Russell Cave National Monument
The Russell Cave National Monument is a U. S. National Monument in northeastern Alabama, United States, close to the town of Bridgeport. The Monument was established on May 11,1961, when 310 acres of land were donated by the National Geographic Society to the American people and it is now administered and maintained by the National Park Service. The National Monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15,1966 and its exceptionally large main entrance was used as a shelter by prehistoric Indians from the earliest known human settlement in the southeastern United States, through to European colonization. The surrounding forest provided food and wood fuel for fires, the rock from which Russell Cave was carved was formed over 300 million years ago at the bottom of an inland sea covering the region. Due to continental drift, the area that is now northeast Alabama was located close to the Equator at the time this limestone was forming. This area is now located in a climate, but 300 million years ago it was a shallow.
Carbonaceous deposits of skeletons and shells were slowly transformed into limestone, mildly acidic from atmospheric carbon dioxide, slowly dissolved a portion of the limestone rock resulting in the formation of the cave. About 9,000 to 12,000 years ago, the collapse of a cavern roof beneath a hillside near Dorans Cove created a sinkhole and exposed Russell Cave. Until shortly before the first occupation by Native Americans, the cavern was uninhabitable due to the presence of a stream which occupied the entirety of the cavern. A rockfall from the cavern roof diverted the stream to one side, the first occupants dwelled on this irregular floor of rock slabs. Debris from occupants and deposits falling from the ceiling slowly raised the floor, the floor ultimately was raised an additional seven to eight feet and up to 30 feet near the upper entrance. In the 1960s, the United States Bureau of Mines installed bolts with a length of 15 feet to prevent additional collapses of limestone rock, the cave mouth faces to the east preventing the ingress of a cold north and northwest winds and allowing in the morning sun.
According to a published map, the cave has five entrances in addition to the Main Entrance. Three of the entrances are referred to as Canoe Entrances while the two are named the Picnic Entrance and Pig Entrance. A natural spring flows into the cave and travels underground for 1.5 miles before joining Widows Creek and, chipped flint points and charcoal from campfires provide evidence that occupation of Russell Cave began nearly 10,000 years ago by southeastern Archaic period Native Americans. The charcoal remains of the first fires in the date to between 6550 and 6145 BCE based on radiocarbon dating. As they maintained their existence as hunter-gatherers, it is likely that the cave was occupied during the autumn. According to John Griffin, the issue of seasonality remains to be determined, evidence indicating inhabitance in autumn and winter include deer bones and passenger pigeon remains
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground, the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos. A cavern is a type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems. Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves, visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking. The formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis, which can occur over the course of millions of years, caves are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, pressure. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, in order to determine the timescale when geologic events may have occurred to help form and it is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the limit of karst forming processes. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution, solutional caves or karst caves are the most frequently occurring caves and such caves form in rock that is soluble. Most occur in limestone, but they can form in other rocks including chalk, marble, salt. Rock is dissolved by acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, joints. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves and cave systems, the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3, the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation and these include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems, the portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded.
Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes and this gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4. The acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, caves formed at the same time as the surrounding rock are called primary caves
Lava Beds National Monument
Lava Beds National Monument is located in northeastern California, in Siskiyou and Modoc counties. The Monument lies on the flank of the Medicine Lake Volcano. The region in and around Lava Beds Monument lies at the junction of the Sierra-Klamath, the Monument was established as a United States National Monument on November 21,1925, and includes more than 46,000 acres. Lava Beds National Monument has numerous lava tube caves, with twenty-five having marked entrances and developed trails for public access, the monument offers trails through the high Great Basin xeric shrubland desert landscape and the volcanic field. 1872–1873, this area was the site of the Modoc War, the area of Captain Jacks Stronghold was named in his honor. Volcanic eruptions on the Medicine Lake shield volcano have created a rugged landscape punctuated by these many landforms of volcanism. Cinder cones are formed when magma is under great pressure and it is released in a fountain of lava, blown into the air from a central vent.
The lava cools as it falls, forming cinders that pile up around the vent, when the pressure has been relieved, the rest of the lava flows from the base of the cone. Cinder cones typically only erupt once, the cinder cones of Hippo Butte, Three Sisters, Juniper Butte, and Crescent Butte are all older than the Mammoth and Modoc Crater flows, more than 30, 000–40,000 years old. Eagle Nest Butte and Bearpaw Butte are 114,000 years old, Schonchin Butte cinder cone and the andesitic flow from its base were formed around 62,000 years ago. The flow that formed Valentine Cave erupted 10,850 years ago, an eruption that formed The Castles is younger than the Mammoth Crater flows. Even younger were eruptions from Fleener Chimneys, such as the Devils Homestead flow,10,500 years ago, about 1,110 years ago, plus or minus 60 years, the Callahan flow was produced by an eruption from Cinder Butte. Though Cinder Butte is just outside the boundary of the monument, spatter cones are built out of thicker lava. The lava is thrown out of the vent and builds, layer by layer, Fleener Chimneys and Black Crater are examples of spatter cones.
Roughly ninety percent of the lava in the Lava Beds Monument is basaltic, there are primarily two kinds of basaltic lava flows, pahoehoe and aa. Pahoehoe is smooth, often ropy and is the most common type of lava in Lava Beds, aa is formed when pahoehoe cools and loses some of its gases. Aa is rough and jagged, an excellent example is the Devils Homestead lava flow, most of the rest of the lava in the monument is andesitic. Pumice, a type of lava, is found covering the monument
Rickwood Caverns State Park
Rickwood Caverns State Park is a publicly owned recreation area and natural history preserve located 7 miles north of Warrior, Alabama. The 380-acre state park offers tours of caverns with illuminated limestone formations estimated to be 260 million years old, blind cave fish, the caverns were brought to public attention by Eddie Rickles and Sonny Arwood who combined their own names to create the name Rickwood. Rickles had come across the caves in the early 1950s as the leader of a Boy Scout troop exploring the area, Rickwood Caverns operated as a commercial entity from 1954 to 1974, when the property was acquired by the state and reopened as a state park. The park had been threatened with closure since as early as 2009, as of April 2016, the park reopened and is hoping to operate on a year round basis. Rickwood Caverns State Park Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources
California Cavern is a Limestone cave in the Sierra Nevada foothills, in Cave City, Calaveras County, California. The series of interconnected caverns are one of the earliest officially recorded caves in the Mother Lode region of California, although one of numerous caves in the Mother Lode region, California Caverns claims the distinction of having the most extensive system of caverns and passageways. The cave was discovered by Captain Joseph Taylor in 1849 or 1850 and he opened it for public tours, making it the first show cave in California. Taylor named it Mammoth Cave but by 1894 it was known as Cave City Cave, during some downtime while not prospecting for gold, local folklore affirms Captain Taylor found the entrance to the cave by accident while setting up target practice. California Cavern was the first to be operated as a tourist attraction in the Sierras, early visitors included Bret Harte, Mark Twain, and John Muir, who wrote about his visit in his 1894 book, The Mountains of California.
The caverns are registered as California Historical Landmark #956, media related to California Caverns at Wikimedia Commons Caverntours. com, the California Cavern
Squire Boone Caverns
Squire Boone Caverns and Village is a cavern exploration attraction in Mauckport, Indiana. The park consists of a walking tour into the caverns, as well as a working pioneer village. The cave was first discovered by Daniel Boone and his brother, Squire Boone, Squire would come back to purchase the land and live near the caves in 1808 and start a grist mill at the site. The mill is on the Indiana Register of Historic Sites and Structures, Squire Boone died in 1815 and, having so loved the caverns, requested to be buried in them, and was buried near the entrance to the cave. His remains were moved in the 20th century because of construction near his burial site, the coffin, which contained only bones, was moved deep into the caverns. The cave tour passes by the coffin and there are benches to rest and contemplate the cave, the caverns are open year-round, while the village and grist mill are open only during the summer months. The pioneer village includes an old candy shop, a building where soap is made from lard, a chandlers house were candles are made by hand dipping.
The products made in the village are marketed nationally and can be purchased in parts of the country including Disney World. Everything made in the village is done the old fashioned way, the company which owns the caverns run the Squire Boone Caverns factory in New Albany, just off I-265, where many items are mass-produced. The tour of the cave is conducted by experienced guides on lighted walkways with minimal stairs, the tour starts from the General Store. There is a door in the back leads to a vertical shaft that was excavated in 1970. As of 10/26/2015 its interesting to note on the stairway just how much the entrance shaft. The stream has an impressive formation, the largest in North America. List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area Official Site
Cathedral Caverns State Park
The state parks main feature, first known as Bats Cave, was developed as a tourist attraction in the 1950s. Cathedral Caverns was declared a National Natural Landmark in 1972 and opened as a park in 2000. Cathedral Cavern is a karst cave with a large stalagmite forest covering approximately 3 acres, some 11,000 feet have been surveyed and explored, only experienced cavers are allowed to go beyond the developed trail. The cave system laid claim to many records in its commercial heyday though their accuracy has been disputed. Archaeological excavations at the mouth of Cathedral Caverns have indicated occupation by Native Americans as recently as 200 years ago, the area that includes the cavern was settled by the Kennamer family and became known as Kennamers Cove. During the Civil War, the Kennamer family lived in the cave for a period of time after their farmhouse was burned down by Union soldiers. The cave was maintained as a tourist attraction by Jacob Jay Gurley from 1955 to 1974 and it was sold at auction in 1975 to Dewie Graben, who in turn sold it to the State of Alabama in 1987.
After funding delays, the state began restoration work in 1995, the cavern was re-opened to the public as Cathedral Caverns State Park in May 2000. The park offers tours, gem mining, and facilities for picnicking. The park has improved and primitive campsites and a backcountry camping site. Cathedral Caverns State Park Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources
Wilson Butte Cave
Wilson Butte Cave is located on the Snake River plain in Jerome County northeast of Twin Falls and southeast of Shoshone. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places as an archeological site, a round bubble in appearance, it pops up from a flat wide bed of ancient basalt lava. An inflationary or uplift cave is inside the bubble, while archeologists are uncertain of exact dates prior to 10,000 years ago, evidence has been found that native peoples lived at Wilson Butte Cave at least 10,000 years ago. Artifacts found here provide the oldest evidence of presence on the Snake River Plain and are among the oldest such evidence in all of North America. Archeologists are fairly certain that the reason the cave was settled so early is that it was used as a base from which to hunt bison, strong connections have been found to the Fremont culture and the Shoshone people, who lived there after the Fremont peoples. Vegetation in the region was very similar to modern times and giant ground sloths once roamed this region.
Deposits here are believed to have been undisturbed until amateurs discovered them in 1958, two of the major excavations of the cave were conducted by teams led by Ruth Gruhn, one in 1959–1960 and one in 1988–1989. Gruhn dates the sites earliest occupation to 14, 000–15,000 years ago, the lava of the area is a dark gray to black fine-grained basalt. The cave is in a lava tube developed in a ridge in the flowing lava. The source of the lava is Wilsons Butte, which is one half mile southeast of the cave. The lava is more than 15,000 years old, as determined by radiocarbon dating of a bone from within a lava tube cave. The bone had tool markings indicating working by humans, National Register of Historic Places listings in Jerome County, Idaho Ruth Gruhn. The Archaeology of Wilson Butte Cave, South-central Idaho, Idaho State College Museum,1961. New excavations at Wilson Butte Cave, South-central Idaho, Idaho Museum of Natural History occasional paper 38. Pocatello, Idaho State Museum of Natural History,2006, OCLC71777875 Visit Idaho - Wilson Butte Cave
Boyden Cavern is show cave in the located in Giant Sequoia National Monument, along the Kings Canyon Scenic Byway in Fresno County, California. It is just west of Kings Canyon National Park and it is currently closed owing to forest fire damage incurred in the area in August 2015. The cave is a cave formed in Mesozoic marble. It is a cave with many varieties of speleothems, including rare shield formations. Boyden Cave or Boyden Cavern is located in the deepest river cut canyon of the United States, the cave entrance lies beneath the 2, 000-foot high marble walls of the famous Portals of the Kings, near the Kings River. Regular tours of the cave are given by a guide company from the last Friday in April to mid November. The tour includes the Pancake Room, a group called the Upside Down City. In the Bat Grotto bats spend summer days sleeping, the Drapery Room contains curtains, soda straws and helictites. The tour ends at a small subterranean stream,0.63 miles of the cave have been mapped
Mercer Caverns is a show cave located one mile north of Murphys in Calaveras County California. It is named after the gold prospector Walter J. Mercer who discovered the caves around 1885, the caverns have a large number of speleothems and stalagmites. It is formed in a unit known as the Calaveras Formation. It contains a display of aragonite frostwork. The standard tour of the cave descends 160 feet,208 steps down and 232 up in a traverse between the natural and an artificial entrance, the cave was mapped in 1986 to a length of 3389 feet and a total depth of 192 feet. The map can be viewed on the web site. Stalagmite Stalactite Mercer Caverns official site Exploring the Caves of Calaveras Show caves entry for Mercer Caverns
Maquoketa Caves State Park
Maquoketa Caves State Park is a state park of Iowa, US, located in Jackson County. It stands northwest of the city of Maquoketa, in 1991111 acres on the east side of the park was listed as a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places. The park contains more caves than any other park in Iowa. A trail system links the caves and overlooks while providing a scenic hiking experience, many areas on these trails have seen new construction, making the journey to the caves safer. Most of the caves may be entered by persons of average physical ability, however the parks caves were closed to humans between 2010 and April 2012 in the hopes of protecting the resident bats from white nose syndrome. The park is in the Driftless Area of Iowa and this region escaped being glaciated in the last ice age, while regions to the east and west were not spared. The park has been subjected to hundreds of thousands of years of natural non-glacial erosion, the parks caves, limestone formations and rugged bluffs represent a step back in geological time of thousands of years.
Stalactites once hung from the ceilings and stalagmites rose from the floor, souvenir hunters have robbed the caves of this rare beauty, but many formations remain. The parks limestone caves and chimneys including Dancehall Cave, Hernados Hideaway, Shinbone Cave, Wye Cave, today a modern interpretive center outside the park entrance provides maps and other informational materials. Inside the park, a central map kiosk includes charts of some of the more interesting caves, artifacts such as pottery, as well as tools and projectile points made of stone have been found in the caves and surrounding area. These discoveries indicate that the Maquoketa Caves area has been of interest to humans for hundreds, perhaps thousands, early recorded history tells that the Native Americans in the area were likely visitors to the Raccoon Creek valleys. The first Euro-American explorers first visited the caves as late as the mid-1830s, the area was originally known as Morehead Caves or Burts Cave. It had become a place for exploration, parties.
A dance floor was constructed north of Natural Bridge in 1868, and a pavilion, by the turn of the 20th century the area had become seriously degraded, and its popularity declined. The first park land was purchased in 1921 by the Maquoketa Womens Club for the purposes of establishing a state park, originally called Morehead Caves State Park, its name was changed to Maquoketa Caves in 1928. Additional land was acquired in 1931, the majority of the park facilities were constructed from 1932 to 1939 by the Civilian Conservation Corps and the Works Progress Administration. Both programs resulted from the government effort to make work for Americans during the Great Depression. Their work makes up the properties of the historic district
Carter Caves State Resort Park
Carter Caves State Resort Park is located in Carter County, United States, along Tygarts Creek. It is formed by Carter Caves, and nearby Cascade Caves, on December 16,1981,146 acres of the park were designated as nature preserves. Bat Cave and Cascade Caverns State Nature Preserves were dedicated for the protection of the Indiana bat, mountain maple, the purchase of the caves and surrounding land was driven by Governor William Jason Fields, a native of Carter County. Carter Caves is a resort park that features a lodge, cottages, 18-hole putt-putt course, 9-hole golf course, full-service campground. It has various tours available year-round that displays and explains the wonders of the underground world. It has horse riding stables. It is well known for its splendor above and below ground, there are several different Cave Tours offered. Guided tours of Cascade Cave and X-Cave are available year-round, Cascade Cave is the name for three different caves in the same area and is together the largest cave in the park.
It features an underground room and an 30-foot underground waterfall. X Cave, named for the pattern of its passages, features some of the largest rock formations in the park. Saltpetre Cave was mined during the War of 1812 because saltpetre, historic activities are a major part of the Saltpetre Cave tour. Bat Cave is toured in the months, between Memorial Day and Labor Day, and is considered a wild cave tour since the cave has not been improved for walking tours. The cave is unique in that it is a hibernaculum for the endangered Indiana Bat in the winter months, Laurel Cave is the most visited of the non-commercial caves in the park, and contains some of the most interesting passages. Laurel Cave is open to the public during business hours in the summer months only. All that is required is a permit available at the Welcome Center/Gift Shop, the permit gives you legal access to Laurel Cave, Horn Hollow Caves and the connected Rimstone Cave. Over thirty miles of hiking trails encounter seven natural bridges throughout the park, the Cascade Trail is a three-quarter mile trail passing through Box Canyon.
The Three Bridges Trail winds three and a quarter miles and includes the parks largest natural bridge, the Smokey Bridge and this trail passes by Fern Bridge and Raven Bridge as it meanders through the park. The half-mile Natural Bridge Trail passes beneath a natural bridge