States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
Constitution of India
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. The document lays down the framework demarcating fundamental political code, procedures and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, the duties of citizens, it is the longest written constitution of any country on earth. B. R. Ambedkar, chairman of the drafting committee, is considered to be its chief architect, it imparts constitutional supremacy and was adopted by its people with a declaration in its preamble. Parliament cannot override the constitution, it was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 and became effective on 26 January 1950. The constitution replaced the Government of India Act, 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document, the Dominion of India became the Republic of India. To ensure constitutional autochthony, its framers repealed prior acts of the British parliament in Article 395. India celebrates its constitution on 26 January as Republic Day.
The constitution declares India a sovereign, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizens justice and liberty, endeavours to promote fraternity. The original 1950 constitution is preserved in a helium-filled case at the Parliament House in New Delhi; the words "secular" and "socialist" were added to the preamble in 1976 during the emergency. Most of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1857 to 1947. From 1947 to 1950, the same legislation continued to be implemented as India was a dominion of Britain for these three years, as each princely state was convinced by Sardar Patel and V. P. Menon to sign the articles of integration with India, the British government continued to be responsible for the external security of the country. Thus, the constitution of India repealed the Indian Independence Act 1947 and Government of India Act, 1935 when it became effective on 26 January 1950. India ceased to be a dominion of the British Crown and became a sovereign democratic republic with the constitution.
Articles 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 60, 324, 366, 367, 379, 380, 388, 391, 392, 393, 394 of the constitution came into force on 26 November 1949, the remaining articles became effective on 26 January 1950. The constitution was drawn from a number of sources. Mindful of India's needs and conditions, its framers borrowed features of previous legislation such as the Government of India Act 1858, the Indian Councils Acts of 1861, 1892 and 1909, the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935, the Indian Independence Act 1947; the latter, which led to the creation of India and Pakistan, divided the former Constituent Assembly in two. Each new assembly had sovereign power to enact a new constitution for the separate states; the constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, elected by elected members of the provincial assemblies. The 389-member assembly took three years to draft the constitution holding eleven sessions over a 165-day period. B. R. Ambedkar was a wise constitutional expert, he had studied the constitutions of about 60 countries.
Ambedkar is recognised as the "Father of the Constitution of India". In the constitution assembly, a member of the drafting committee, T. T. Krishnamachari said: "Mr. President, Sir, I am one of those in the House who have listened to Dr. Ambedkar carefully. I am aware of the amount of work and enthusiasm that he has brought to bear on the work of drafting this Constitution. At the same time, I do realise that that amount of attention, necessary for the purpose of drafting a constitution so important to us at this moment has not been given to it by the Drafting Committee; the House is aware that of the seven members nominated by you, one had resigned from the House and was replaced. One was not replaced. One was away in America and his place was not filled up and another person was engaged in State affairs, there was a void to that extent. One or two people were far away from Delhi and reasons of health did not permit them to attend. So it happened that the burden of drafting this constitution fell on Dr. Ambedkar and I have no doubt that we are grateful to him for having achieved this task in a manner, undoubtedly commendable."
B. R. Ambedkar, Sanjay Phakey, Jawaharlal Nehru, C. Rajagopalachari, Rajendra Prasad, Vallabhbhai Patel, Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi, Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar, Sandipkumar Patel, Abul Kalam Azad, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, Nalini Ranjan Ghosh, Balwantrai Mehta were key figures in the assembly, which had over 30 representatives of the scheduled classes. Frank Anthony represented the Anglo-Indian community, the Parsis were represented by H. P. Modi. Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, a Christian assembly vice-president, chaired the minorities committee and represented non-Anglo-Indian Christians. Ari Bahadur Gurung represented the Gorkha community. Judges, such as Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, Benegal Narsing Rau, K. M. Munshi and Ganesh Mavlankar were members of the assembly. Female members included Sarojini Naidu, Hansa Mehta, Durgabai Deshmukh, Amrit Kaur and Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit; the first, two-day president of the assembly was Sachchidananda Sinha. It met for the first time on 9 December 1946. Benegal Narsing Rau, a civil servant who became the first Indian judge in the International Court of Justice and was president of the United Nations Security Council, was appointed as the assembly's constitutional adviser in 1946.
Responsible for the constitution's general structure, Rau prepared its initial draft in February 1948. At 14 August 1947 meeting of the assemb
Bahujan Samaj Party
The Bahujan Samaj Party is a national political party in India. By vote share in the 2014 general election, it is India's third-largest national party, though it did not win any seats in the Lok Sabha, it was formed to represent Bahujans, referring to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Castes, along with religious minorities. According to Kanshi Ram, when he founded the party in 1984, the Bahujans comprised 85 percent of India's population, but were divided into 6,000 different castes; the party claims to be inspired by the philosophy of Gautama Buddha, B. R. Ambedkar, Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, Narayana Guru, Periyar E. V. Ramasamy and Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj. Kanshi Ram named his protégée Mayawati as his successor in 2001; the BSP has its main base in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. In the 2017 Uttar Pradesh elections, BSP was the second-largest party, with over 22% of votes despite winning only 19 seats, it has an elephant as its election symbol. The BSP has no separate youth wing.
BSP has website. Sudhindra Bhadoria, a senior party leader, is the only official spokesperson of the BSP; the Pali word "Bahujana" is popularly found in the literature of Buddhist texts. Gautama Buddha used this word to guide his disciples to work for the Bahujana Hitaya Bahujana Sukhaya; the BSP used this slogan extensively to campaign in her political rallies. The BSP's primary focus is on the uplifting of, its self-proclaimed ideology is "Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation" of the "Bahujan Samaj". The "Bahujan Samaj", to them, consists of the lower-caste groups in India like the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and the Other Backward Classes, it includes religious minorities like Sikhs, Christians and Buddhists. They see these groups as having been victims of the "Manuwadi" system for millennia, a system which benefited upper-caste Hindus only, they hold B. R. Ambedkar, champion of lower-caste rights, as one of their key icons and ideological inspirations. Many doubt upper caste Hindu that BSP is an anti-upper caste party, pure propaganda.
BSP believes in egalitarian equality. In 2008 while speaking on same BSP supremo Mayawati said "Our policies and ideology are not against any particular caste or religion. If we were anti-upper caste, we would not have given tickets to candidates from upper castes to contest elections". In fact, Satish Chandra Mishra and many Upper castes Hindu are in various positions in BSP; the party believe in egalitarianism and hold a strong emphasis on social justice.. The Bahujan Samaj Party was founded on the birth anniversary of B. R. Ambedkar, 14 April 1984, by Kanshi Ram, who named former schoolteacher Mayawati as his successor of BSP in 2001. Lesser-known figures from the Indian Rebellion of 1857 have been used as Dalit icons by the BSP; the political strategy of the party is to tell and retell the stories of these heroes, build memorials and organize celebrations around their stories to build a collective memory in the psyche of the people. The stories are narrated in such a manner that the Dalits imagine the story of the making of a nation in which they played a significant role.
The party's power grew with seats in the Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh and the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India. In 1993, following the assembly elections, Mayawati formed a coalition with Samajwadi Party President Mulayam Singh Yadav as Chief Minister. On 2 June 1995, she withdrew support from his government, which led to a major incident where Yadav was accused of sending his goons to keep her party legislators hostage at a Lucknow guest house and shout casteist abuses at her. Since this event, they have regarded each other publicly as chief rivals. Mayawati obtained support from the Bharatiya Janata Party to become Chief Minister on 3 June 1995. In October 1995, the BJP withdrew their support and fresh elections were called after a period of President's Rule. In 2003, Mayawati resigned from her own government to prove that she was not "hungry for power" and asked the BJP-run Government of India to remove Union Tourism and Culture Minister, Jagmohan. In 2007, she began leading a BSP-formed government with an absolute majority for a full five-year term..
The results of the May 2007 Uttar Pradesh state assembly election saw the BSP emerge as a sole majority party, the first to do so since 1991. Mayawati began her fourth term as Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and took her oath of office along with 50 ministers of cabinet and state rank on 13 May 2007, at Rajbhawan in the state capital of Lucknow. Most the majority achieved in large part was due to the party's ability to take away majority of upper castes votes from their traditional party, the BJP; the party could manage only 80 seats in 2012 as against 206 in 2007 assembly elections. BSP government was the first in the history of Uttar Pradesh to complete its full five-year term. On 26 May 2018, the party in a major revamp, Ram Achal Rajbhar was replaced by R S Kushwaha as President of UP Unit; the 2014 national Lok Sabha elections saw the BSP become the third-largest national p
Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world, it was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow; the main ethnic group is the Hindavi people. On 9 November 2000, a new state, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region; the two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad and flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest and Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast. It covers 243,290 square kilometres, equal to 7.33% of the total area of India, is the fourth-largest Indian state by area.
The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the fourth-largest state economy in India with ₹15.79 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹57,480. Agriculture and service industries are the largest parts of the state's economy; the service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate and financial consultancies. President's rule has been imposed in Uttar Pradesh ten times since 1968, for different reasons and for a total of 1,700 days; the natives of the state are called Uttar Bhartiya, or more either Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Kannauji, or Rohilkhandi depending upon their region of origin. Hinduism is practised by more than three-fourths of the population, with Islam being the next largest religious group. Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of medieval India; the state has several historical and religious tourist destinations, such as Agra, Vrindavan and Allahabad. Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago.
There have been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period and extending into the Iron Age. The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh; the aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira.
The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in northwest India, around 1000 BC. Control over Gangetic plains region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya, Kushan and Gurjara-Pratihara empires. Following the Huns' invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannauj empire reached its zenith, it spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south. It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain. Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region.
Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty, from the 8th century to the 10th century. After fall of Pala empire, the Chero dynasty ruled from 12th century to 18th century. Parts or all of Uttar Pradesh were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley, swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan and Bangladesh; the Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks. In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Humayun ruled from Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior.
After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, th
Samajwadi Party is a political party in India headquartered in New Delhi. It is a state party based in Uttar Pradesh, it describes itself as a democratic socialist party; the Samajwadi Party was one of several parties that emerged when the Janata Dal fragmented into several regional parties. The Samajwadi Party is led by former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Akhilesh Yadav after he was chosen the President by the National Convention held on 1 January 2017; the Samajwadi Party is based in Uttar Pradesh State. It has contested Lok Sabha and State Assembly elections around the country, though its successes have been in Uttar Pradesh. In the 2012 legislative assembly elections of Uttar Pradesh, SP registered a landslide victory with a clear majority in the House, thus enabling it to form the government in the state; this was expected to be the fifth term of Mulayam Singh Yadav as Chief Minister of state, but he surprised everyone by selecting his son, Akhilesh Yadav, to be the new chief minister.
It became official on 15 March. It was the first time that SP was head of the UP government for a full term of 5 years.. The Samajawadi Party provided outside support to the United Progressive Alliance government up to the sixteenth general election, After the sixteenth general election its support became unnecessary when the UPA became the largest alliance, it contested the 2009 general election in alliance with the Rashtriya Janata Dal and the Lok Janshakti Party of Bihar. In the last general election, the Samajwadi Party was defeated by the BJP in Uttar Pradesh, it is the thirteenth largest party in parliament. In the general elections of 2014, it won only 5 seats, while the Indian National Congress gained 44 seats and the Bharatiya Janata Party obtained a clear mandate with 282 seats. In West Bengal, the West Bengal Socialist Party of Kiranmoy Nanda merged with the SP; the SP has one MLA each in Madhya Maharashtra. In April 2014, the Save Indian Family Foundation encouraged voters to support the Samajwadi Party or vote None of the above because the Samajwadi Party had stated that it opposed the alleged misuse of gender bias laws.
The Samajwadi Party has called homosexuality "unethical and immoral." The clashes between the Hindu and Muslim communities in Muzaffarnagar district, Uttar Pradesh, India in August - September 2013, resulted in at least 9 deaths and injured 34 after which an indefinite curfew was imposed. By 17 September, the curfew was lifted from all riot affected areas and the army was withdrawn. Several people associated with Bharatiya Janta Party including Sangeet Som were accused; the riot has been described as "the worst violence in Uttar Pradesh in recent history". The Supreme court blamed the ruling government of not handling the situation well. In reaction to this, Akhilesh Yadav warned of strict action against those found guilty, he blamed a political conspiracy behind these riots. He announced jobs to the kins of the people who were killed during the riots In 2014, there was a proposed merger of Samajwadi Party with some other Janata Parivar parties uniting with Lalu Prasad Yadav and Nitish Kumar. Since Akhilesh Yadav became Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, the Yadav family has been divided into two feuding groups.
One of the groups is led by him with the support of Ram Gopal Yadav. The rival group is led by a friend, Amar Singh. Akhilesh Yadav has fired his uncle twice from his cabinet as it was seen by many as a direct challenge to his father Mulayam Singh Yadav, who has supported his younger brother Shivpal over him. Battle in the family fired up when Akhilesh Yadav released a parallel list of 235 candidates for 2017 Uttar Pradesh election. Mulayam Singh Yadav and Shivpal Singh Yadav has released list of 325 candidates few days before. On 30 December 2016, Mulayam Singh Yadav expelled his son Akhilesh Yadav and Ram Gopal Yadav from the party for six years on the grounds of indiscipline but re-inducted within 24 hours after a meet of 200 of the party’s 229 MLAs at Akhilesh residence. In a National Convention held on 1 January 2017 called by Ram Gopal Yadav, Akhilesh Yadav was declared the National President of Samajwadi Party. Naresh Chandra Uttam was named as Uttar Pradesh state president of the party.
In the mean time Mulayam Singh Yadav expelled Ram Gopal Yadav for six years for the third time in six months. Expulsion included vice-president Kiranmoy Nanda and state general secretary Naresh Agarwal were expelled for attending the convention. Due to the convention, the party is divided and is headed by two competing presidents. Akhilesh Yadav and his father both are representing themselves as party presidents; however the constitution of the party categorically states that any convention can only be called by its president and if an other member wants a convention to be called, he has to collect the signatures of 40% members and submit it to national president. If the president fails to call the convention that individual member may call for the convention. In this case however, Akhilesh Faction has acted against the party constitution and technically Mulayam Singh Yadav is still the party president. After the national convention was declared illegal by Mulayam Singh Yadav and further truce talks failed Mulayam Singh along with Amar Singh and Jaya Prada decided to go to the Election Commission to sort out the matter.
The Election Commission gave time until 9 January to submit the related documents to both sides to submit required documents that show support of the party members. The Akhilesh camp submitted affidavits showing notable support for the Chief Minister on 7 Ja
Muhammad Ahmad Said Khan Chhatari
Lieutenant Colonel Saeed ul-Mulk Nawab Sir Muhammad Ahmad Said Khan, Nawab of Chhatari generally referred to as Nawab of Chhatari was Governor of the United Provinces, Chief Minister of United Provinces, President of the Executive Council of the Nizam of Hyderabad and Chief Scout of India. Nawab Chhatari attended the first Round Table Conference, held in St. James's Palace in London on 12 November 1930; the Muslim Delegation was led by the Aga Khan and others, including Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Sir Mohammad Shafi, Maulana Muhammad Ali, Dr Shafat Ali, Sir Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, the Nawab of Chhatari, Fazlul Huq. From 17 May 1923 to 11 January 1926 the Nawab was a Minister in the Cabinet of the United Provinces in 1931 he returned as Minister of Agriculture there. Like other great Muslim zamindars, including the Raja of Salempur, was a trusted ally of the British administration of the United Provinces and was appointed as acting Governor for some seven months, from April to November 1933; the Government of India Act 1935, formulated after a series of round table conferences, came into effect on 1 April 1937, the Nawab of Chhatari, as leader of the National Agriculturist Parties, was invited to form a Cabinet, was chief minister during 1937.
He soon stepped down to become Minister of Home Affairs in the United Provinces Government, with a salary of Rs.2,500. The Nawab of Chhatari was a member of India's National Defence Council from July to August 1941, he resigned from this to accept the post of President of the Hyderabad Executive Council Prime Minister of the important princely state of Hyderabad. The Nawab of Chhatari attended the third open session of the All-India Muslim League, held in the Pandal at Lalbagh, Lucknow, on Sunday, 17 October 1936, with Jinnah presiding; the meeting was attended by Maulana Shaukat Ali, Moulana Hasrat Mohani, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, Dr Syed Husain, Raja Gazanfar Ali Khan, Khan Bahadur Kuli Khan, Fazlul Huq, Nawab Jamshed Ali Khan, others. Nawab of Chhatari was appointed President of the Executive Council of the Nizam of Hyderabad in August 1941, he served on this post from September 1941 to 1 November 1947. On 6 September 1941 Bahadur Yar Jung, Nizam of Hyderabad, praised Nawab of Chhatari as able administrator.
In 1944 Nawab of Chhatari was granted of the title of Saeed-ul-Mulk by H. E. H; the Nizam of Hyderabad. On 25 November 1945, Nawab of Chhatari laid the foundation stone of the Institution of Engineers, A. P. State Center. In 1946 the Nizam of Hyderabad suggested to the Viceroy of India that the Nawab of Chhatari should be appointed as Governor of the Central Provinces and Berar. On 11 July 1947, after the Nizam had seen the pending Indian Independence Bill, which did not offer the possibility of Dominion status to any of the princely states, an option he had pressed for, he decided to send a delegation to Delhi headed by the Nawab of Chhatari to meet the Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten of Burma. On 17 August 1947 the Nawab wrote to Mountbatten expressing the wish to enter into negotiations on the future of HyderabadIn August 1947 Sir Walter Monckton, a Constitutional advisor to the Nizam and the Nawab of Chhatari, tendered his resignation to the Nizam, prompted by an attack by Razakars and Ittehad-ul-Muslimeen, but the resignation was not accepted.
On 27 October 1947 Razakars and Ittehad-ul-Muslimeen staged a demonstration at the houses of the members of delegation, the Nawab, Sir Sultan Ahmed, making it impossible for them to leave for Delhi as intended. The discussions that followed bore no fruit, on 1 November the Nawab of Chhatari, finding his position intolerable, resigned as President of the Executive Council. Monckton insisted on resigning. On 21 December 1947 Gandhi held talks with the Nawab of Chhatari, H. S. Suhrawardy, Brijlal Nehru, Rameshwari Nehru, Sheikh Abdullah, Begum Abdullah, Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew, Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad, the Prince of Kutch, the Maharaja of Bhavnagar, Anantrai Pattani and othersIn a radio speech on 23 September 1948, the Nizam said "In November last, a small group which had organized a quasi-military organization surrounded the homes of my Prime Minister, the Nawab of Chhatari, in whose wisdom I had complete confidence, of Sir Walter Monkton, my constitutional Adviser, by duress compelled the Nawab and other trusted ministers to resign, forced the Laik Ali Ministry on me.
This group headed by Kasim Razvi had any record of service behind it. By methods reminiscent of Hitlerite Germany it took possession of the State, spread terror... and rendered me helpless." On 23 October 1931 the Nawab hosted a dinner, attended by Iqbal. In 1935 he represented India in a mangoes exhibition in London, where he represented the Rataul mango, which won first prize and was declared the best mango in the world. On 15 January 1939 a message from him was published in a pamphlet issued by the Education Expansion Department on the occasion of the "Literacy Day". In 1945, Mahatma Gandhi sent the Nawab two letters; the Nawab was patron of Jamia Urdu, Aligarh. He served as Chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University from December 1965 to 6 January 1982 and as Chief Scout of the All India Boy Scouts Association from 1955 to 1982, he was born to Nawab Mohammad Abdul Ali Khan, the Nawab of Chhatari on 12 December 1888 in Chhatari, United Province of British India. He did his education from Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College of Aligarh.
He was married to the Nawab of Talibnagar. He had Rahat Saeed Khan and Farhat Sayeed Khan; the younger son, Farhat Sayeed Khan, was noted for
Govind Ballabh Pant
Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant was an Indian freedom fighter and one of the architects of modern India. Alongside Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru and Vallabh Bhai Patel, Pant was a key figure in the movement for India's Independence and a pivotal figure in the Indian Government, he was one of the foremost political leaders of Uttar Pradesh and a key player in the unsuccessful movement to establish Hindi as the national language of Indian Union. Today, as a mark of tribute, several Indian hospitals, educational institutions and foundations bear his name. To honour his exemplary services to the nation, Pant received India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1957. Govind Ballabh Pant was born on 10 September 1887 in Khoont village on the slopes of Shyahi Devi hill near Almora, in a Karhade Brahmin family his father migrated Pune Maharashtra to Uttar Pradesh. Having their roots in Maharashtra, his mother's name was Govindi Bai. His father Manorath Pant was a government official, on the move, hence Govind was brought up by his maternal grandfather, Badri Dutt Joshi, an important government official locally, who played a significant part in moulding his personality and political views.
Pant subsequently worked as a lawyer in Kashipur. Here, he began active work against the British Raj in 1914, when he helped a local parishad, or village council, in their successful challenge of coolie begar, a law requiring locals to provide free transportation of the luggage of travelling British officials. In 1921, he entered politics and was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. Known as an capable lawyer, Pant was appointed by the Congress party to represent Ramprasad Bismill, Ashfaqulla Khan and other revolutionaries involved in the Kakori case in the mid 1920s. In 1930, he was arrested and imprisoned for several weeks for organising a Salt March inspired by Gandhi's earlier actions. In 1933, he was arrested along with Harsh Dev Bahuguna and imprisoned for seven months for attending a session of the then-banned provincial Congress. In 1935, the ban was rescinded, Pant joined the new Legislative Council. During the Second World War, Pant acted as the tiebreaker between Gandhi's faction, which advocated supporting the British Crown in their war effort, Subhas Chandra Bose's faction, which advocated taking advantage of the situation to expel the British Raj by all means necessary.
In 1934, the Congress ended its boycott of the legislatures and put up candidates, Pant was elected to the Central Legislative Assembly. His political skills won the admiration of the leaders of the Congress, he became deputy leader of the Congress party in the Assembly. In 1940, Pant was imprisoned for helping organise the Satyagraha movement. In 1942 he was arrested again, this time for signing the Quit India resolution, spent three years in Ahmednagar Fort along with other members of the Congress working committee until March 1945, at which point Jawaharlal Nehru pleaded for Pant's release, on grounds of failing health. Pant took over as the Chief Minister of the United Provinces from 1937 to 1939. In 1945, the British Labour government ordered new elections to the Provincial legislatures; the Congress won a majority in the 1946 elections in the United Provinces and Pant was again the Premier, continuing after India's independence in 1947. His judicious reforms and stable governance in the Uttar Pradesh stabilised the economic condition of the most populous State of India.
Among his achievements in that position was the abolition of the zamindari system. He passed the Hindu Code Bill and made monogamy compulsory for Hindu men and gave the Hindu women the rights of divorce and inheritance to ancestral property, his rich and judicious experience was sought in India’s political capital. Pant moved from Lucknow to New Delhi to be sworn in as Cabinet Minister without Portfolio in the Union Cabinet on 3 January 1955. Pant served as Union Home Minister from 1955–1961. Pant was appointed Minister of Home Affairs in the Union Cabinet on 10 January 1955 in New Delhi by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru; as Home Minister, his chief achievement was the re-organisation of States along linguistic lines. He was responsible for the establishment of Hindi as an official language of the central government and a few states. During his tenure as the Home Minister, Pant was awarded the Bharat Ratna. on 26 January 1957 for his selfless service as an Independent activist, Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and Home Minister.
In 1960, he suffered a heart attack. He was treated by top doctors in India, including his friend Dr Bidhan Chandra Roy, the Chief Minister of West Bengal, his health started deteriorating and he died on 7 March 1961 at the age of 74, from a cerebral stroke. At that time he was still in office as the Home Minister of India. Mourning him, Dr Rajendra Prasad, the President of India was quoted as saying,“I had known Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant since 1922 and in this long period of association it had been my privilege to receive from him not only consideration but affection; this is no time to assess his achievements. The grief is too intense for words. I can only pray for peace to his soul and strength to those who loved and admired him”. Uttarakhand Mahaparishad is a socity NGO at Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh Govind Ballabh Pant's son, Krishna Chandra Pant, was a politician, he comes from a family of bureaucrats, Police personnel and scientists. His close relative H. C Pant served as the undersecretary in the Ministry of Telecommunications.
K. C. Pant Ila Pant Bakshi, S. R.. Govind Ballabh Pant: The True Gandhian. South Asia Books. ISB