Ash Hole Cavern
Ash Hole Cavern is a limestone cave system in Brixham, England. There is evidence of human habitation since Neolithic times, archaeological excavations have been conducted, with several artefacts found, it has been a scheduled ancient monument since 1966. Ash Hole Cavern is reached by an 50 metre walk from the Berry Head Road, through an area of woodland and undergrowth; the cave, situated in limestone rock of Devonian age, consists of an east-west-orientated main chamber and several other fissures and smaller chambers. There are two entrances into the cave: the formed entrance is at the bottom of a sinkhole at the eastern end of the main chamber, a larger entrance, created by a breach during quarrying in the 19th century, is on the northern side. Apart from the large main chamber, there are several smaller chambers, which extend downwards into the rock. One has a large quantity of loose rock within it, this chamber extends upwards to a smaller fissure, underneath which a ladder helps gain access.
The cave is situated close to the Berry Head Hotel. There is evidence that the cave has been used for shelter by humans since the Bronze Age, several pottery fragments of that era have been found just inside the natural entrance. There is evidence of Roman burials in the cavern. Several fragments of urns have been found, in which have been found ashes and around those have been found bone fragments; these have been dated to be from Roman times. Found were several Roman coins including those of Claudius and Nero which were discovered in 1831. Several excavations have taken place in Ash Hole Cavern. Two have been recorded, one in the 19th Century and one in the 20th Century. In around 1830, an excavation was carried out by the Rev. Henry Francis Lyte. Octavian Blewitt, writing in 1832, reported that there was a tradition that the cave was once open to a much greater extent, that one passage led to Kingswear, four miles distant; the first step in the excavation was to find this passage, every potential area was examined for it the extremities of the cavern, where the stalagmite was quarried through in several places in search of it, but in vain.
Blewitt concluded that there was no reason to believe that such a passage had existed. Blewitt went on to report that next a perpendicular shaft was dug into the lowest part of the floor of the cave, after four feet of rubbish had been worked through a layer of bones was discovered, found to cover the whole of the floor of the cave at about the same depth, they consisted of sheep, ox, goose and chicken bones. Their vast quantities confused the excavators, but they discovered that a large military encampment had been held on the neighbouring down for the whole of a summer, the weather being wet, the soldiers had eaten their meals in the cavern; the shaft was enlarged, driven 20 feet deeper and there the remains of a human skeleton were found. Under this were found considerable quantities of charcoal and ashes, half-consumed bones, mixed with broken pottery, which proved the cavern had been a place of sepulchre, accounted for the name of Ash Hole - a receptacle for the ashes of the dead; the pottery was Roman and was coarse and scored on the outside in short parallel lines and was perforated around the rim.
No single urn was found perfect but specimens of the shards were preserved. Several human skeletons were subsequently discovered, together with some sling-stones, pieces of brass and ivory, pottery of a finer texture. Lyte's research established. More pottery fragments, a Roman coin were found in the cave earth between 1965 and 1967. Most of the pottery was found to belong to the Bronze Age and was assigned to the regional Trevisker style of pottery, it was discovered that the cave had been occupied in Neolithic, Iron Age, Roman times. Caves in Devon List of caves in the United Kingdom Cavern Researches, or, Discoveries of Organic Remains and British and Roman Reliques, in the Caves of Kent's Hole, Anstis Cove and Berry Head. By Rev J MacEnery. Https://archive.org/details/cavernresearche00macegoog/page/n7
Assynt is a sparsely populated area in the south-west of Sutherland, lying north of Ullapool on the west coast of Scotland. Assynt is known for its landscape and its remarkable mountains, which have led to the area, along with neighbouring Coigach, being designated as the Assynt-Coigach National Scenic Area, one of 40 such areas in Scotland; the western part of Assynt has many distinctively shaped mountains, including Quinag, Canisp and Ben More Assynt, that rise steeply from the surrounding "cnoc and lochan" scenery. These can appear higher than their actual height would indicate due to their steep sides and the contrast with the moorland from which they rise. Many of the most distinctive peaks such as Suilven were formed during the last Ice Age, when they were left exposed above the ice sheet as nunataks, they now remain as inselbergs of eroded Torridonian sandstone sitting on a bedrock of much older Lewisian gneiss; the Moine Thrust runs through the area, is most visible at Knockan Crag National Nature Reserve, which includes a visitor centre interpreting the geological features of the landscape.
In the east of Assynt lies a region of limestone scenery surrounding Ben More Assynt. This part of Assynt hosts the longest cave in Scotland, Uamh an Claonaite, which lies 5 miles south of Inchnadamph; the geological importance of Assynt is reflected in its inclusion in the North West Highlands Geopark. The name Assynt may derive from an Old Norse word meaning'ridge end'. There is a tradition that the name comes from a fight between the two brothers Unt and Ass-Unt; the latter having won the tussle gave his name to the parish. For many years Assynt was regarded as a district or province of Scotland in its own right, was established as a civil parish. With the introduction of counties it became part of the county of Sutherland. Parishes were abolished for administrative purposes in 1930, counties were replaced by a system of regional and district councils in 1975, however the boundaries of both were retained for statistical purposes as well for ceremonial purposes such as lieutenancy; the regions and districts were replaced by unitary councils in 1996, Assynt now forms a community within Highland council area.
As is typical for the Scottish highlands, the Assynt area is divided into a number of large estates, which are in a mix of private and community ownership. The Assynt Estate, which includes Ben More Assynt and the lands around Lochinver, remains in the hands of the Vestey family, who formerly owned the North Assynt Estate; the Quinag estate belongs to the John Muir Trust, a charity that seeks to conserve wild land and wild places. The Little Assynt Estate, which comprises two of the old townships of Assynt, Little Assynt and Loch Beannach is now owned by Culag Community Woodland Trust, a local trust that seeks to provide employment and training and improvements in well-being for local people, as well as encouraging education about the area's natural environment. In 1989, the northwest portion of the Assynt estate was renamed the North Lochinver Estate and put on the market by its owners, the Vestey family; this area consisted entirely of crofting land, with 13 crofting townships being set up during the Highland Clearances.
The purpose of the sale was to raise money for the owners to buy more hill ground suitable for deer stalking. The estate was purchased by Scandinavian Property Services Limited. Three years the company went into liquidation; the North Lochinver Estate was put up for sale. The sale was handled by an Edinburgh based John Clegg and Co.. The proposed break-up of the estate was a cause of concern for the crofters as the boundaries of the lots cut across grazing land, creating the possibility of some crofters having to deal with more than one landlord; the crofters believed that some of the portions would be directly administered by the owners, rather than a professional factor. The Assynt branch of the Scottish Crofters Union met on the 6 June 1992. There the crofters decided to attempt to raise enough money to run it themselves. Assynt Crofters' Trust, a company limited by guarantee, was formed to make a bid for the land. Membership of the trust was open to crofters within the estate; the trust aimed to buy the estate and keep it under the control of the crofters, to develop the area by initiating projects such as house building, job creation and tree planting.
Funding for the trust came from many sources. Each crofting family was asked to raise £1,000. Caithness and Sutherland Enterprise, part of Highlands and Islands Enterprise donated £50,000, while Scottish Natural Heritage gave a grant of £20,000. Highland Regional Council donated £10,000. Much of the money, came from a public appeal for funds; this appeal raised over £130,000 from 824 individuals. Money came from throughout the United Kingdom, as well as abroad. Political figures such as the local Member of Parliament, Robert Maclennan, Ray Michie, Alex Salmond, Winifred Ewing and Charles Kennedy donated, as did the rock band Runrig. A secured loan of £90,000 was received from Highland Prospect Limited, a company set up by Highland Regional Council to promote investment in the Highlands by providing grants and low-interest loans; the trust made two unsuccessful bids, of £ 245,000 respectively. This caused the trust to adopt a more aggressive stance, they threatened to use right-to-buy provisions of crofting law to buy the crofts.
This option, requiring legal action, would be time-consuming.
Titan is a natural cavern near Castleton in the Derbyshire Peak District, is the deepest shaft of any known cave in Britain, at 141.5 metres. The existence of Titan was revealed in November 2006, following its discovery on 1 January 1999 after cavers discovered connections from the James Hall Over Engine Mine to both Speedwell Cavern and Peak Cavern; the deepest known underground shaft in Britain had been Gaping Gill on the slopes of Ingleborough in the Yorkshire Dales. Dave Nixon, nicknamed Moose, guru of a group of Peak District cavers, discovered the shaft after finding an account by an 18th-century academic, James Plumptre, in a university library. Initial explorations in the James Hall Over Engine Mine led to the discovery of a large shaft named Leviathan, before further excavations revealed the existence of Titan. A miners' workplace was discovered, leading to Leviathan—a huge natural shaft altered by mining operations, 260 feet deep in total. Many relics from the mining operations were discovered there still in situ.
The team spent three years removing another huge fall of boulders before gaining entry to Speedwell Cavern at the Boulder Piles. Another huge blockage at the foot of Leviathan was excavated in an operation requiring the building of a railway, the dig led into the Far Sump extension of Peak Cavern; this section of cave was only accessible either by diving Peak Cavern's Far Sump or via Speedwell Cavern with difficult caving. Moose and his team went to this area of Peak Cavern via JH and arrived at the underside of an enormous boulder choke just a few metres from the upstream end of Far Sump; the group subsequently discovered a way up through the massive boulder pile and arrived at the foot of Titan. The echoes from their shouts and noise from the waterfall indicated a huge shaft, but their lamps showed what appeared to be the top about 60 metres above them—The Event Horizon; this proved to be only a narrowing to a large ledge and the shaft continued soaring upwards into the darkness. A six-day climb led to the domed roof with no way on, but a passage from the west some 20 metres further down is believed to be the source of the stream that helped to form this massive cavern.
Blocked by a huge hanging boulder choke, the West Passage could not be explored as the choke was too dangerous to enter in its exposed position—circa 120 metres above the floor. A 46-metre -deep access shaft excavated from the surface took over four years to dig and now gives access to a bedding-plane passage entering the main shaft near the top of Titan. Digging continues in an attempt to extend the system in other directions; the total length of the cave system exceeds 11 miles. The cave is located near Castleton, Derbyshire, at 53°20′0.09″N 1°47′35.85″W. Titan Photos
Kents Cavern is a cave system in Torquay, England. It is notable for its geological features; the cave system is open to the public and has been a geological Site of Special Scientific Interest since 1952 and a Scheduled Ancient Monument since 1957. The caverns and passages were formed in the early Pleistocene period by water action, have been occupied by one of at least eight separate, discontinuous native populations to have inhabited the British Isles; the other key paleolithic sites in the UK are Happisburgh, Boxgrove, Pontnewydd, Creswell Crags and Gough's Cave. A prehistoric maxilla fragment was discovered in the cavern during a 1927 excavation by the Torquay Natural History Society, named Kents Cavern 4; the specimen is on display at the Torquay Museum. In 1989 the fragment was radiocarbon dated to 36,400–34,700 years BP, but a 2011 study that dated fossils from neighbouring strata produced an estimate of 44,200–41,500 years BP; the same study analysed the dental structure of the fragment and determined it to be Homo sapiens rather than Homo neanderthalensis, which would have made it the earliest anatomically modern human fossil yet discovered in northwestern Europe.
In a response to this paper in 2012 the authors Mark White and Paul Pettitt wrote "We urge caution over using a small selected sample of fauna from an old and poorly executed excavation in Kent’s Cavern to provide a radiocarbon stratigraphy and age for a human fossil that cannot be dated directly, we suggest that the recent dating should be rejected." Kents Cavern is first recorded as Kents Hole Close on a 1659 deed when the land was leased to John Black. The earliest evidence of exploration of the caves in historic times is two inscriptions, "William Petre 1571" and "Robert Hedges 1688" engraved on stalagmites; the first recorded excavation was that of Thomas Northmore in 1824. Northmore's work attracted the attention of William Buckland, the first Reader in Geology at the University of Oxford, who sent a party including John MacEnery to explore the caves in an attempt to find evidence that Mithras was once worshipped in the area. MacEnery, the Roman Catholic chaplain at Torre Abbey, conducted systematic excavations between 1824 and 1829.
When MacEnery reported to the British Association the discovery of flint tools below the stalagmites on the cave floor, his work was derided as contrary to Bishop James Ussher's Biblical chronology dating the Creation to 4004 BC. In September 1845 the created Torquay Natural History Society requested permission from Sir Lawrence Palk to explore the caves to obtain fossils and artefacts for the planned Torquay Museum, as a result Edward Vivian and William Pengelly were allowed to conduct excavations between 1846 and 1858. Vivian reported to the Geological Society in 1847, but at the time, it was believed that early humans had entered the caves long after the formation of the cave structures examined; this changed when in the Autumn of 1859, following the work of Pengelly at the Brixham Cavern and of Jacques de Perthes in France, the Royal Society, the Society of Antiquaries, the British Association agreed that the excavations had established the antiquity of humanity. In 1865 the British Association created a committee, led by Pengelly, to explore the cave system over the course of fifteen years.
It was Pengelly's party that discovered Robert Hedges' stalagmite inscription, from the stalagmite's growth since that time deduced that human-created artefacts found under the formation could be half a million years old. Pengelly plotted the position of every bone and other artefact he discovered during the excavations, afterward continued working with the Torquay Natural History Society until his death in 1892 at his home less than 2 km from the caves. In 1903 Kents Cavern part of Lord Haldon's estate, was sold to Francis Powe, a carpenter who used the caves as a workshop while making beach huts for the Torquay sea front. Powe's son, Leslie Powe, turned the caves into a tourist attraction by laying concrete paths, installing electric lighting, building visitor facilities that were improved, in turn, by his son John Powe; the caves, now owned by Nick Powe, celebrated 100 years of Powe family ownership on 23 August 2003 with special events including an archæological dig for children and a display by a cave rescue team.
A year a new £500,000 visitor centre was opened, including a restaurant and gift shop. Attracting 80,000 tourists a year, Kents Cavern is an important tourist attraction and this was recognised in 2000 when it was awarded Showcave of the Year award and in November 2005 when it was awarded a prize for being Torquay's Visitor Attraction of the year. "Hampsley Cavern" in Agatha Christie's 1924 novel The Man in the Brown Suit, is based on Kents Cavern. The 2011 science fiction romance Time Watchers: The Greatest of These, by Julie Reilly, uses Kents Cavern as a principal setting in three different time periods. Boxgrove Gough's Cave Genetic history of the British Isles Happisburgh List of human evolution fossils List of prehistoric structures in Great Britain Pakefield Prehistoric Britain Paviland Pontnewydd Swanscombe Kents Cavern homepage Geochronology of Kents Cavern
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The Buttertubs Pass is a high road in the Yorkshire Dales, England. The road winds its way north from Simonstone near Hawes towards Thwaite and Muker past 20-metre-deep limestone potholes called the Buttertubs, it is said that the name of the potholes came from the times when farmers would rest there on their way to market. During hot weather they would lower the butter; the road is locally noted as a challenging cycle climb, featured as the second of three King of the Mountains climbs in Stage One of the 2014 Tour de France. The race was led over the climb by German veteran Jens Voigt, on his way to becoming the 2014 race's first wearer of the polka dot jersey as leader of the mountains classification. Jeremy Clarkson featured the road in the "Motoring and the New Romantics" episode of the British series Clarkson's Car Years; this road has been used many times in the BBC's Top Gear series for test driving cars. The Buttertubs Pass is mentioned in the 1971 folk-rock song The Gipsy, by Mr. Fox
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K