Hungarian Defence Force has been under a unified command structure. The Ministry of Defence maintains the political and civil control over the army, the military leadership is exercised by the Defence Staff of the Ministry of Defence. A subordinate Joint Force Command coordinates and commands the HDF corps, the Home Defence Pyrotechnician and Warship Battalion of the Hungarian Defence Forces based in Újpest Port, on the River Danube, Budapest. In the 2000s, the army bought new minesweepers, restored or retired the old ones, on national holidays warships come along the River Danube in BudapestHungarian Defence Force – Operator of Hungarian Army's 34th ’László Bercsényi’ Special Operations Battalion (KMZ) about to storm the unit's own Killing House
39. Hungarian nationality law – Hungarian nationality law is based on the principles of jus sanguinis. Hungarian citizenship is acquired mainly on the basis of a Hungarian parent, children born in Hungary to foreign parents do not generally acquire Hungarian citizenship. Every Hungarian citizen is also a citizen of the European Union, the existing Hungarian nationality law dates from 1993. Prior to this date, rules for acquisition and loss of Hungarian citizenship may have been different, till August 2015, more than 750,000 applications were filed and 700,000 people were already granted citizenship thanks to the new nationality law. These people are mostly from Transylvania with 300,000 people, Vojvodina with 130,000, dual citizenship is permitted under Hungarian law. A person acquires Hungarian citizenship at birth if at least one parent is a Hungarian citizen, the place of birth is irrelevant. Children born in Hungary to foreign parents do not acquire Hungarian citizenship at birth unless they would otherwise be stateless, minor children adopted by Hungarian citizens may normally be granted Hungarian citizenship. The residence requirement is reduced to 3 years for, spouses of Hungarian citizens who have married for three years. Declaration is a form of naturalisation. The following people may be eligible to acquire Hungarian citizenship by declaration, stateless persons aged less than 19, born in Hungary and residing in Hungary for the 5 years prior to the declaration. Persons becoming naturalised Hungarian citizens are expected to take an Oath of Allegiance as follows, I will be a faithful citizen of the Republic of Hungary. I will respect and obey the Constitution and laws of this country, I defend my country to the utmost of my strength, I serve it to the best of my abilities. Those who prefer may take an equivalent solemn promise instead of an oath and it is not possible for a person to lose Hungarian citizenship involuntarily. The exception concerns fraudulent applications for naturalisation, Hungarian citizens who hold another nationality and live outside Hungary may renounce their Hungarian citizenship. Visa requirements for Hungarian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Hungary. In 2014, Hungarian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 162 countries and territories, Hungarian citizens are also citizens of the European Union and thus enjoy rights of free movement and have the right to vote in elections for the European Parliament. Citizenship Act Office of Immigration and Nationality Act of Hungarian nationality,1993 Controversial Hungarian Citizenship Law PassedHungarian nationality law – Visa requirements for Hungarian citizens
40. National Assembly (Hungary) – The National Assembly is the parliament of Hungary. The unicameral body consists of 199 members elected to 4-year terms, election of members is based on a complex system involving both area and list election, parties must win at least 5% of the popular vote in order to enter the list of members of the assembly. The Assembly includes 25 standing committees to debate and report on introduced bills, the Constitutional Court of Hungary has the right to challenge legislation on the grounds of constitutionality. The assembly has met in the Hungarian Parliament Building in Budapest since 1902, the name of the legislative body was originally Parlamentum during the Middle Ages, the Diet expression gained mostly in the Early Modern period. It convened at regular intervals with interruptions during the period of 1527 to 1918, as a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise, it was reconstituted in 1867. Natio Hungarica was a geographic, institutional and juridico-political category, the democratic character of the Hungarian parliament was reestablished with the fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of communist dictatorship in 1989. Todays parliament is still called Országgyűlés just like in royal times, at the sixth parliamentary elections, four parties or party alliances passed the minimum threshold, the Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union in alliance with the Christian Democratic Peoples Party. Fidesz-KDNP candidates won seats to achieve a two-thirds majority required to modify major laws. The Hungarian Socialist Party won 59 seats, while its former coalition party Alliance of Free Democrats failed to win any seats, there were two newcomers to the Országgyűlés, Jobbik and Politics Can Be Different. 1 independent got into the Parliament, winning a constituency in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County, the other prestigious party, the Hungarian Democratic Forum also lost all its seats. The President of Fidesz and Prime Minister is Viktor Orbán, pál Schmitt served as Speaker of the National Assembly until August 2010 when he became President of Hungary. He was replaced by László Kövér, after the 2010 local elections, held on the 3rd of October, Katalin Szili founded the Social Union and became its first chairperson. As a result, she quit the Hungarian Socialist Party and their parliamentarian group, continuing the parliamentarian work as formally independent MP. The heads of the factions were, MSZP, Ildikó Lendvai, Attila Mesterházy Fidesz, Tibor Navracsics KDNP, Zsolt Semjén SZDSZ, Gábor Kuncze, Mátyás Eörsi, János Kóka. MDF, the faction of MDF broke up in 2009. The head of the allied faction Fidesz-KDNP was Viktor Orbán, the head of the minority government was Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány then Gordon Bajnai. The speaker of the Assembly was Katalin Szili then Béla Katona of the MSZPNational Assembly (Hungary)
41. Prime Minister of Hungary – The Prime Minister of Hungary is the head of government of Hungary, and the most powerful person in Hungarian politics. He or she leads the majority party or coalition in the National Assembly of Hungary, the current Prime Minister is Viktor Orbán, who has served since 29 May 2010. The title of Hungarys head of government in Hungarian is miniszterelnök, if there is no party with a majority, the President asks the leader of the largest party to attempt to form a government coalition. Therefore, the election of members of a party to parliament is the equivalent to a vote for that partys leader for Prime Minister. There is no limit to the number of mandates as Prime Minister, he/she is appointed by the President of the Republic, after the legislative elections and after an audience with every leader of a party represented at the Assembly. It is usual for the leader of the party receives a plurality of votes in the elections to be named Prime Minister. The Prime Minister has a role in the executive branch in accordance with the Hungarian Constitution. Further, the Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the right to dismiss them as is the case with the Chancellor of Germany. Cabinet nominees appear before one or more parliamentary committees in consultative open hearings and they must then survive a vote by Parliament and be formally approved by the President. The palatine was the highest dignitary in the Kingdom of Hungary after the king from the rise up to 1848/1918. Initially, he was in fact the representative of the king, in the early centuries of the kingdom, he was appointed by the king, later elected by the Diet of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Habsburgs solidified their hold of Hungary, the dignity became a position once again. Finally, it became hereditary in a branch of the Habsburg dynasty after King Francis appointed his brother Joseph. During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 the revolutionaries wanted the creation of a Hungarian cabinet which would be independent from the Austrian Empire, one of the 12 points said,2. Ferdinand V appointed Count Lajos Batthyány for the position of Prime Minister of Hungary on 17 March 1848, the government was called ministry, differently from the current acceptation. Batthyány resigned on October 2,1848 he was succeeded by Lajos Kossuth as President of the Committee of National Defence and this executive body has not been allocated the portfolios. In April 1849, when the Hungarians had won many successes, after sounding the army, in May Bertalan Szemere was appointed Prime Minister. The position was vacant after the defeat of the freedom fight, List of rulers of Hungary List of heads of state of Hungary List of palatines of Hungary List of Prime Ministers of Hungary by tenurePrime Minister of Hungary – Incumbent Viktor Orbán since 29 May 2010
42. List of Prime Ministers of Hungary – The following is a list of Prime Ministers of Hungary from when the first Prime Minister, Lajos Batthyány, took office in 1848 until the present day. The prime minister is head of the Government of Hungary, there are currently five living former Prime Ministers of Hungary. EKGP continued to support the government, while FKGP went into opposition,2 SZDSZ left the Gyurcsány II Cabinet on 20 April 2008. 3 The Bajnai Cabinet was supported externally by SZDSZ, izsák, Alajos – Pölöskei, Ferenc – Romsics, Ignác – Urbán, Aladár, Magyar miniszterelnökök 1848–2002, Kossuth Kiadó, Budapest,2003. Markó, László, A magyar állam főméltóságai Szent Istvántól napjainkig – Életrajzi Lexikon, Helikon Kiadó KftList of Prime Ministers of Hungary