An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
John von Neumann
John von Neumann was a Hungarian-American mathematician, computer scientist, polymath. Von Neumann was regarded as the foremost mathematician of his time and said to be "the last representative of the great mathematicians", he made major contributions to a number of fields, including mathematics, economics and statistics. He was a pioneer of the application of operator theory to quantum mechanics in the development of functional analysis, a key figure in the development of game theory and the concepts of cellular automata, the universal constructor and the digital computer, he published over 150 papers in his life: about 60 in pure mathematics, 60 in applied mathematics, 20 in physics, the remainder on special mathematical subjects or non-mathematical ones. His last work, an unfinished manuscript written while in hospital, was published in book form as The Computer and the Brain, his analysis of the structure of self-replication preceded the discovery of the structure of DNA. In a short list of facts about his life he submitted to the National Academy of Sciences, he stated, "The part of my work I consider most essential is that on quantum mechanics, which developed in Göttingen in 1926, subsequently in Berlin in 1927–1929.
My work on various forms of operator theory, Berlin 1930 and Princeton 1935–1939. During World War II, von Neumann worked on the Manhattan Project with theoretical physicist Edward Teller, mathematician Stanisław Ulam and others, problem solving key steps in the nuclear physics involved in thermonuclear reactions and the hydrogen bomb, he developed the mathematical models behind the explosive lenses used in the implosion-type nuclear weapon, coined the term "kiloton", as a measure of the explosive force generated. After the war, he served on the General Advisory Committee of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, consulted for a number of organizations, including the United States Air Force, the Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory, the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; as a Hungarian émigré, concerned that the Soviets would achieve nuclear superiority, he designed and promoted the policy of mutually assured destruction to limit the arms race.
Von Neumann was born Neumann János Lajos to a wealthy and non-observant Jewish family. After his arrival in the U. S. he had been baptized a Roman Catholic prior to the marriage to his Catholic first wife. Von Neumann was born in Budapest, Kingdom of Hungary, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he was the eldest of three brothers. His father, Neumann Miksa was a banker, he had moved to Budapest from Pécs at the end of the 1880s. Miksa's father and grandfather were both born in Zemplén County, northern Hungary. John's mother was Kann Margit. Three generations of the Kann family lived in spacious apartments above the Kann-Heller offices in Budapest. On February 20, 1913, Emperor Franz Joseph elevated his father to the Hungarian nobility for his service to the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the Neumann family thus acquired the hereditary appellation Margittai. The family had no connection with the town. Neumann János became margittai Neumann János, which he changed to the German Johann von Neumann. Von Neumann was a child prodigy.
When he was 6 years old, he could divide two 8-digit numbers in his head and could converse in Ancient Greek. When the 6-year-old von Neumann caught his mother staring aimlessly, he asked her, "What are you calculating?"Children did not begin formal schooling in Hungary until they were ten years of age. Max believed that knowledge of languages in addition to Hungarian was essential, so the children were tutored in English, French and Italian. By the age of 8, von Neumann was familiar with differential and integral calculus, but he was interested in history, he read his way through Wilhelm Oncken's 46-volume Allgemeine Geschichte in Einzeldarstellungen. A copy was contained in a private library. One of the rooms in the apartment was converted into a library and reading room, with bookshelves from ceiling to floor. Von Neumann entered the Lutheran Fasori Evangélikus Gimnázium in 1911. Eugene Wigner soon became his friend; this was one of the best schools in Budapest and was part of a brilliant education system designed for the elite.
Under the Hungarian system, children received all their education at the one gymnasium. The Hungarian school system produced a generation noted for intellectual achie
Indian mathematics emerged in the Indian subcontinent from 1200 BC until the end of the 18th century. In the classical period of Indian mathematics, important contributions were made by scholars like Aryabhata, Bhaskara II, Varāhamihira; the decimal number system in use today was first recorded in Indian mathematics. Indian mathematicians made early contributions to the study of the concept of zero as a number, negative numbers and algebra. In addition, trigonometry was further advanced in India, and, in particular, the modern definitions of sine and cosine were developed there; these mathematical concepts were transmitted to the Middle East and Europe and led to further developments that now form the foundations of many areas of mathematics. Ancient and medieval Indian mathematical works, all composed in Sanskrit consisted of a section of sutras in which a set of rules or problems were stated with great economy in verse in order to aid memorization by a student; this was followed by a second section consisting of a prose commentary that explained the problem in more detail and provided justification for the solution.
In the prose section, the form was not considered so important. All mathematical works were orally transmitted until 500 BCE; the oldest extant mathematical document produced on the Indian subcontinent is the birch bark Bakhshali Manuscript, discovered in 1881 in the village of Bakhshali, near Peshawar and is from the 7th century CE. A landmark in Indian mathematics was the development of the series expansions for trigonometric functions by mathematicians of the Kerala school in the 15th century CE, their remarkable work, completed two centuries before the invention of calculus in Europe, provided what is now considered the first example of a power series. However, they did not formulate a systematic theory of differentiation and integration, nor is there any direct evidence of their results being transmitted outside Kerala. Excavations at Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and other sites of the Indus Valley Civilisation have uncovered evidence of the use of "practical mathematics"; the people of the Indus Valley Civilization manufactured bricks whose dimensions were in the proportion 4:2:1, considered favourable for the stability of a brick structure.
They used a standardised system of weights based on the ratios: 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/2, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, with the unit weight equaling 28 grams. They mass-produced weights in regular geometrical shapes, which included hexahedra, barrels and cylinders, thereby demonstrating knowledge of basic geometry; the inhabitants of Indus civilisation tried to standardise measurement of length to a high degree of accuracy. They designed a ruler -- the Mohenjo-daro ruler --. Bricks manufactured in ancient Mohenjo-daro had dimensions that were integral multiples of this unit of length. Hollow cylindrical objects made of shell and found at Lothal and Dholavira are demonstrated to have the ability to measure angles in a plane, as well as to determine the position of stars for navigation; the religious texts of the Vedic Period provide evidence for the use of large numbers. By the time of the Yajurvedasaṃhitā-, numbers as high as 1012 were being included in the texts. For example, the mantra at the end of the annahoma performed during the aśvamedha, uttered just before-, during-, just after sunrise, invokes powers of ten from a hundred to a trillion: Hail to śata, hail to sahasra, hail to ayuta, hail to niyuta, hail to prayuta, hail to arbuda, hail to nyarbuda, hail to samudra, hail to madhya, hail to anta, hail to parārdha, hail to the dawn, hail to the twilight, hail to the one, going to rise, hail to the one, rising, hail to the one which has just risen, hail to svarga, hail to martya, hail to all.
The solution to partial fraction was known to the Rigvedic People as states in the purush Sukta: With three-fourths Puruṣa went up: one-fourth of him again was here. The Satapatha Brahmana contains rules for ritual geometric constructions that are similar to the Sulba Sutras; the Śulba Sūtras list rules for the construction of sacrificial fire altars. Most mathematical problems considered in the Śulba Sūtras spring from "a single theological requirement," that of constructing fire altars which have different shapes but occupy the same area; the altars were required to be constructed of five layers of burnt brick, with the further condition that each layer consist of 200 bricks and that no two adjacent layers have congruent arrangements of bricks. According to, the Śulba Sūtras contain "the earliest extant verbal expression of the Pythagorean Theorem in the world, although it had been known to the Old Babylonians." The diagonal rope of an oblong produces both whi
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and run by Henry Luce. A European edition is published in London and covers the Middle East, and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong; the South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition. Time has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine; the print edition has a readership of 26 million. In mid-2012, its circulation was over three million, which had lowered to two million by late 2017. Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the U. S. State Department. Nancy Gibbs was the managing editor from September 2013 until September 2017, she was succeeded by Edward Felsenthal, Time's digital editor. Time magazine was created in 1923 by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce, making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States.
The two had worked together as chairman and managing editor of the Yale Daily News. They first called the proposed magazine Facts, they wanted to emphasize brevity. They changed the name to Time and used the slogan "Take Time–It's Brief". Hadden was liked to tease Luce, he saw Time as important, but fun, which accounted for its heavy coverage of celebrities, the entertainment industry, pop culture—criticized as too light for serious news. It set out to tell the news through people, for many decades, the magazine's cover depicted a single person. More Time has incorporated "People of the Year" issues which grew in popularity over the years. Notable mentions of them were Steve Jobs, etc.. The first issue of Time was published on March 3, 1923, featuring Joseph G. Cannon, the retired Speaker of the House of Representatives, on its cover. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary.
The cover price was 15¢ On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at Time and a major figure in the history of 20th-century media. According to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004 by Robert Elson, "Roy Edward Larsen was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time Inc". In his book, The March of Time, 1935–1951, Raymond Fielding noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and general manager of Time publisher of Life, for many years president of Time Inc. and in the long history of the corporation the most influential and important figure after Luce". Around the time they were raising $100,000 from wealthy Yale alumni such as Henry P. Davison, partner of J. P. Morgan & Co. publicity man Martin Egan and J. P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce, Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922 – although Larsen was a Harvard graduate and Luce and Hadden were Yale graduates. After Hadden died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of Time Inc. using money he obtained from selling RKO stock which he had inherited from his father, the head of the Benjamin Franklin Keith theatre chain in New England.
However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest Time, Inc. stockholder was Henry Luce, who ruled the media conglomerate in an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen", Time's second-largest stockholder, according to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941. In 1929, Roy Larsen was named a Time Inc. director and vice president. J. P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over Time and Fortune. Other shareholders were the New York Trust Company; the Time Inc. stock owned by Luce at the time of his death was worth about $109 million, it had been yielding him a yearly dividend of more than $2.4 million, according to Curtis Prendergast's The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983. The Larsen family's Time stock was worth around $80 million during the 1960s, Roy Larsen was both a Time Inc. director and the chairman of its executive committee serving as Time's vice chairman of the board until the middle of 1979.
According to the September 10, 1979, issue of The New York Times, "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory retirement at age 65." After Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by using U. S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It promoted both Time magazine and U. S. political and corporate interests. According to The March of Time, as early as 1924, Larsen had brought Time into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining quiz show entitled Pop Question which survived until 1925". In 1928, Larsen "undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of Time magazine, broadcast over 33 stations throughout the United States". Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, The March of Time, to be broadcast over CBS, beginning on March 6, 1931; each week, the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its listeners, thus Time magazine itself was brought "to the attention of millions unaware
A chess prodigy is a child who can beat experienced adult players, Masters, at chess. Expectations can be high for chess prodigies. While some become World Champions, others show little or no progress in adulthood. Early chess prodigies were Paul Morphy and José Raúl Capablanca, both of whom won matches against strong adult opponents at the age of 12, Samuel Reshevsky, giving simultaneous exhibitions at the age of six. Morphy went on to be unofficial World Champion, Capablanca became the third World Champion, Reshevsky—while never attaining the title—was amongst the top few players in the world for many decades. One measure of chess prodigies is the age. Below are players; the record has been held by Sergey Karjakin since 2002. The age listed is the age; this is not equal to the age at which they became Grandmasters, because GM titles can only be awarded at FIDE congresses. Note: all players are listed by their nationality at the time of gaining the title, not their current or nationality; this is a list of the players.
Here are the holders of the record for the youngest female to become a grandmaster: Edward Winter, Chess Prodigies Chessbase news about young Grandmasters Youngest Chess Player in India Set World Record Smallest Chess Player Chess Tournament Set World Record
Srinivasa Ramanujan FRS was an Indian mathematician who lived during the British Rule in India. Though he had no formal training in pure mathematics, he made substantial contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, continued fractions, including solutions to mathematical problems considered to be unsolvable. Ramanujan developed his own mathematical research in isolation: "He tried to interest the leading professional mathematicians in his work, but failed for the most part. What he had to show them was too novel, too unfamiliar, additionally presented in unusual ways. Seeking mathematicians who could better understand his work, in 1913 he began a postal partnership with the English mathematician G. H. Hardy at the University of Cambridge, England. Recognizing the extraordinary work sent to him as samples, Hardy arranged travel for Ramanujan to Cambridge. In his notes, Ramanujan had produced groundbreaking new theorems, including some that Hardy stated had "defeated completely", in addition to rediscovering proven but advanced results.
During his short life, Ramanujan independently compiled nearly 3,900 results. Many were novel. Nearly all his claims have now been proven correct; the Ramanujan Journal, a peer-reviewed scientific journal, was established to publish work in all areas of mathematics influenced by Ramanujan, his notebooks—containing summaries of his published and unpublished results—have been analyzed and studied for decades since his death as a source of new mathematical ideas. As late as 2011 and again in 2012, researchers continued to discover that mere comments in his writings about "simple properties" and "similar outputs" for certain findings were themselves profound and subtle number theory results that remained unsuspected until nearly a century after his death, he became one of the youngest Fellows of the Royal Society and only the second Indian member, the first Indian to be elected a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Of his original letters, Hardy stated that a single look was enough to show they could only have been written by a mathematician of the highest calibre, comparing Ramanujan to other mathematical geniuses such as Euler and Jacobi.
In 1919, ill health—now believed to have been hepatic amoebiasis —compelled Ramanujan's return to India, where he died in 1920 at the age of 32. His last letters to Hardy, written January 1920, show that he was still continuing to produce new mathematical ideas and theorems, his "lost notebook", containing discoveries from the last year of his life, caused great excitement among mathematicians when it was rediscovered in 1976. A religious Hindu, Ramanujan credited his substantial mathematical capacities to divinity, stated that the mathematical knowledge he displayed was revealed to him by his family goddess. "An equation for me has no meaning," he once said, "unless it expresses a thought of God." Ramanujan was born on 22 December 1887 into a Tamil Brahmin Iyengar family in Erode, Madras Presidency, at the residence of his maternal grandparents. His father, Kuppuswamy Srinivasa Iyengar from Thanjavur district, worked as a clerk in a sari shop, his mother, was a housewife and sang at a local temple.
They lived in a small traditional home on Sarangapani Sannidhi Street in the town of Kumbakonam. The family home is now a museum; when Ramanujan was a year and a half old, his mother gave birth to a son, who died less than three months later. In December 1889, Ramanujan contracted smallpox, though he recovered, unlike 4,000 others who would die in a bad year in the Thanjavur district around this time, he moved with his mother near Madras. His mother gave birth to two more children, in 1891 and 1894, both failing to reach their first birthdays. On 1 October 1892, Ramanujan was enrolled at the local school. After his maternal grandfather lost his job as a court official in Kanchipuram and his mother moved back to Kumbakonam and he was enrolled in the Kangayan Primary School; when his paternal grandfather died, he was sent back to his maternal grandparents living in Madras. He did not like school in Madras, tried to avoid attending, his family enlisted a local constable to make sure. Within six months, Ramanujan was back in Kumbakonam.
Since Ramanujan's father was at work most of the day, his mother took care of the boy as a child. He had a close relationship with her. From her, he learned about tradition and puranas, he learned to sing religious songs, to attend pujas at the temple, to maintain particular eating habits—all of which are part of Brahmin culture. At the Kangayan Primary School, Ramanujan performed well. Just before turning 10, in November 1897, he passed his primary examinations in English, Tamil and arithmetic with the best scores in the district; that year, Ramanujan entered Town Higher Secondary School, where he encountered formal mathematics for the first time. By age 11, he had exhausted the mathematical knowledge of two college students who were lodgers at his home, he was lent a book by S. L. Loney on advanced trigonometry, he mastered this by the age of 13. By 14, he was receiving merit certificates and acade