Charles B. Hoeven
Charles Bernard Hoeven held elective office for forty consecutive years. He was elected or re-elected eleven times to the U. S. House of Representatives to represent districts in northern Iowa, he served in Congress in the Seventy-eighth Congress and in ten succeeding Congresses. Hoeven was born in Iowa. Hoeven attended Alton High School. During World War I, Hoeven served in England and France as a sergeant in Company D, 350th Infantry, 88th Division, with the Intelligence Service of the First Battalion, he received a bachelor's degree from the University of Iowa at Iowa City, in 1920 and a law degree from the University of Iowa College of Law in 1922. Hoeven began to practice law in Alton, Iowa, he was elected as County Attorney of Sioux County, Iowa in 1924, served in that position from 1925 to 1937. He was elected to the Iowa Senate, where he served from 1937 to 1941, the last two years as president pro tempore. In 1940, Hoeven ran for the Republican nomination in Iowa's 9th congressional district.
Hoeven finished a close second to Albert Swanson in the primary, who in turn lost to Harrington in the general election by fewer than 2,500 votes out of over 130,000 cast. Newspapers and others speculated that, if Hoeven had won the primary, he would have defeated Harrington. Thus, when reapportionment shifted most of the old 9th district into Iowa's 8th congressional district, Hoeven became an early front-runner for the 1942 Republican primary to run against Harrington, he won the primary, received a significant boost when Harrington resigned his House seat and the Democratic nomination two months before the 1942 general election to serve full-time in the U. S. Army Air Corps in England. Democrats nominated new candidates to serve out Harrington's 9th district term and to run against Hoeven in the 8th district, but Hoeven won the 8th district seat by over 19,000 votes. Hoeven was re-elected to Congress from that district an additional nine times, the last time in 1960. Following the 1960 census, Iowa lost a congressional district, the bulk of his territory was reconfigured as the 6th district.
Hoeven was elected again. He chose not to run in 1964, the year. Hoeven served as vice president of a savings bank. In the Republican Party, Hoeven was a delegate to each Iowa State Republican Convention from 1925 to 1970, serving as chairman of the 1940 state convention, he was a delegate to the 1964 Republican National Convention. In 1942, he served as temporary and permanent chairman of Iowa Republican State Judicial Convention. After retiring from Congress, Hoeven resided in Orange City, where he died on November 9, 1980, he was interred in Alton, Iowa. United States Congress. "Charles B. Hoeven". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
Adam Hughes Putnam is an American politician and a Republican who served as Florida's Commissioner of Agriculture from 2011 to 2019. He served in Congress for five terms, representing the Central Florida-based 12th Congressional district, he was the House Republican Conference Chair from 2007 to 2009. In May 2017, he announced. Putnam was considered the frontrunner for the Republican nomination, but lost the primary to Congressman Ron DeSantis after President Donald Trump came out in open support of DeSantis. DeSantis went on to win the general election. On March 13, 2019, it was announced that he would become the next CEO of Ducks Unlimited, starting June 30, 2019 after the retirement of Dale Hall. Putnam was born in Bartow, the son of Sarah Elizabeth and William Dudley Putnam II, he graduated from Bartow High School and attended the University of Florida, graduating with a Bachelor of Science in food and resource economics. In 1996, Putnam was elected to the Florida House of Representatives, representing parts of Polk County.
At 22 years old, he was the youngest person elected to the Florida Legislature. He was reelected to a second term in 1998. While in the state house, he served as chair of the Agriculture Committee. In 2000, Putnam ran for the U. S. House seat being vacated by retiring Congressman Charles Canady; the district, numbered the 12th, included all of Putnam's home constituency as well as other areas of Polk County and rural Central Florida. He faced no opposition in the Republican primary, defeated Democrat Mike Stedem in the general election, 57 to 43%. Taking office when he was 26 years old, Putnam was the youngest member of Congress from 2001 to 2005. Putnam was reelected in 2002 to a redistricted seat that included most of Polk County as well as parts of neighboring Hillsborough and Osceola Counties, he was reelected three more times after that. Committee on Financial Services Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises Subcommittee on Housing and Community Opportunity On October 10, 2002, Putnam voted in favor of authorizing the invasion of Iraq.
In February 2006, Putnam became a member of the House leadership, assuming the role of chairman of the House Republican Policy Committee, the fifth-ranking Republican leadership position in the House. In November 2006, Putnam was elected by his colleagues as House Republican Conference Chairman, the third-highest ranking position. Following House Republican losses in the 2008 general election, he resigned his post as Conference Chairman. In 2010 The Florida Independent reported that Putnam had earmarked $100,000 for an abscission chemical used in citrus harvesting that The Florida Independent said would benefit his family's citrus business. Putnam was a signatory to the Taxpayer Protection Pledge. After the numerous calls by Democrats, including Rep. Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the House and Senate Majority Leader Sen. Harry Reid, Putnam became the top Republican in either house to call for the ouster of former U. S. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales. "For the good of the nation, I think it is time for fresh leadership at the Department of Justice", Putnam said.
This was met with surprise by many Republicans. However, Putnam mentioned that there remained severe discontent within the GOP circle over Gonzales and as the Chairman of the House Republican Conference, he thought that it was important to send this message out. In February 2009, Putnam declared himself a candidate for Florida Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Services in the 2010 election and that he would not seek a sixth term in Congress. Putnam won the election over Democratic opponent Scott Maddox with 56% of the vote, he was reelected in 2014. As head of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Putnam was responsible for issuing concealed weapons permits after conducting background checks on applicants. An investigation by the Office of Inspector General found that from February 2016 until May 2017 the department stopped conducting national background checks on applicants for concealed weapons permits, because a worker could not log into an FBI database. More than 100,000 concealed carry.
Putnam said that 365 applicants should have been further backgrounded, that 291 permits ended up being revoked for noncriminal disqualifying factors. Putnam pointed out that concealed carry permits do not allow gun purchases, which require a background check at the time of purchase. Florida Governor Rick Scott said that the incident was "disturbing" and "concerning" adding, "People need to do their jobs; this is public safety." Additional failures in conducting proper reviews of gun permit applications were reported in a 2012 report of the inspector general, including the issuance of gun licenses to felons, which occurred during the first years of Putnam's tenure, although certain instances occurred before Putnam's tenure. In May 2017, Putnam announced his campaign for Florida governor in the 2018 election, he was one of eight candidates running for the Republican party nomination but was defeated in the 2018 primary by Ron Desantis As of April 2018, Putnam's campaign had acquired $19.2 million in campaign contributions, far more than any other candidate.
His PAC, Florida Grown, has received large contributions from Walt Disney Company, Florida Power and Light, U. S. Sugar; the donations from Publix to Adam Putnam drew public protest, including a die-in at a Publix supermarket, resulting from Putnam's claim of being a "proud NRA sell-
Nathaniel P. Banks
Nathaniel Prentice Banks was an American politician from Massachusetts and a Union general during the Civil War. A millworker by background, Banks was prominent in local debating societies, his oratorical skills were noted by the Democratic Party. However, his abolitionist views fitted him better for the nascent Republican Party, through which he became Speaker of the United States House of Representatives and Governor of Massachusetts in the 1850s. Always a political chameleon, Banks was the first professional politician to serve as Massachusetts Governor. At the outbreak of the Civil War, President Lincoln appointed Banks as one of the first'political' major generals, over the heads of West Point regulars, who resented him, but came to acknowledge his influence on the administration of the war. After suffering a series of inglorious setbacks in the Shenandoah River Valley at the hands of Stonewall Jackson, Banks replaced Benjamin Butler at New Orleans as commander of the Department of the Gulf, charged with administration of Louisiana and gaining control of the Mississippi River.
But he failed to reinforce Grant at Vicksburg, badly handled the Siege of Port Hudson, taking its surrender only after Vicksburg had fallen. He launched the Red River Campaign, a failed attempt to occupy eastern Texas that prompted his recall. Banks was criticized for the failures of his campaigns, notably in tactically important tasks including reconnaissance. Banks was instrumental in early reconstruction efforts in Louisiana, intended by Lincoln as a model for such activities. After the war, Banks returned to the Massachusetts political scene, serving in Congress, where he supported Manifest Destiny, influenced the Alaska Purchase legislation, supported women's suffrage. In his years he adopted more liberal progressive causes, served as a United States marshal for Massachusetts before suffering a decline in his mental faculties. Nathaniel Prentice Banks was born at Waltham, the first child of Nathaniel P. Banks, Sr. and Rebecca Greenwood Banks, on January 30, 1816. His father worked in the textile mill of the Boston Manufacturing Company becoming a foreman.
Banks went to local schools until the age of fourteen, at which point the family's financial demands compelled him to take a mill job. He started as a bobbin boy, responsible for replacing bobbins full of thread with empty ones, working in the mills of Waltham and Lowell; because of this role he became known as Bobbin Boy Banks, a nickname he carried throughout his life. He was at one time apprenticed as a mechanic alongside Elias Howe, a cousin who had the first patent for a sewing machine with a lockstitch design. Recognizing the value of education, Banks continued to read, sometimes walking to Boston on his days off to visit the Atheneum Library, he attended company-sponsored lectures by luminaries of the day including Daniel Webster and other orators. He formed a debate club with other mill workers to improve their oratorical skills, took up acting, he became involved in the local temperance movement. He honed his oratorical and political skills by emulating Robert Rantoul Jr. a Democratic Congressman who had humble beginnings.
His personal good looks and flair for presentation were all assets that he used to gain advantage in the political sphere, he deliberately sought to present himself with a more aristocratic bearing than was suggested by his humble beginnings. Banks's success as a speaker convinced him to quit the mill, he first worked as an editor for two short-lived political newspapers. He applied for a job to Rantoul, appointed Collector of the Port of Boston, a patronage position. Banks's job, which he held until political changes forced him out in 1849, gave him sufficient security that he was able to marry Mary Theodosia Palmer, an ex-factory employee he had been courting for some time. Banks again was unsuccessful. In 1848, Banks was victorious in another run for the state legislature organizing elements in Waltham whose votes were not controlled by the Whig-controlled Boston Manufacturing Company. Company leaders could compel their workers to vote for Whig candidates because there was no secret ballot.
He was at first moderate in opposition to the expansion of slavery, but recognizing the potency of the burgeoning abolitionist movement, he became more attached to that cause as a vehicle for political advancement. This brought Banks, along with fellow Democrats Rantoul and George S. Boutwell to form a coalition with the Free Soil Party that gained control of the legislature and governor's chair; the deals negotiated after the coalition win in the 1850 election put Boutwell in the governor's chair and made Banks the Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. Although Banks did not like the radical Free Soiler Charles Sumner, he supported the coalition agreement that resulted in Sumner's election to the United States Senate, despite opposition from conservative Democrats, his role as house speaker and his effectiveness in conducting business raised his status as did his publicity work for the state Board of Education. In 1852, Banks sought the Democratic nomination for a seat in the United States Congress.
While it was at first granted, his refusa
116th United States Congress
The 116th United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D. C. on January 3, 2019 and will end on January 3, 2021, during the third and fourth years of Donald Trump's presidency. Senators elected to regular terms in 2014 are finishing their terms in this Congress and House seats were apportioned based on the 2010 Census. In the November 2018 midterm elections, the Democratic Party won a new majority in the House, while the Republican Party increased its majority in the Senate; this is the first split Congress since the 113th, the first Republican Senate/Democrat House split since the 99th. This Congress is considered to be the most diverse elected, the youngest in the past three cycles. December 22, 2018 – January 25, 2019: 2018–19 United States federal government shutdown January 3, 2019: Nancy Pelosi elected Speaker of the House, becoming the first former speaker to return to the post since Sam Rayburn in 1955.
February 5, 2019: 2019 State of the Union Address, after being delayed from January 29, 2019, due to the partial government shutdown. February 15, 2019: President Trump declared a National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States. February 27, 2019: Former Trump lawyer Michael Cohen testified before the House Oversight and Reform Committee, accusing Trump of several financial fraud crimes. March 24, 2019: Special Counsel investigation: Summary letter of special counsel Robert Mueller's report issued to congress by attorney general William Barr. February 15, 2019: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2019, Pub. L. 116–6, H. J. 31 March 12, 2019: John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation and Recreation Act, Pub. L. 116–9, S. 47 For the People Act of 2019, H. R. 1 Equality Act, H. R. 5 Recognizing the duty of the Federal Government to create a Green New Deal, H. Res. 109 SAFE Banking Act of 2019, H. R. 1595 Taxpayer First Act of 2019, H. R. 1957 March 15, 2019: A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of a national emergency declaration at the southern border.
Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below. President: Mike Pence President pro tempore: Chuck Grassley President pro tempore emeritus: Patrick Leahy Majority Leader: Mitch McConnell Majority Whip: John Thune Conference Chair: John Barrasso Conference Vice Chair: Joni Ernst Policy Committee Chair: Roy Blunt Campaign Committee Chair: Todd Young Steering Committee Chair: Mike Lee Chief Deputy Whip: Mike Crapo Deputy Whips: Roy Blunt, Shelley Moore Capito, John Cornyn, Cory Gardner, James Lankford, Martha McSally, Rob Portman, Mitt Romney, Tim Scott, Thom Tillis, Todd Young Minority Leader/Caucus Chair: Chuck Schumer Minority Whip: Dick Durbin Assistant Leader: Patty Murray Policy Committee Chair: Debbie Stabenow Caucus Vice Chairs: Mark Warner, Elizabeth Warren Steering Committee Chair: Amy Klobuchar Outreach Chair: Bernie Sanders Policy Committee Vice Chair: Joe Manchin Caucus Secretary: Tammy Baldwin Campaign Committee Chair: Catherine Cortez Masto Chief Deputy Whip: Cory Booker, Jeff Merkley, Brian Schatz Speaker: Nancy Pelosi Majority Leader: Steny Hoyer Majority Whip: Jim Clyburn Assistant Leader: Ben Ray Luján Caucus Chair: Hakeem Jeffries Caucus Vice Chair: Katherine Clark Campaign Committee Chair: Cheri Bustos Policy and Communications Committee Chair: David Cicilline Policy and Communications Committee Co-Chairs: Matt Cartwright, Debbie Dingell, Ted Lieu Steering and Policy Committee Co-Chairs: Rosa DeLauro, Barbara Lee, Eric Swalwell Assistant to the Majority Whip: Cedric Richmond Senior Chief Deputy Whips: John Lewis, Jan Schakowsky Chief Deputy Whips: Pete Aguilar, G. K. Butterfield, Henry Cuellar, Dan Kildee, Sheila Jackson Lee, Debbie Wasserman Schultz, Terri Sewell, Peter Welch Minority Leader: Kevin McCarthy Minority Whip: Steve Scalise Conference Chair: Liz Cheney Conference Vice Chair: Mark Walker Conference Secretary: Jason Smith Policy Committee Chair: Gary Palmer Campaign Committee Chair: Tom Emmer Chief Deputy Whip: Drew Ferguson Most members of this Congress are Christian, with half being Protestant and 30.5% being Catholic.
Jewish membership is the highest percentage in American history. Other religions represented include Buddhism and Hinduism. One senator says that she is religiously unaffiliated, while the number of members refusing to specify their religious affiliation increased; the Senate includes 25 women, the most female senators to date. In six states — California, Nevada, Arizona and New Hampshire — both senators are women. 13 states are represented by one male and one female senator, while 31 states are represented by two male senators. There are 91 non-Hispanic white, four Hispanic, three Black, three Asian, one multiracial senators, while two identify as LGBTQ+. There are 102 women in the largest number in history. There are 313 non-Hispanic whites, 56 black, 44 Hispanic, 15 Asian, 4 Native American. Eight identify as LGBTQ+. Two Democrats — Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Donna Shalala — are the youngest and oldest freshman women in history. Freshmen women Rashida Tlaib and Ilhan Omar are the first two female Muslims and freshmen Sharice Davids and Deb Haaland are the first two female Native American members.
The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All class 1 seats were contested in the November 2018 elections. In this Congress, class 1 means their term commenced in the current Congress, requiring re-election in 2024.
Jack French Kemp was an American politician and a professional player in both American football and Canadian football. A member of the Republican Party from New York, he served as Housing Secretary in the administration of President George H. W. Bush from 1989 to 1993, having served nine terms in the United States House of Representatives from 1971 to 1989, he was the Republican Party's nominee for Vice President in the 1996 election, where he was the running mate of presidential nominee Bob Dole. Kemp had contended for the presidential nomination in the 1988 Republican primaries. Before entering politics, Kemp was a professional quarterback for 13 years, he played in the National Football League and the Canadian Football League, but became a star in the American Football League. He served as captain of both the San Diego Chargers and Buffalo Bills and earned the AFL Most Valuable Player award in 1965 after leading the Bills to a second consecutive championship, he played in the AFL for all 10 years of its existence, appeared in its All-Star game seven times, played in its championship game five times, set many of the league's career passing records.
Kemp co-founded the AFL Players Association, for which he served five terms as president. During the early part of his football career, he served in the United States Army Reserve; as an economic conservative, Kemp advocated low taxes and supply-side policies during his political career. His positions spanned the social spectrum, ranging from his conservative opposition to abortion to his more libertarian stances advocating immigration reform; as a proponent of both Chicago school and supply-side economics, he is notable as an influence upon the Reagan agenda and the architect of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, known as the Kemp–Roth tax cut. After his days in political office, Kemp remained active as commentator, he authored, co-authored, edited several books. He advocated for retired professional football players. Kemp was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009 by President Barack Obama. Born and educated in Los Angeles, Kemp was the third of four sons of Frances Elizabeth and Paul Robert Kemp Sr. Paul turned his motorcycle messenger service into a trucking company that grew from one to 14 trucks.
Frances was Spanish teacher. Kemp grew up in the Jewish Wilshire district of West Los Angeles, but his tight-knit middle-class family attended the Church of Christ, Scientist. In his youth, sports consumed Kemp, who once chose the forward pass as the subject of a school essay on important inventions, although his mother attempted to broaden his horizons with piano lessons and trips to the Hollywood Bowl. Kemp attended Melrose Avenue's Fairfax High School, which was, at the time, known both for its high concentration of Jewish students and concentration of celebrities' children. Over 95% of Kemp's classmates were Jewish, he became a supporter of Jewish causes, his classmates included musician Herb Alpert, baseball pitcher Larry Sherry, academic Judith A. Reisman. During his years in high school, Kemp worked with his brothers at his father's trucking company in downtown Los Angeles. In his spare time, he was a rigorous reader, preferring philosophy books. After graduating from high school in 1953, he attended Occidental College, a founding member of the NCAA Division III Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference.
Kemp selected Occidental because its football team used professional formations and plays, which he hoped would help him to become a professional quarterback. At 5 feet 10 inches and 175 pounds, he considered himself too small to play for the USC Trojans or UCLA Bruins, the major Southern California college football programs. At Occidental, Kemp was a record-setting javelin hurler and played several positions on the football team: quarterback, defensive back, place kicker, punter. Although he was near-sighted, Kemp was tenacious on the field. During his years as starting quarterback the team posted 3 -- 6 records. Kemp was named a Little All-America player one year; that year, he led the nation's small colleges in passing. He and close friend Jim Mora, who became an NFL head coach, were members of the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity. Another teammate in college was Ron Botchan, an NFL referee for years. Kemp declined to become involved in student government. After graduating from Occidental with a degree in physical education, he pursued postgraduate studies in economics at Long Beach State University and California Western University in San Diego, served in the military from 1958 to 1962.
Kemp graduated from Occidental in 1957 and married Joanne Main, his college sweetheart, after she graduated from Occidental in 1958. Main had grown up in Fillmore and attended Fillmore High School in Ventura County. Kemp's Biblical Literature professor, Keith Beebe, presided over the wedding; the Kemps had two sons. Both were professional football quarterbacks: Jeff Kemp played in the NFL from 1981 to 1991, Jimmy Kemp played in the CFL from 1994 to 2002. For a man with his demanding schedule, Jack never missed one of their games as children or in college, they had two daughters: Jennifer Kemp Andrews and Judith Kemp. In 1976, C. Everett Koop wrote The Right to Live, The Right to Die, setting down his own concerns about abortion and euthanasia. Koop took some time off from his surgical practice t
J. C. Watts
Julius Caesar Watts Jr. is an American politician and athlete. Watts was a college football quarterback for the Oklahoma Sooners and played professionally in the Canadian Football League, he served in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1995 to 2003 as a Republican, representing Oklahoma's 4th Congressional District. Watts was raised in Eufaula, Oklahoma, in a rural impoverished neighborhood. After being one of the first children to attend an integrated elementary school, he became a high school quarterback and gained a football scholarship to the University of Oklahoma, he graduated from college in 1981 with a degree in journalism and became a football player in the Canadian Football League until his retirement in 1986. Watts became a Baptist minister and was elected in 1990 to the Oklahoma Corporation Commission as the first African-American in Oklahoma to win statewide office, he ran for Congress in 1994 and was re-elected to three additional terms with increasing vote margins. Watts delivered the Republican response to Bill Clinton's 1997 State of the Union address and was elected Chair of the House Republican Conference in 1998.
He retired in 2003 and turned to lobbying and business work occasionally serving as a political commentator. Watts was born in Eufaula in McIntosh County, Oklahoma to J. C. "Buddy" Watts Helen Watts. His father was a Baptist minister, cattle trader, the first black police officer in Eufaula, a member of the Eufaula City Council, his mother was a homemaker. Watts grew up in a poor rural African-American neighborhood, he was one of two black children who integrated the Jefferson Davis Elementary School in Eufaula and the first black quarterback at Eufaula High School. While in high school, Watts fathered a daughter with a white woman, their families decided against an interracial marriage because of contemporary racial attitudes and Watts' family provided for the child until she could be adopted by Watts' uncle, Wade Watts, a Baptist minister, civil rights leader and head of the Oklahoma division of the NAACP. He graduated from high school in 1976 and attended the University of Oklahoma on a football scholarship.
In 1977, Watts married Frankie Jones, an African-American woman with whom he had fathered a second daughter during high school. Watts began his college football career as the second-string quarterback and left college twice, but his father convinced him to return, Watts became starting quarterback of the Sooners in 1979 and led them to consecutive Orange Bowl victories. Watts graduated from college in 1981 with a Bachelor of Arts in journalism. Watts sought entrance in the National Football League through the New York Jets, but instead entered the Canadian Football League and played for the Ottawa Rough Riders, whom he helped reach the 1981 Grey Cup game, he stayed with the team from 1981 to 1985 and played a season for the Toronto Argonauts before retiring in 1986. Watts returned to Oklahoma and became a youth minister in Del City and was ordained as a Baptist minister in 1993, he is a teetotaler. Watts opened a highway construction company and cited discontent with government regulation of his business as reason to become a candidate for public office.
Watts' family was affiliated with the Democratic Party and his father and uncle Wade Watts were active in the party, but it did not help Watts when he ran for public office and he changed his party affiliation in 1989, months before his first statewide race. Watts stated he had first considered changing parties when he covered the 1980 U. S. Senate campaign of Republican Don Nickles. Watts' father and uncle continued to oppose the Republican party, but supported him. Watts won election to the Oklahoma Corporation Commission in November 1990 for a six-year term as the first African-American elected to statewide office in Oklahoma, he served as a member of the Commission from 1990 to 1995 and as its chairman from 1993 to 1995. Watts ran for Congress in 1994 to succeed Dave McCurdy, who had announced his retirement from the House of Representatives to run for the Senate, he positioned himself as both a fiscal and social conservative, favoring the death penalty, school prayer, a balanced budget amendment and welfare reform, opposing abortion, gay rights, reduced defense spending.
After a hard-fought primary campaign against state representative Ed Apple, Watts won 49 percent to Apple's 48 percent of the vote in August 1994, 52 percent in the resulting run-off election in September 1994 with the support of Representative Jack Kemp and actor and National Rifle Association president Charlton Heston. Watts started his race against the Democratic nominee, David Perryman, a white lawyer from Chickasha, with a wide lead in several early polls and 92 percent name recognition in one poll. Watts hosted former President George H. W. Bush, U. S. Senator Bob Dole, Minority Whip Newt Gingrich and focused on welfare reform and the necessity of capital formation and capital gains, as well as a reduction in the capital gains tax as beneficial for urban blacks; some voters were expected to not vote for Watts because of race, but the editor of a local political newspaper argued Watts' established Christian conservative image and his popularity as a football player would help him win. On November 8, 1994, Watts was elected with 52 percent of the vote as the first African-American Republican U.
S. Representative from south of the Mason–Dixon line since Reconstruction, he and Gary Franks of Connecticut were the only two African-American Republicans in the House. Oklahoma's Fourth District at the time was 90 percent white and had been represented by Democrats since 1922; as Congressman, Watts was assigned to the Armed Services Committee and the Fina
Joseph Gurney Cannon
Joseph Gurney Cannon was a United States politician from Illinois and leader of the Republican Party. Cannon served as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1903 to 1911, many consider him to be the most dominant Speaker in United States history, with such control over the House that he could control debate. Cannon is the second-longest continuously serving Republican Speaker in history, having been surpassed by fellow Illinoisan Dennis Hastert, who passed him on June 1, 2006. Cannon is the second longest serving Republican Representative only surpassed by Alaska congressman Don Young, as well as first member of Congress, of either party to surpass 40 years of service. Cannon's congressional career spanned 46 years of cumulative service—a record, not broken until 1959, he is the longest serving member of the House of Representatives in Illinois, although the longest continuous service belongs to Adolph J. Sabath. Cannon has the distinction of being the subject of the first Time cover dated March 3, 1923.
Cannon was born in Guilford County, North Carolina, in 1840 moved with his parents to Annapolis, about 30 miles north of Terre Haute. He was the elder of Horace Franklin Cannon, a country doctor. Horace Cannon drowned on August 7, 1851 when Joseph was fifteen years old as he tried to reach a sick patient by crossing Sugar Creek. Young Cannon took charge of the family farm, his brother William would become a successful realtor. Asked by Terre Haute politician and lawyer John Palmer Usher, future Secretary of the Interior under President Abraham Lincoln, to testify in a slander case, Cannon became fascinated with the law, he asked Usher if he could study law under him and moved to Terre Haute. At age 19 he traveled to Cincinnati, Ohio to attend a semester of law school at the University of Cincinnati law school. In 1858, he was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Terre Haute, Indiana but was disappointed when Usher refused to offer him a place in his office; that year he relocated to Illinois.
His choice of a new hometown was somewhat involuntary, taking place while he was travelling from Shelbyville, Illinois, to Chicago to find more clients for his law firm. During the trip, he ran out of money, he boarded a Chicago-bound train in Illinois. As Cannon did not have a ticket, he was removed from the train in Tuscola. There, he became State's attorney for the twenty-seventh judicial district of Illinois, holding the position from March 1861 to December 1868, he was one of the charter members of Tuscola's Masonic Lodge No. 332, founded on October 2, 1860. In 1876 Cannon moved to Danville, where he resided for the rest of his life, he and his wife Mary P. Reed, whom he married in 1862, had two daughters, he became a follower of Abraham Lincoln during the Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858. After Lincoln was elected President in 1860, Cannon received an appointment as a regional prosecutor. Cannon, a member of the Republican Party, was elected as to the United States House of Representatives from Illinois to the Forty-second and to the eight succeeding Congresses, was the chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Post Office Department and of the Committee on Appropriations.
Cannon was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1890 to the Fifty-second Congress, but was elected to the Fifty-third and to the nine succeeding Congresses that sat between 1893 and 1913. He attempted to gain the Speakership four times before succeeding, his antic speaking style, diminutive stature and pugnacious manner were his trademarks. The newspapers lampooned him as a colorful rube. "Uncle Joe", as he was known clashed with fellow Republican Theodore Roosevelt, asserting that Roosevelt "has no more use for the Constitution than a tomcat has for a marriage license". Cannon was chairman to the Committee on Appropriations, Committee on Rules, Speaker of the House of Representatives, he received fifty-eight votes for the presidential nomination at the Republican National Convention at Chicago in 1908. Cannon wielded the office of Speaker with unprecedented power. At the time of Cannon's election, the Speaker of the House concurrently held the chair of the Rules Committee, which determined under what rules and restrictions bills could be debated and voted on, and, in some cases, whether they would be allowed on the floor at all.
As such, Cannon controlled every aspect of the House's agenda: bills reached the floor of the house only if Cannon approved of them, in whatever form he determined — with Cannon himself deciding whether and to what extent the measures could be debated and amended. Cannon reserved to himself the right to appoint not only the chairs of the various House committees, but all of the committees' members, used that power to appoint his allies and proteges to leadership positions while punishing those who opposed his legislation. Crucially, Cannon exercised these powers to maintain discipline within the ranks of his own party: the Republicans were divided into the conservative "Old Guard," led by Cannon, the progressives, led by President Theodore Roosevelt, his committee assignment privileges ensured that the party's Progressive element had little influence in the House, his control over the legislative process obstructed progressive legislatio