Simon of Ghent
Simon of Ghent was a medieval Bishop of Salisbury in England. Simon was a prebendary of the diocese of Salisbury and Chancellor of Oxford University, as well as Archdeacon of Oxford. Simon was elected bishop on 2 June 1297 and consecrated on 20 October 1297 at Canterbury He died on 2 April 1315. British History Online Archdeacons of Oxford accessed on 30 October 2007 British History Online Bishops of Salisbury accessed on 30 October 2007 Fryde, E. B.. Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X
Robert Winchelsey was an English Catholic theologian and Archbishop of Canterbury. He studied at the universities of Paris and Oxford, taught at both. Influenced by Thomas Aquinas, he was a scholastic theologian. Winchelsey held various benefices in England and was the Chancellor of Oxford University before being elected to Canterbury in early 1293. Although he had the support of Edward I, Winchelsey became a forceful opponent of the king; the archbishop was encouraged by the papacy to resist Edward's attempts to tax the clergy. Winchelsey was an opponent of the king's treasurer Walter Langton as well as other clergy. On one occasion he rebuked an abbot so. Following the election of a former royal clerk as Pope Clement V in 1305, the king was able to secure the archbishop's exile that same year. Upon the succession of Edward's son, Edward II, Winchelsey was allowed to return to England after the new king petitioned the pope to allow his return. Winchelsey soon joined the king's enemies and was the only bishop to object to the return of the king's favourite, Piers Gaveston.
Winchelsey died in 1313. Although miracles were alleged to have happened at his tomb, an attempt to have him declared a saint was unsuccessful. Winchelsey studied and taught at the universities of Paris and Oxford, became the Rector of Paris, Chancellor of Oxford. While in Paris, he read, met, Thomas Aquinas, his own theology was thereafter purely scholastic. In 1283, he was appointed canon of St. Paul's in London, but it is unclear when he returned to England, he held the prebend of Oxgate in the diocese of London, was made Archdeacon of Essex in the London diocese, in about 1288. John Peckham, Archbishop of Canterbury, died in December 1292. On 13 February 1293, Winchelsey was elected as his successor. Unusually, neither the pope nor the king had a hand in his election. On 1 April, Winchelsey left England for Rome to get papal confirmation, he was not consecrated because of a papal vacancy. Winchelsey was a fearless opponent of Edward I; when he swore his oath of fealty to Edward, he offended the king by adding a declaration that he was only swearing fealty for the temporalities, not the spiritualities.
All through his term as archbishop he refused to allow Edward to tax the clergy beyond certain levels, withstood severe pressure to change his mind. In August 1295, he offered the king a tenth of all ecclesiastical revenues, less than Edward had hoped to collect from the clergy. Winchelsey did concede though that if the war with France, what the money was requested to fund, continued into the following year the clergy would be amenable to making further contributions. Following the issue of the papal bull Clericis laicos in 1296, forbidding the payment of taxes to a secular power, Winchelsey urged his clergy in 1297 to refuse payments to Edward. However, the clergy of the province of York paid a tax of a fifth of their revenues. Edward declared clerics who refused to pay outlaws, ordered their property to be seized, he conceded that the clergy could return to his protection if they paid a fine of a fifth of their revenues what the northern clergy had offered in the way of taxation. The royal clerks and many other clergy paid the fines, in March, the southern clergy met again, after a long debate, Winchelsey instructed each clerk to decide for himself whether or not to pay the fine.
It appears that most chose to pay, but the archbishop still refused to make any contribution, so Edward seized his lands. They were returned to him in July 1297, when the prelate were reconciled at Westminster. Winchelsey tried to mediate between Edward and the earls, who objected to Edward's tax demands. Winchelsey further irritated Edward with his opposition to the Bishop of Lichfield, Walter Langton, the king's treasurer; the king was not the only one to be upset by the archbishop. In 1299, Winchelsey and the king reconciled, the archbishop presided at the king's second marriage, to Margaret of France, at Canterbury. Winchelsey vigorously asserted his authority over his suffragan, or subordinate bishops, quarrelled with Pope Boniface VIII over a Sussex living, was excommunicated by one of the pope's clerks in 1301, he was absolved in 1302. Winchelsey and the barons joined in demanding reforms from the king at the parliament of Lincoln in 1301, but Winchelsey's support of Boniface VIII's claim to be the protector of Scotland broke the alliance.
One of the reasons which led the archbishop to ally with the barons was his hostility to Edward's adviser, Walter Langton, Bishop of Lichfield. The king took no action against Winchelsey until the Gascon and former royal clerk Bertrand de Got was named Pope Clement V in 1305. Edward sent two envoys – Langton and Henry Lacy – to the pope, to press his claim that Winchelsey was plotting against him. Clement suspended the archbishop on 12 February 1306. Winchelsey left England and went to the papal court at Bordeaux, where he stayed until Edward's death in July 1307. Only Antony Bek, Bishop of Durham supported the archbishop. After the death of Edward I, the new king, Edward II, asked that Winchelsey be restored, which the pope agreed to on 22 January 1308. Soon after his return to England in early 1308 the archbishop joined the king's enemies; the archbishop, along with the Earl of Warwick, were the only people to object to the return of the new king's favourite Piers Gaveston to England in 1309.
Winchelsey aided the barons in their prosecutio
Robert de Stratford
Robert de Stratford was an English bishop and was one of Edward III's principal ministers. Stratford was born into the landed Stratford family of Stratford-on-Avon around 1292, his father was another Robert and his mother was called Isabel. He was brother to John de Stratford and Henry de Stratford and Thomas de Stratford, Archdeacon of Gloucester, to the latter of whom he gifted the manor of Shottery. Robert senior has been identified as ‘Master’ Robert, co-founder and first master of the hospital of St Cross within the town, but in view of the title magister and the celibate status required, this appears unlikely; the family was related to the Hattons, important men in the town, Ralph Hatton ‘of Stratford’, the future bishop of London, being John's nephew. He was a relative of Sir Andrew De Stratford. Stratford served for a time as deputy to his brother John. From 1329 he served as Prebend of Aylesbury and from 1331 to 1334 he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer and from March to July 1338 as Lord Chancellor.
He was dismissed as chancellor in 1338 but regained the office for six months in 1340. From 1335 to 1338, Stratford was Chancellor of the University of Oxford. From 1334–7, Stratford was Archdeacon of Canterbury, he was elected Bishop of Chichester between 23 July and 18 August 1337, was consecrated 30 November 1337. Stratford made his will and died at his manor of Aldingbourne in Sussex on 9 April 1362. Probate was granted on the 26th, his recumbent effigy lies in the south choir aisle of Chichester Cathedral. Haines, Roy. "Stratford, Robert". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/26648. Fryde, E. B.. Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X
Richard of Chichester
Richard of Chichester known as Richard de Wych, is a saint, Bishop of Chichester. In Chichester Cathedral a shrine dedicated to Richard had become a richly decorated centre of pilgrimage. In 1538, during the reign of Henry VIII, the shrine was plundered and destroyed by order of Thomas Cromwell. St Richard of Chichester is the patron saint of Sussex in southern England. Richard was an orphan member of a gentry family. On the death of their parents Richard's elder brother was heir to the estates but he was not old enough to inherit, so the lands were subject to a feudal wardship. On coming of age his brother took possession of his lands, but was required to pay a medieval form of death duty that left the family so impoverished, that Richard had to work for him on the farm, his brother made Richard heir to the estate. According to Richard's biographers, friends tried to arrange a match with a certain noble lady; however Richard rejected the proposed match. Educated at the University of Oxford, Richard soon began to teach in the university.
From there he proceeded to Paris and Bologna, where he distinguished himself by his proficiency in canon law. On returning to England in 1235, Richard was elected Oxford's chancellor, his former tutor, Edmund of Abingdon, had become archbishop of Canterbury. Richard shared Edmund's ideals of clerical reform and supported papal rights against the king. In 1237, Archbishop Edmund appointed Richard chancellor of the diocese of Canterbury. Richard joined the archbishop during his exile at Pontigny, was with him when the archbishop died circa 1240. Richard decided to become a priest and studied theology for two years with the Dominicans at Orléans. Upon returning to England, Richard became the parish priest at Charing and at Deal, but soon was reappointed chancellor of Canterbury by the new archbishop Boniface of Savoy. In 1244 Richard was elected Bishop of Chichester. Henry III and part of the chapter refused to accept him, the king favouring the candidature of Robert Passelewe. Archbishop Boniface refused to confirm Passelew, so both sides appealed to the pope.
The king confiscated the see's properties and revenues, but Innocent IV confirmed Richard's election and consecrated him bishop at Lyons in March 1245. Richard returned to Chichester, but the king refused to restore the see's properties for two years, did so only after being threatened with excommunication. Henry III forbade anyone to feed Richard. At first, Richard lived at Tarring in the house of his friend Simon, the parish priest of Tarring, visited his entire diocese on foot, cultivated figs in his spare time. Richard's private life was supposed to have displayed rigid temperance. Richard was an ascetic who refused to eat off silver, he kept his diet simple and rigorously excluded animal flesh. Richard was merciless to corrupt clergy and priests who mumbled the Mass.. He was a stickler for clerical privilege. Richard's episcopate was marked by the favour which he showed to the Dominicans, a house of this order at Orléans having sheltered him during his stay in France, by his earnestness in preaching a crusade.
After dedicating St Edmund's Chapel at Dover, he died aged 56 at the Maison Dieu, Dover at midnight on 3 April 1253, where the Pope had ordered him to preach a crusade. His internal organs were placed in that chapel's altar. Richard's body was carried to Chichester and buried, according to his wishes, in the chapel on the north side of the nave, dedicated to his patron St. Edmund, his remains were translated to a new shrine in 1276. After the full rights of the see and its revenues were returned to him in 1246, the new bishop showed much eagerness to reform the manners and morals of his clergy, to introduce greater order and reverence into the services of the Church. Richard overruled Henry on several occasions. Richard defrocked a priest who had seduced a nun out of her convent, turning aside a petition from the king in the priest's favour. Richard was militant in protecting the clergy from abuse; the townsmen of Lewes violated the right of sanctuary by seizing a criminal in church and lynching him, Richard made them exhume the body and give it a proper burial in consecrated ground.
He imposed severe penance on knights who attacked priests. Richard produced a body of statutes with the aid of his chapter, for the organisation of the church in his diocese and the expected conduct of its clergy, it seems that many of the clergy still secretly married, though such alliances were not recognised by canon law, as such their women's status was that of a mistress or concubine. The Bishop endeavoured to suppress the practice in his diocese with relentless austerity. By Richard's statutes: It was decreed. A vow of chastity was to be required of candidates for ordination. Rectors were expected to reside in their parishes, to be hospitable and charitable and tithes were to be paid on all annual crops. Anyone who did not pay their tithe would not be granted penance. Vicars were to be priests and have only one freehold
Thomas de Cantilupe
Thomas de Cantilupe was Lord Chancellor of England and Bishop of Hereford and was canonised in 1320 by Pope John XXII. Cantilupe was born at Hambleden in Buckinghamshire, a son of William de Cantilupe, an Anglo-Norman magnate and a minister of King John, nephew of Walter de Cantilupe, Bishop of Worcester. Cantilupe was educated at Oxford and Orléans, was a teacher of canon law at the University of Oxford, where he became Chancellor in 1261. During the Second Barons' War, Cantilupe favoured the baronial party, he represented the barons before King Louis IX of France at Amiens in 1264. On 25 February 1264, when he was Archdeacon of Stafford, Cantilupe was made Lord Chancellor of England, but was deprived of the office after de Montfort's death at the Battle of Evesham, lived abroad for a while. Following his return to England, he was again appointed Chancellor of Oxford University, where he lectured on theology and held several ecclesiastical appointments. In 1274 Cantilupe attended the Second Council of Lyons and on 14 June 1275 he was appointed Bishop of Hereford, being consecrated on 8 September 1275.
Cantilupe was now a trusted adviser of King Edward I and when attending royal councils at Windsor Castle or at Westminster he lived at Earley in Berkshire. When differing from the king's opinions, he did not forfeit his favour. Cantilupe had a "great conflict" in 1290 with the "Red Earl", Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, 6th Earl of Hertford, concerning hunting rights in Malvern, a ditch dug by de Clare; the issue was settled by costly litigation. After the death in 1279 of Robert Kilwardby, Archbishop of Canterbury, a friend of Cantilupe's, his confessor, a series of disputes arose between him and John Peckham, the new archbishop; the disagreements culminated in Peckham excommunicating Cantilupe, who proceeded to Rome to pursue the matter with the pope. Cantilupe died at Ferento, near Orvieto, in Italy, on 25 August 1282 He is buried in Hereford Cathedral. Part of the evidence used in his cause of canonisation was the supposed raising from the dead of William Cragh, a Welsh rebel, hanged in 1290, eight years after Cantilupe's death.
A papal inquiry was convened in London on 20 April 1307 to determine whether or not Cantilupe had died excommunicate, since this would have precluded his being canonised. Forty-four witnesses were called and various letters produced, before the commissioners of the inquiry concluded that Cantilupe had been absolved in Rome before his death, it was difficult for his cause of death to be determined. After a papal investigation lasting 13 years, Cantilupe was canonised by Pope John XXII on 17 April 1320, his feast day was fixed on 2 October. His shrine became a popular place of pilgrimage, but only its base survived the Reformation until a new upper section was recreated under the guidance of architect Robert Chitham; the new section is in vivid colours with a painted scene of the Virgin & Child holding the Mappa Mundi. A reliquary containing his skull has been held at Downside Abbey in Somerset since 1881. In the current Latin edition of the Roman Martyrology, Cantilupe is listed under 25 August as follows: "At Montefiascone in Tuscia, the passing of Saint Thomas Cantelupe, Bishop of Hereford in England, resplendent with learning, severe toward himself, to the poor however showed himself a generous benefactor".
Cantilupe appears to have been an exemplary bishop in both spiritual and secular affairs. His charities were large and his private life blameless, he was visiting his diocese, correcting offenders and discharging other episcopal duties, he compelled neighbouring landholders to restore estates which rightly belonged to the see of Hereford. Cantilupe has been lauded as the "Father of Modern Charity," and is cited as an inspiration by Mother Teresa and Melinda Gates; the Cantilupe Society was founded in 1905 to publish the episcopal registers of the See of Hereford, of which Cantilupe's is the first in existence. Royal Berkshire History: St. Thomas Cantilupe of Hereford Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online Saints and Angels Pilgrimage page at Hereford Cathedral Stirnet: CZmisc02
John de Hotham
John de Hotham was an English medieval college head and university chancellor. John de Hotham was Provost of The Queen's College, Oxford from 1350–61, he was for two periods Chancellor of the University of Oxford between 1357 and 1360. He was buried at Chinnor in Oxfordshire in the chancel of the church
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate