A spring is a point at which water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface. It is a component of the hydrosphere. A spring may be the result of karst topography where surface water has infiltrated the Earth's surface, becoming part of the area groundwater; the groundwater travels through a network of cracks and fissures—openings ranging from intergranular spaces to large caves. The water emerges from below the surface, in the form of a karst spring; the forcing of the spring to the surface can be the result of a confined aquifer in which the recharge area of the spring water table rests at a higher elevation than that of the outlet. Spring water forced to the surface by elevated sources are artesian wells; this is possible if the outlet is in the form of a 300-foot-deep cave. In this case the cave is used like a hose by the higher elevated recharge area of groundwater to exit through the lower elevation opening. Non-artesian springs may flow from a higher elevation through the earth to a lower elevation and exit in the form of a spring, using the ground like a drainage pipe.
Still other springs are the result of pressure from an underground source in the earth, in the form of volcanic activity. The result can be water at elevated temperature such as a hot spring; the action of the groundwater continually dissolves permeable bedrock such as limestone and dolomite, creating vast cave systems. Seepage or filtration spring; the term seep refers to springs with small flow rates in which the source water has filtered through permeable earth. Fracture springs, discharge from faults, joints, or fissures in the earth, in which springs have followed a natural course of voids or weaknesses in the bedrock. Tubular springs, in which the water flows from underground caverns. Spring discharge, or resurgence, is determined by the spring's recharge basin. Factors that affect the recharge include the size of the area in which groundwater is captured, the amount of precipitation, the size of capture points, the size of the spring outlet. Water may leak into the underground system from many sources including permeable earth and losing streams.
In some cases entire creeks disappear as the water sinks into the ground via the stream bed. Grand Gulf State Park in Missouri is an example of an entire creek vanishing into the groundwater system; the water emerges 9 miles away. Human activity may affect a spring's discharge—withdrawal of groundwater reduces the water pressure in an aquifer, decreasing the volume of flow. Springs are classified by the volume of the water they discharge; the largest springs are called "first-magnitude", defined as springs that discharge water at a rate of at least 2800 liters or 100 cubic feet of water per second. Some locations contain many first-magnitude springs, such as Florida where there are at least 27 known to be that size; the scale for spring flow is as follows: Minerals become dissolved in the water as it moves through the underground rocks. This may give the water flavor and carbon dioxide bubbles, depending on the nature of the geology through which it passes; this is why spring water is bottled and sold as mineral water, although the term is the subject of deceptive advertising.
Springs that contain significant amounts of minerals are sometimes called'mineral springs'. Springs that contain large amounts of dissolved sodium salts sodium carbonate, are called'soda springs'. Many resorts are known as spa towns. Water from springs is clear; however some springs may be colored by the minerals. For instance, water heavy with iron or tannins will have an orange color. In parts of the United States a stream carrying the outflow of a spring to a nearby primary stream may be called a spring branch or run. Groundwater tends to maintain a long-term average temperature of its aquifer; the cool water of a spring and its branch may harbor species such as certain trout that are otherwise ill-suited to a warmer local climate. Springs have been used for a variety of human needs including drinking water, domestic water supply, mills and electricity generation. Other modern uses include recreational activities such as fishing and floating. A sacred spring, or holy well, is a small body of water emerging from underground and revered either in a Christian, pagan or other religious context, sometimes both.
The lore and mythology of ancient Greece was replete with sacred and storied springs—notably, the Corycian and Castalian. In medieval Europe, holy wells were pagan sacred sites that became Christianized; the term "holy well" is employed to refer to any water source of limited size, which has some significance in local folklore. This can take the form of a particular name, an associated legend, the attribution of healing qualities to the water through the numinous presence of its guardian spirit or Christian saint, or a ceremony or ritual centred on the well site. In Christian legend, the spring water is said to have been made to flow by the action of a saint, a familiar theme in the hagiography of Celtic saints. LaMor
A glacier cave is a cave formed within the ice of a glacier. Glacier caves are called ice caves, but the latter term is properly used to describe bedrock caves that contain year-round ice. Most glacier caves are started by water running under the glacier; this water originates on the glacier’s surface through melting, entering the ice at a moulin and exiting at the glacier’s snout at base level. Heat transfer from the water can cause sufficient melting to create an air-filled cavity, sometimes aided by solifluction. Air movement can assist enlargement through melting in summer and sublimation in winter; some glacier caves are formed by geothermal heat from volcanic hotsprings beneath the ice. An extreme example is the Kverkfjöll glacier cave in the Vatnajökull glacier in Iceland, measured in the 1980s at 2.8 kilometres long with a vertical range of 525 metres. Some glacier caves are unstable due to melting and glacial motion, are subject to localized or complete collapse, as well as elimination by glacial retreat.
An example of the dynamic nature of glacier caves is the former Paradise Ice Caves, located on Mt. Rainier in the United States. Known since the early 1900s, the caves were thought to have disappeared altogether in the mid-1940s, yet in 1978 cavers measured 13.25 kilometres of passageways in glacier caves there, it was considered the longest glacier cave system in the world. The Paradise Ice Caves collapsed and vanished in the 1990s, the lower lobe of the glacier which once contained the caves has vanished between 2004 and 2006. Glacier caves may be used by glaciologists to gain access to the interior of glaciers; the study of glacier caves themselves is sometimes called "glaciospeleology". Mount Rainier Two craters on top of a cone on the volcano's summit contain the world's largest volcanic ice-cave system. Perito Moreno Glacier Titlis Ice cave W. R. Halliday, Glaciospeleology Cave Science Topics, Caving International no. 4, July 1979. J. Schroeder, Inside the Glaciers – Svalbard, Norway The Canadian Caver vol.22 no.1, 1990.
Media related to Glacier cave at Wikimedia Commons The Virtual Cave: Glacier Caves
Agop Batu Tulug Caves
Agop Batu Tulug Caves is an archaeological site in the Malaysian state of Sabah and refers to a group of several caves in a steep limestone cliffs in the Kinabatangan district. The name combines words from three languages: agop in Sungai language means "cave", batu is the Malay word for "rock", while tulug comes from the Cebuano language where it means "to go to sleep" referring to the resting place of the dead; the caves were used 500 to 900 years ago as a burial place with about 125 carved wooden coffins inside. It was divided into namely Agop Sawat, Agop Lintanga and Agop Suriba; the caves at Agop Sawat and Lintanga contained more than 125 ancient log coffins. All coffins inside the caves were made from belian hardwood, decorated with carvings of buffalo head, house lizard and snake; the carvings reflect the legends of the Kinabatangan people. For example, a crocodile is related to death and the power darkness while the bugang bird, dog and deer were friends of their heroes; the coffins resemble different animals associated to the beliefs of the Orang Sungai but it has been said that they are the coffins of the Chinese who once settled in the area as Chinese artefacts were found among the remains.
It is believed that this type of funeral culture was brought by traders from Mainland China and Indochina to northern Borneo, since similar wooden coffins were discovered in these countries. Researchers assumes. Other sites are located in Lahad Datu and Tawau; the cave was discovered in 1984 through an expedition led by P Brietag, the manager of tobacco estate in Batu Putih of Kinabatangan together with researcher Barbara Harrisson of Sarawak State Museum and staffs of the Sabah Museum. Since 6 July 1996, the caves are part of the Sabah Museum, responsible for maintenance and upkeep the ancillary facilities such as toilets, staircase buildings, office buildings and overnight cabins except for the scientific support of the caves. Batu Tulug Museum on etawau.com
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an ore body, vein, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package, of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, oil shale, limestone, dimension stone, rock salt, potash and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or feasibly created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or water. Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed. De Re Metallica, Georgius Agricola, 1550, Book I, Para. 1Mining operations create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed.
Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Work safety has long been a concern as well, modern practices have improved safety in mines. Levels of metals recycling are low. Unless future end-of-life recycling rates are stepped up, some rare metals may become unavailable for use in a variety of consumer products. Due to the low recycling rates, some landfills now contain higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves. Since the beginning of civilization, people have used stone and metals found close to the Earth's surface; these were used to make early weapons. Flint mines have been found in chalk areas where seams of the stone were followed underground by shafts and galleries; the mines at Grimes Graves and Krzemionki are famous, like most other flint mines, are Neolithic in origin. Other hard rocks mined or collected for axes included the greenstone of the Langdale axe industry based in the English Lake District; the oldest-known mine on archaeological record is the Ngwenya Mine in Swaziland, which radiocarbon dating shows to be about 43,000 years old.
At this site Paleolithic humans mined hematite to make the red pigment ochre. Mines of a similar age in Hungary are believed to be sites where Neanderthals may have mined flint for weapons and tools. Ancient Egyptians mined malachite at Maadi. At first, Egyptians used the bright green malachite stones for ornamentations and pottery. Between 2613 and 2494 BC, large building projects required expeditions abroad to the area of Wadi Maghareh in order to secure minerals and other resources not available in Egypt itself. Quarries for turquoise and copper were found at Wadi Hammamat, Tura and various other Nubian sites on the Sinai Peninsula and at Timna. Mining in Egypt occurred in the earliest dynasties; the gold mines of Nubia were among the largest and most extensive of any in Ancient Egypt. These mines are described by the Greek author Diodorus Siculus, who mentions fire-setting as one method used to break down the hard rock holding the gold. One of the complexes is shown in one of the earliest known maps.
The miners crushed the ore and ground it to a fine powder before washing the powder for the gold dust. Mining in Europe has a long history. Examples include the silver mines of Laurium. Although they had over 20,000 slaves working them, their technology was identical to their Bronze Age predecessors. At other mines, such as on the island of Thassos, marble was quarried by the Parians after they arrived in the 7th century BC; the marble was shipped away and was found by archaeologists to have been used in buildings including the tomb of Amphipolis. Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, captured the gold mines of Mount Pangeo in 357 BC to fund his military campaigns, he captured gold mines in Thrace for minting coinage producing 26 tons per year. However, it was the Romans who developed large scale mining methods the use of large volumes of water brought to the minehead by numerous aqueducts; the water was used for a variety of purposes, including removing overburden and rock debris, called hydraulic mining, as well as washing comminuted, or crushed and driving simple machinery.
The Romans used hydraulic mining methods on a large scale to prospect for the veins of ore a now-obsolete form of mining known as hushing. They built numerous aqueducts to supply water to the minehead. There, the water stored in large tanks; when a full tank was opened, the flood of water sluiced away the overburden to expose the bedrock underneath and any gold veins. The rock was worked upon by fire-setting to heat the rock, which would be quenched with a stream of water; the resulting thermal shock cracked the rock, enabling it to be removed by further streams of water from the overhead tanks. The Roman miners used similar methods to work cassiterite deposits in Cornwall and lead ore in the Pennines; the methods had been developed by the Romans in Spain in 25 AD to exploit large alluvial gold deposits, the largest site being at Las Medulas, where seven long aqueducts tapped local rivers and sluiced the deposits. Spain was one of the most important mining regions, but all regions of the Roman Empire were exploited.
In Great Britain the natives had mined minerals for millennia, but after the Roman conquest, the scale of the operations increased as the Romans needed Britannia's resources gold, silver
Caving – traditionally known as spelunking in the United States and Canada and potholing in the United Kingdom and Ireland – is the recreational pastime of exploring wild cave systems. In contrast, speleology is the scientific study of the cave environment; the challenges involved in caving vary according to the cave being visited. Cave diving is a distinct, more hazardous, sub-speciality undertaken by a small minority of technically proficient cavers. In an area of overlap between recreational pursuit and scientific study, the most devoted and serious-minded cavers become accomplished at the surveying and mapping of caves and the formal publication of their efforts. In the US, these are private, but in the UK and other European countries, they are published and publicly. Sometimes categorized as an "extreme sport", it is not considered as such by longtime enthusiasts, who may dislike the term for its connotation of disregard for safety. Many caving skills overlap with those involved in urban exploration.
Caving is undertaken for the enjoyment of the outdoor activity or for physical exercise, as well as original exploration, similar to mountaineering or diving. Physical or biological science is an important goal for some cavers, while others are engaged in cave photography. Virgin cave systems comprise some of the last unexplored regions on Earth and much effort is put into trying to locate and survey them. In well-explored regions, the most accessible caves have been explored, gaining access to new caves requires cave digging or cave diving. Caving, in certain areas, has been utilized as a form of eco and adventure tourism. Tour companies have established an industry leading and guiding tours through caves. Depending on the type of cave and the type of tour, the experience could be adventure-based or ecological-based. In many areas, there are tours led through lava tubes by a guiding service. Caving has been described as an "individualist's team sport" by some, as cavers can make a trip without direct physical assistance from others but will go in a group for companionship or to provide emergency help if needed.
Some however consider the assistance cavers give each other as a typical team sport activity. Clay Perry, an American caver of the 1940s, wrote about a group of men and boys who explored and studied caves throughout New England; this group referred to themselves as spelunkers, a term derived from the Latin spēlunca, itself from the Greek σπῆλυγξ spēlynks. This is regarded as the first use of the word in the Americas. Throughout the 1950s, spelunking was the general term used for exploring caves in US English, it was used without any positive or negative connotations, although only outside the US. In the 1960s, the terms spelunking and spelunker began to be considered déclassé among experienced enthusiasts. In 1985, Steve Knutson – editor of the National Speleological Society publication American Caving Accidents – made the following distinction: …Note that I use the term'spelunker' to denote someone untrained and unknowledgeable in current exploration techniques, and'caver' for those who are.
This sentiment is exemplified by bumper stickers and T-shirts displayed by some cavers: "Cavers rescue spelunkers". Outside the caving community, "spelunking" and "spelunkers" predominately remain neutral terms referring to the practice and practitioners, without any respect to skill level. Potholing refers to the act of exploring potholes, a word originating in the north of England for predominantly vertical caves; the base term caving comes from the Latin cavea or caverna, meaning a cave. Caving was pioneered by Édouard-Alfred Martel, who first achieved the descent and exploration of the Gouffre de Padirac, in France, as early as 1889 and the first complete descent of a 110-metre wet vertical shaft at Gaping Gill, in Yorkshire, England, in 1895, he developed his own techniques based on metallic ladders. Martel visited Kentucky and notably Mammoth Cave National Park in October 1912. In the 1920s famous US caver Floyd Collins made important explorations in the area and in the 1930s, as caving became popular, small exploration teams both in the Alps and in the karstic high plateaus of southwest France transformed cave exploration into both a scientific and recreational activity.
Robert de Joly, Guy de Lavaur and Norbert Casteret were prominent figures of that time, surveying caves in Southwest France. During World War II, an alpine team composed of Pierre Chevalier, Fernand Petzl, Charles Petit-Didier and others explored the Dent de Crolles cave system near Grenoble, which became the deepest explored system in the world at that time; the lack of available equipment during the war forced Pierre Chevalier and the rest of the team to develop their own equipment, leading to technical innovation. The scaling-pole, nylon ropes, use of explosives in caves and mechanical rope-ascenders can be directly associated to the exploration of the Dent de Crolles cave system. In 1941, American cavers organized themselves into the National Speleological Society to advance the exploration, conservation and understanding of caves in the United States. American caver Bill Cuddington, known as "Vertical Bill", further developed the single-rope technique in
Perlis known by its honorific title Perlis Indera Kayangan, is the smallest state in Malaysia. It lies at the northern part of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and has the Satun and Songkhla Provinces of Thailand on its northern border, it is bordered by the state of Kedah to the south. It was called Palit by the Siamese. Perlis had a population of 227,025 as of 2010; the capital of Perlis is Kangar, the royal capital is Arau. Another important town is Padang Besar, at the Malaysia–Thailand border and Kuala Perlis, the ferry town to Langkawi; the main port and ferry terminal is at the small village of Kuala Perlis, linking to Langkawi Island. Another important developed area is Pauh Putra within subdistrict of Kurong Anai which houses the main campus of Malaysia University of Perlis and Politeknik Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin. Perlis has a famous snake research centre at Sungai Batu Pahat. Among the main tourist attractions are Gua Kelam. Perlis has an island within its waters, Pulau Batu Layang near Perlis Power Plant, Kuala Sungai Bharu.
Perlis owned another island, Pulau Brasmana just 10km from Kuala Perlis. The island's name is the origin name for Putra Brasmana Hotel. However, the island known as Ko Pratmana; the reason for this change is still unknown. It is unclear. According to a Malaysian historian, Mohd Yusuf bin Adil, the name comes from the Thai phrase "Phra Loi" which means kelapa hanyut since there were many coconuts found on the shores of Kuala Perlis; the phrase has been shortened by locals. It has been suggested Perlis may be a shortened form of a Malay word "peroleh" as the state was a "gift" from Kedah, since it was a part of Kedah before becoming a state on its own. According to a history book'Negeri Perlis Indera Kayangan: Sejarah Pembentukan Sebuah Negeri Berdaulat', the name came from a tree of the same name which might have gone extinct; some researches suggests the name is derived from a Northern Malay dialect word "perelus" which translates as "foot falling into a crack", since Perlis is said to have a wide land filled with mud, the people's feet may sink into the mud.
Additional suggestions include being named after someone, or derived from the French word "perlite" which means "rock" due to a huge rock near Sungei Perlis. Perlis was part of Kedah, although it came under rule by Siam or Aceh. Perlis was an important realm within the Kingdom of Kedah. Sultan Muhyiddin of Kedah made his capital in Kota Sena, while Sultan Dhiauddin II made Kota Indera Kayangan his capital. Sultan Dhiauddin II of Kedah was honorifically titled as Raja Muda of Perlis and Kedah, akin to the title Prince of Wales in the United Kingdom. During his reign as the Sultan of Kedah, he oversaw a treaty with George Leith to cede Province Wellesley to Penang, he was titled as Raja Muda of Kedah. This fact depicted Perlis as an autonomous state within Kedah. Sultan Dhiauddin made Syed Harun Jamalullail, father of the future first Raja of Perlis as chieftain of Arau as a wedding gift to his marriage with his daughter, Tengku Sofiah. Syed Harun's descendant will become deputy governor and King of Perlis.
After the Siamese conquered Kedah in 1821, the British felt their interests in Perak to be threatened. This resulted in the 1826 Burney and Low Treaties formalising relations between the two Malay states and Siam, their nominal overlord. In the Burney Treaty, the exiled Kedah sultan Ahmad Tajuddin was not restored to his throne. Sultan Ahmad and his armed supporters fought in a series of war known as Perang Musuh Bisik for his restoration over twelve years. In 1842, the Sultan agreed to accept Siamese terms and was restored to his throne of Kedah. However, Siam separated Perlis into a separate principality directly vassal to Bangkok; the Siamese made Raja Long Krok as the Governor of Siam in Perlis while Syed Hussain Jamalullail as deputy governor. On 20 May 1843, the Siamese made Sayyid Hussain Jamalulail, the paternal grandson of a Hadhrami Arab Sayyid immigrant and maternal grandson of the Sultan of Kedah, became the first Raja of Perlis; this made Perlis as a sovereign state. His descendants still rule Perlis, but as rajas, instead of as sultans.
In 1897, Kedah led by its Prime Minister, Wan Mat Saman started effort to end the sovereignty of Perlis as what had become to the Kingdom of Kubang Pasu, returned to Kedah crown. After several tense occasions and disputes, Siamese King Chulalongkorn sided with Perlis. Perlis had several disputes with the state of Setul before the 1900s; as with Kedah, the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 forced Siam to relinquish its southern Malay vassal states of Kelantan and Monthon Syburi to Great Britain. The British installed a Resident in the Perlis Royal capital of Arau. Perlis was returned to Siam in World War II as a reward for Siam's alliance with Japan, but this brief annexation ended with the Japanese surrender. After World War II, Perlis returned to British rule until it became part of the Malayan Union the Federation of Malaya in 1957 and lastly the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. Since 2000, the Raja or hereditary monarch has been Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin, he was the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia from 13 December 2001 to 12 December 2006.
Tuanku Syed Faizuddin Putra was the Regent of Perlis during the five-year period when Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin was Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The Chief Exec
Speleology is the scientific study of caves and other karst features, as well as their make-up, physical properties, life forms, the processes by which they form and change over time. The term speleology is sometimes applied to the recreational activity of exploring caves, but this is more properly known as caving or potholing, or by the uncommon American term spelunking. Speleology and caving are connected, as the physical skills required for in situ study are the same. Speleology is a cross-disciplinary field that combines the knowledge of chemistry, geology, physics and cartography to develop portraits of caves as complex, evolving systems. Prior to the mid-nineteenth century the scientific value of caves was considered only in its contribution to other branches of science, cave studies were considered part of the larger disciplines of geography, geology or archaeology. Little cave-specific study was undertaken prior to the work of Édouard-Alfred Martel, the'father of modern speleology', who through his extensive and well-publicised cave explorations introduced in France the concept of speleology as a distinct area of study.
In 1895 Martel founded the Société de Spéléologie, the first organization devoted to cave science in the world. The growth of speleology is directly linked with that of the sport of caving, both because of the stimulation of public interest and awareness, the fact that most speleological field-work has been conducted by sport cavers; the creation of an accurate, detailed map is one of the most common technical activities undertaken within a cave. Cave maps, called surveys, can be used to compare caves to each other by length and volume, may reveal clues on speleogenesis, provide a spatial reference for further scientific study, assist visitors with route-finding. Caves provide a home for many unique biota. Cave ecologies are diverse, not distinct from surface habitats. However, the deeper the cave becomes, the more rarefied the ecology. Cave environments fall into three general categories: Endogeanthe parts of caves that are in communication with surface soils through cracks and rock seams, groundwater seepage, root protrusion.
Parahypogeanthe threshold regions near cave mouths that extend to the last penetration of sunlight. Hypogeanor "true" cave environments; these can be in regular contact with the surface via wind and underground rivers, or the migration of animals, or can be entirely isolated. Deep hypogean environments can host autonomous ecologies whose primary source of energy is not sunlight, but chemical energy liberated from limestone and other minerals by chemoautotrophic bacteria. Cave organisms fall into three basic classes: There are so-called accidental trogloxenes which are surface organisms that enter caves for no survival reason; some may be troglophobes, which cannot survive in caves for any extended period. Examples include deer which fell through a sinkhole, frogs swept into a cave by etc.. The two factors that limit cave ecologies are energy and nutrients. To some degree moisture is always available in forming Karst caves. Cut off from the sunlight and steady deposition of plant detritus, caves are poor habitats in comparison with wet areas on the surface.
The majority of energy in cave environments comes from the surplus of the ecosystems outside. One major source of energy and nutrients in caves is dung from trogloxenes, the majority of, deposited by bats. Other sources are mentioned above. Cave ecosystems are fragile; because of their rarity and position in the ecosystem they are threatened by a large number of human activities. Dam construction, limestone quarrying, water pollution and logging are just some of the disasters that can devastate or destroy underground biological communities. Speleologists work with archaeologists in studying underground ruins, tunnels and aqueducts, such as the various inlets and outlets of the Cloaca Maxima in Rome. National Speleological Society The Virtual Cave, an online guide to speleothems Biospeleology.