Kerala Legislative Assembly
The Kerala Legislative Assembly, popularly known as the Niyamasabha, is the State Assembly of Kerala, one of the 29 States in India. The Assembly is formed by 140 elected representatives and one nominated member from the Anglo-Indian community; each elected member represents one of the 140 constituencies within the borders of Kerala and is referred to as Member of the Legislative Assembly. The evolution of Kerala Legislative Assembly begins with the formation of a Legislative Council in the princely state of Travancore in 1888; this was the first Native Legislature in the Indian subcontinent, outside British India. The Legislative Council of Travancore had undergone many changes by years. In the meantime, people's participation in the Assembly was sought. All those efforts led to the formation of one more representative body, namely the Sri Moolam Popular Assembly of Travancore; this Assembly of the representatives of the landholders and merchants, aimed at giving the people an opportunity of bringing to the notice of Government their requirements, wishes or grievances on the one hand, on the other, to make the policy and measures of Government better known to the people so that all possible grounds of misconception may be removed.
That was on 1 October 1904. Though the popular assembly contained representatives of tax-payers, it became a people's representatives body. Political awareness and people agitations were aggressive and the authorities were forced to include peoples representatives into the popular assembly. On 1 May 1905, a regulation was issued to grant to the people the privilege of electing members to the Assembly. Of the 100 members, 77 were to be elected and 23 nominated, for a tenure of 1 year; the right to vote was given to persons who paid on their account an annual land revenue of not less than Rs. 50 or whose net income was not less than Rs. 2000 and to graduates of a recognised University, with not less than 10 years standing and having their residence in the taluk. The membership of the popular assembly increased year by year and in 1921 elected representatives gained the majority. By that time the house had 50 members of which 28 were elected and the rest nominated; the princely state of Cochin formed a Legislative Council, with 30 elected and 15 nominated representatives.
Malabar District of Madras Province under the British rule, had representatives in Madras Legislative Assembly from the 1920s. After India's independence responsible governments were formed in Cochin. In 1949 the merger of Travancore and Cochin as Travancore-Cochin, formed the first Legislative Assembly, the Travancore-Cochin Legislative Assembly composed of 178 members of the Legislative bodies of Travancore and Cochin; the Malabar region had representatives in the Madras Legislative Assembly. In 1956, the State of Kerala was formed on linguistic basis, merging Travancore and Malabar regions; the first assembly election in Kerala state was held in February-March 1957. The first Kerala Legislative Assembly was formed on 5 April 1957; the Assembly had 127 members including a nominated member. Subsequently, after formation of Malappuram and Kasargod districts, the number of seats went up to 140; the current delimitation committee of 2010 reaffirmed the total number of seats at 140. The current Legislative Assembly is the 14th Assembly since the formation of Kerala.
The Speaker of the Assembly is P. Sreeramakrishnan; the leader of the Assembly is Pinarayi Vijayan from CPI and the Leader of the Opposition is Ramesh Chennithala from the INC. At the same time, the deputy leader of opposition is M. K. Muneer of IUML; the State Assembly is housed in New Legislature Complex. This 5 storied complex is one of the largest complexes in India; the Central Hall is described as most elegant and majestic hall with ornamental Teakwood-Rosewood panelling. The older Assembly was located within State Secretariat complex, reconverted into Legislature museum, after commissioning new complex in 1998 May 22 The Assembly consists of 140 Members known as Members of Legislative Assembly- MLA representing each constituency; the qualifications needed to become an MLA are similar to the eligibility criteria for an MP. Besides being a citizen of India, the individual should not be less than 25 years of age. On a more fundamental note, a person, not a voter from any constituency of the state, is not eligible to become an MLA.
It's to be noted that an MLA is elected by the people of a particular constituency and he/she represents those electorates in the Legislative Assembly. MLAs enjoy the same position in the state as MPs on a national level; the principal responsibility of an MLA is to represent the people's grievances and aspirations and take them up with the state government. An MLA has the power to utilise several legislative tools including ‘calling attention motion’ to raise issues concerning his/her constituency. It's expected of the MLA to raise the issues with the relevant government agency and minister; as a legislator, his cardinal role will be to make optimum use of the Local Area Development fund in a bid to develop his constituency. The Speaker is the primary official of the Assembly; the Assembly elects the Speaker from among its own members. While the Speaker still represents his constituency, he remains an impartial chair of the Assembly and refrains from debating; when a new assembly is formed, the political party/alliance, invited by the Governor to form a government, nominates one among them as Pro-term Speaker.
The Pro-Term speaker opens the new assembly's first session. He oversees swearing-in ceremony of all legislators at the assembly hall and becomes the returning officer for the Spe
Constitution of India
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. The document lays down the framework demarcating fundamental political code, procedures and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, the duties of citizens, it is the longest written constitution of any country on earth. B. R. Ambedkar, chairman of the drafting committee, is considered to be its chief architect, it imparts constitutional supremacy and was adopted by its people with a declaration in its preamble. Parliament cannot override the constitution, it was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 and became effective on 26 January 1950. The constitution replaced the Government of India Act, 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document, the Dominion of India became the Republic of India. To ensure constitutional autochthony, its framers repealed prior acts of the British parliament in Article 395. India celebrates its constitution on 26 January as Republic Day.
The constitution declares India a sovereign, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizens justice and liberty, endeavours to promote fraternity. The original 1950 constitution is preserved in a helium-filled case at the Parliament House in New Delhi; the words "secular" and "socialist" were added to the preamble in 1976 during the emergency. Most of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1857 to 1947. From 1947 to 1950, the same legislation continued to be implemented as India was a dominion of Britain for these three years, as each princely state was convinced by Sardar Patel and V. P. Menon to sign the articles of integration with India, the British government continued to be responsible for the external security of the country. Thus, the constitution of India repealed the Indian Independence Act 1947 and Government of India Act, 1935 when it became effective on 26 January 1950. India ceased to be a dominion of the British Crown and became a sovereign democratic republic with the constitution.
Articles 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 60, 324, 366, 367, 379, 380, 388, 391, 392, 393, 394 of the constitution came into force on 26 November 1949, the remaining articles became effective on 26 January 1950. The constitution was drawn from a number of sources. Mindful of India's needs and conditions, its framers borrowed features of previous legislation such as the Government of India Act 1858, the Indian Councils Acts of 1861, 1892 and 1909, the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935, the Indian Independence Act 1947; the latter, which led to the creation of India and Pakistan, divided the former Constituent Assembly in two. Each new assembly had sovereign power to enact a new constitution for the separate states; the constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, elected by elected members of the provincial assemblies. The 389-member assembly took three years to draft the constitution holding eleven sessions over a 165-day period. B. R. Ambedkar was a wise constitutional expert, he had studied the constitutions of about 60 countries.
Ambedkar is recognised as the "Father of the Constitution of India". In the constitution assembly, a member of the drafting committee, T. T. Krishnamachari said: "Mr. President, Sir, I am one of those in the House who have listened to Dr. Ambedkar carefully. I am aware of the amount of work and enthusiasm that he has brought to bear on the work of drafting this Constitution. At the same time, I do realise that that amount of attention, necessary for the purpose of drafting a constitution so important to us at this moment has not been given to it by the Drafting Committee; the House is aware that of the seven members nominated by you, one had resigned from the House and was replaced. One was not replaced. One was away in America and his place was not filled up and another person was engaged in State affairs, there was a void to that extent. One or two people were far away from Delhi and reasons of health did not permit them to attend. So it happened that the burden of drafting this constitution fell on Dr. Ambedkar and I have no doubt that we are grateful to him for having achieved this task in a manner, undoubtedly commendable."
B. R. Ambedkar, Sanjay Phakey, Jawaharlal Nehru, C. Rajagopalachari, Rajendra Prasad, Vallabhbhai Patel, Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi, Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar, Sandipkumar Patel, Abul Kalam Azad, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, Nalini Ranjan Ghosh, Balwantrai Mehta were key figures in the assembly, which had over 30 representatives of the scheduled classes. Frank Anthony represented the Anglo-Indian community, the Parsis were represented by H. P. Modi. Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, a Christian assembly vice-president, chaired the minorities committee and represented non-Anglo-Indian Christians. Ari Bahadur Gurung represented the Gorkha community. Judges, such as Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, Benegal Narsing Rau, K. M. Munshi and Ganesh Mavlankar were members of the assembly. Female members included Sarojini Naidu, Hansa Mehta, Durgabai Deshmukh, Amrit Kaur and Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit; the first, two-day president of the assembly was Sachchidananda Sinha. It met for the first time on 9 December 1946. Benegal Narsing Rau, a civil servant who became the first Indian judge in the International Court of Justice and was president of the United Nations Security Council, was appointed as the assembly's constitutional adviser in 1946.
Responsible for the constitution's general structure, Rau prepared its initial draft in February 1948. At 14 August 1947 meeting of the assemb
Travancore-Cochin or Thiru-Kochi was a short-lived state of India. It was called United State of Travancore and Cochin and was created on 1 July 1949 by the merger of two former Princely States, the kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin with Trivandrum as the capital, it was renamed State of Travancore-Cochin in January 1950. Paravur T. K. Narayana Pillai, the Congress Prime Minister of Travancore, became the Chief Minister of Travancore-Cochin. First elections were held in 1951 and A. J. John, Anaparambil from Congress party was elected as the Chief Minister, ruling until 1954; the ruler of Travancore was appointed as the governor of Travancore-Cochin. The Maharajah of Cochin was offered to be addressed as Uparaja Pramukh, but he did not want any title after handing over the power; the Maharaja politely said that the eldest member of Cochin Royal Family should be called Valiya Thampuran and gave up royal powers unconditionally for the good of the people. While Pattom A. Thanu Pillai was the Praja Socialist Party Chief minister in 1954, Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress launched a campaign for the merger of the Tamil-speaking regions of Southern Travancore with the neighbouring area of Madras State.
The agitation took a violent turn and civilians and local police were killed at Marthandam and Puthukkada, irreparably alienating the entire Tamil-speaking population from merger into Travancore-Cochin. Under State Reorganisation Act of 1956, the four southern taluks of Travancore, namely Thovalai, Agasteeswaram and Vilavancode and a part of the Chencotta, Tenkasi Taluk was merged with Madras State. On 1 November 1956 Travancore-Cochin was joined with Malabar District of Madras State to form the new state of Kerala, with a governor, appointed by the President of India, as the head of the state instead of'Rajapramukh'; the state had 4 districts which were divided into 36 taluks
A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office. When term limits are found in presidential and semi-presidential systems they act as a method of curbing the potential for monopoly, where a leader becomes "president for life"; this is intended to protect a democracy from becoming a de facto dictatorship. Sometimes, there is an lifetime limit on the number of terms an officeholder may serve. Term limits have a long history. Ancient Athens and Ancient Rome, two early classic republics, had term limits imposed on their elected offices as did the city-state of Venice. In ancient Athenian democracy, only offices selected by sortition were subject to term limits. Elected offices were all subject to possible re-election, although they were minoritarian, these positions were more prestigious and those requiring the most experience, such as military generals and the superintendent of springs. In the Roman Republic, a law was passed imposing a limit of a single term on the office of censor.
The annual magistrates—tribune of the plebs, quaestor and consul—were forbidden reelection until a number of years had passed.. There was a term limit of 6 months for a dictator. Many modern presidential republics employ term limits for their highest offices; the United States placed a limit of two terms on its presidency by means of the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution in 1951. There are no term limits for Vice Presidency and Senators, although there have been calls for term limits for those offices. Under various state laws, some state governors and state legislators have term limits. Formal limits in America date back to the 1682 Pennsylvania Charter of Liberties, the colonial frame of government of the same year, authored by William Penn and providing for triennial rotation of the provincial council, the upper house of the colonial legislature.. The Russian Federation has a rule for the head of state that allows the President of Russia to serve more than two terms if not consecutive. For governors of federal subjects, the same two-term limit existed until 2004, but now there are no term limits for governors.
Term limits are common in Latin America, where most countries are presidential republics. Early in the last century, the Mexican revolutionary Francisco Madero popularized the slogan Sufragio Efectivo, no Reelección. In keeping with that principle, members of the Congress of Mexico cannot be reelected for the next immediate term under article 50 and 59 of the Constitution of Mexico, adopted in 1917; the President of Mexico is limited to a single six-year term. This makes every presidential election in Mexico a non-incumbent election. Countries that operate a parliamentary system of government are less to employ term limits on their leaders; this is because such leaders have a set "term" at all: rather, they serve as long as they have the confidence of the parliament, a period which could last for life. Many parliaments can be dissolved for snap elections which means some parliaments can last for mere months while others can continue until their expiration dates; such countries may impose term limits on the holders of other offices—in republics, for example, a ceremonial presidency may have a term limit if the office holds reserve powers.
Term limits may be divided into two broad categories: lifetime. With consecutive term limits, an officeholder is limited to serving a particular number of terms in that particular office. Upon hitting the limit in one office, an officeholder may not run for the same office again. After a set period of time, the clock resets on the limit, the officeholder may run for election to his/her original office and serve up to the limit again. With lifetime limits, once an officeholder has served up to the limit, he/she may never again run for election to that office. Lifetime limits are much more restrictive than consecutive limits. Term limits in the United States Term of office List of political term limits Reelection Real Term Limits: Now More Than Ever, an article by Doug Bandow in favor of term limits Legislative Term Limits: An Overview at the Library of Congress Web Archives, term limits information from the National Conference of State Legislatures
A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch. Members of a cabinet are called Cabinet ministers or secretaries; the function of a Cabinet varies: in some countries it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government. Cabinets are the body responsible for the day-to-day management of the government and response to sudden events, whereas the legislative and judicial branches work in a measured pace, in sessions according to lengthy procedures. In some countries those that use a parliamentary system, the Cabinet collectively decides the government's direction in regard to legislation passed by the parliament. In countries with a presidential system, such as the United States, the Cabinet does not function as a collective legislative influence. In this way, the President obtains opinions and advice relating to forthcoming decisions.
Under both types of system, the Westminster variant of a parliamentary system and the presidential system, the Cabinet "advises" the Head of State: the difference is that, in a parliamentary system, the monarch, viceroy or ceremonial president will always follow this advice, whereas in a presidential system, a president, head of government and political leader may depart from the Cabinet's advice if they do not agree with it. In practice, in nearly all parliamentary democracies that do not follow the Westminster system, in three countries that do often the Cabinet does not "advise" the Head of State as they play only a ceremonial role. Instead, it is the head of government who holds all means of power in their hands and to whom the Cabinet reports; the second role of cabinet officials is to administer executive branches, government agencies, or departments. In the United States federal government, these are the federal executive departments. Cabinets are important originators for legislation.
Cabinets and ministers are in charge of the preparation of proposed legislation in the ministries before it is passed to the parliament. Thus the majority of new legislation originates from the cabinet and its ministries. In most governments, members of the Cabinet are given the title of Minister, each holds a different portfolio of government duties. In a few governments, as in the case of Mexico, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, United States, the title of Secretary is used for some Cabinet members. In many countries, a Secretary is a cabinet member with an inferior rank to a Minister. In Finland, a Secretary of State is a career official. In some countries, the Cabinet is known by names such as "Council of Ministers", "Government Council" or "Council of State", or by lesser known names such as "Federal Council", "Inner Council" or "High Council"; these countries may differ in the way that the cabinet is established. The supranational European Union uses a different convention: the European Commission refers to its executive cabinet as a "college", with its top public officials referred to as "commissioners", whereas a "European Commission cabinet" is the personal office of a European Commissioner.
In presidential systems such as the United States, members of the Cabinet are chosen by the president, may have to be confirmed by one or both of the houses of the legislature. In most presidential systems, cabinet members cannot be sitting legislators, legislators who are offered appointments must resign if they wish to accept. In parliamentary systems, several different policies exist with regard to whether legislators can be Cabinet ministers: cabinet members must, must not, or may be members of parliament, depending on the country. In the United Kingdom, cabinet ministers are mandatorily appointed from among sitting members of the parliament. In countries with a strict separation between the executive and legislative branches of government, e.g. Luxembourg and Belgium, cabinet members have to give up their seat in parliament; the intermediate case is when ministers are members of parliament, but are not required to be, as in Finland. The candidate prime minister and/or the president selects the individual ministers to be proposed to the parliament, which may accept or reject the proposed cabinet composition.
Unlike in a presidential system, the cabinet in a parliamentary system must not only be confirmed, but enjoy the continuing confidence of the parliament: a parliament can pass a motion of no confidence to remove a government or individual ministers. But not these votes are taken across party lines. In some countries attorneys general sit in the cabinet, while in many others this is prohibited as the attorneys general are considered to be part of the judicial branch of government. Instead, there is a minister of justice, separate from the attorney general. Furthermore, in Sweden and Estonia, the cabinet includes a Chancellor of Justice, a civil servant that acts as the legal counsel to the cabinet. In multi-party systems, the formation of a government may require the support of multiple parties. Thus, a coalition government is formed. Continued cooperation between the participating political parties is nece
Kerala, locally known as Keralam, is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, the Lakshadweep Sea and Arabian Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population, it is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era; the region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE.
In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin, they united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State, the state of Thiru-Kochi, the taluk of Kasaragod in South Canara, a part of Madras State; the economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with ₹7.73 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹163,000. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%. The state has witnessed significant emigration to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, its economy depends on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community.
Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad; the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, coffee and spices are important; the state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres, around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions; the name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from alam; the word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.
The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree". At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word; the word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake". The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil chera alam; the Greco-Roman trade map. According to Tamil classic Purananuru, Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu.
Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari; the land which rose from sea was filled with unsuitable for habitation. Out of respect and all snakes were appo
Pattom A. Thanu Pillai
Pattom Thanu Pillai was a participant in the Indian independence movement who served as the Chief Minister of Kerala from 22 February 1960 to 25 September 1962. He was known as the'Bhishmacharya' of Kerala politics. Born in Thiruvananthapuram, A. Thanu Pillai was the son of Eswari Amma. Thanu Pillai earned a degree in law, he had practised as a lawyer as well. But soon he got attracted towards Indian Freedom Struggle movement and abandoned his career in favour of involvement in the struggle and joined the Indian National Congress, he became the leader of Indian National Congress in the erstwhile princely state of Travancore. Pattom Thanu Pillai remained as one of the leaders of Indian National Congress during the period when Kingdom of Tranvancore became an Independent state and mergered with Cochin to form Travancore-Cochin. On 3 June 1947, United Kingdom accepted demands for a partition and announced its intention to quit India within a short period; the Maharaja of Travancore desired to declare himself independent.
Supported by the Diwan, C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, Chithira Thirunal issued a declaration of independence on 18 June 1947; as Travancore's declaration of independence was unacceptable to India, negotiations were started with the Diwan by the Government of India. Family sources indicate that C. P. himself, was not in favour of independence but only greater autonomy and that a favourable agreement had been reached between C. P. and the Indian representatives by 23 July 1947 and accession to the Indian Union could not be carried out only because it was pending approval by the Raja. An assassination attempt was made on C. P. on 25 July 1947 during a concert commemorating the anniversary of Swati Thirunal. C. P. survived with multiple stab wounds and hastened the accession of Travancore state to the Indian Union soon after his recovery. After the accession of Travancore state to the Indian Union, P. G. N. Unnithan took over as the last Diwan of independent Travancore on August 20, 1947 following C. P. Ramaswami Iyer resigning as Diwan.
P. G. N. Unnithan chaired the Travancore Constitutional Reforms Committee, he relinquished office on March 24, 1948 when a people's government led by Sri Pattom Thanu Pillai as Prime Minister took over. Pattom Thanu Pilla was the first Prime Minister of Independent Travancore state, he resigned as Prime Minister of Tranvacore on 17 October 1948. He was last Prime Minister of Travancore. After India's independence in 1947, Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin on 1 July 1949, it was called United State of Travancore and Cochin with Trivandrum as the capital. It was recognised as a state. During merger of Travancore and Cochin E. Ikkanda Warrier was the Prime Minister of the state of Cochin. Warrier resigned as the last Prime Minister of the state of Cochin on 30 June 1949 helping the merger of the two states. Parur T. K. Narayana Pillai was unanimously elected the leader of the Congress Legislature Party and he assumed charge as the first Chief Minister of Travancore-Cochin from 1 July 1949.
First Ministry of the state of Travancore-Cochin headed by Parur T. K. Narayana Pillai resigned on 24 February 1951 following a corruption charge on the ministry, he was succeed by C. Kesavan as the second Chief Minister of Travancore-Cochin; the first assembly of the state of Travancore-Cochin was dissolved on 12 March 1952 following the resignation of C Kesavan. Following the elections to the Legislative Assembly of the held on March 27, 1952 A. J. John became the third Chief Minister of Travancore-Cochin; the second assembly of Travancore-Cochin lasted till 16 March 1954. By that time Pattom Thanu Pillai joined Praja Socialist Party. In the election for the third Legislative Assembly of Travancore-Cochin held in 1954, Praja Socialist Party won 19 seats out of the contested 38 seats. Praja Socialist Party formed a coalition government along with the Indian National Congress who had won 45 seats. Pattom Thanu Pillai became the fourth Chief Minister of Travancore-Cochin with the support of Indian National Congress on 16 March 1954.
He resigned on 10 February 1955 succeed by Panampilly Govinda Menon as the last Chief Minister of Travancore-Cochin. He remained in office till 23 March 1956. After that the state remained under President's rule till 5 April 1957. During this time state of Kerala was formed. Under State Reorganisation Act of 1956, the four southern taluks of Travancore, namely Thovalai, Agasteeswaram and Vilavancode and a part of the Chencotta Taluk was merged with Madras State. On 1 November 1956 Travancore-Cochin was joined with Malabar District of Madras State, the taluk of Kasaragod and South Kanara to form the new state of Kerala. After the first elections to the Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1957, the Communist Party of India emerged as the single largest party. E M S Namboodiripad formed the first elected government with the support of 5 independent legislators; the government was not able to complete its full 5 years term. The Communist-led government collapsed as a consequence of the movement known as the Vimochana Samaram.
The Communist government was dismissed on 31 July 1959 and President's rule was imposed in the state, under Article 356 of the constitution. Fresh Elections were held in 1960 and Pattom A. Thanu Pillai became the second Chief Minister of Kerala, as head of a PSP-Congress coalition administration, he assumed office on 22 February 1960. However, he resigned as chief minister of Kerala on 26 September 1962