Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period. The newspaper is owned by Rajya Sabha M. P. Shobhana Bhartia and it is the flagship publication of HT Media. Hindustan Times is one of the largest newspapers in India, by circulation, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, it has a circulation of 1.16 million copies as of November 2015. The Indian Readership Survey 2014 revealed that HT is the second most widely read English newspaper in India after The Times of India. It is popular in North India, with editions from New Delhi, Kolkata, Patna, Bhopal. The print location of Jaipur was discontinued from June 2006 and that of Nagpur edition was discontinued from September 1997, HT launched a youth daily, HT Next, in 2004. The Mumbai edition was launched on 14 July 2005 and the Kolkata edition was launched in early 2000. In 2014 however, Hindustan Times was ranked 360th among Indias most trusted brands according to the Brand Trust Report 2014, a study conducted by Trust Research Advisory, other sister publications of Hindustan Times are Mint, Hindustan and Kadambani.
Hindustan Times is owned by the KK Birla branch of the Birla family, Hindustan Times was founded in 1924 by Sunder Singh Lyallpuri, founder-father of the Akali movement and the Shiromani Akali Dal in Punjab Province. S Mangal Singh Gill and S. Chanchal Singh were made in charge of the newspaper, Madan Mohan Malaviya and Tara Singh were among the members of the Managing Committee. The Managing Chairman and Chief Patron was Master Sunder Singh Lyallpuri, K. M. Panikkar was its first editor, Devdas Gandhi on the editors panel, and editor. The opening ceremony was performed by Mahatma Gandhi on 26 September 1924, the first issue was published from Naya Bazar, Delhi. As an Oxonian and litterateur, Panikkar must have hoped to make his paper eventually more than an Akali sheet and he became the editor and funds flowed freely from activist Akali patrons. He exerted himself strenuously, but the paper made very little headway, in two years Panikkar could not take the print order any higher than 3,000. By the Akali movement appeared to lose steam and funds dried up, the paper was saved from an untimely demise when Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya stepped in to realise his vision of a newspaper in Delhi.
Malaviya raised ₹50,000 rupees to acquire the Hindustan Times along with the help of nationalist leaders Lajpat Rai and M. R. Jayakar and industrialist G. D. Birla, Birla took full control of the paper in 1933. The paper continues to be owned by the Birla family and it has its roots in the Indian independence movement of the first half of the twentieth century and even faced the noted Hindustan Times Contempt Case at Allahabad High Court. It was edited at times by many important people in India, including Devdas Gandhi, Sri Mulgaonkar, B. G. Verghese, sanjoy Narayan was editor in chief of the paper from August 2008 till July 2016
A film, called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession, the process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. The word cinema, short for cinematography, is used to refer to the industry of films. Films were originally recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process, the adoption of CGI-based special effects led to the use of digital intermediates. Most contemporary films are now fully digital through the process of production, distribution. Films recorded in a form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. It runs along a portion of the film exclusively reserved for it and is not projected, Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them, Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens.
The visual basis of film gives it a power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into the language of the viewer, some have criticized the film industrys glorification of violence and its potentially negative treatment of women. The individual images that make up a film are called frames, the perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called phi phenomenon. The name film originates from the fact that film has historically been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for a motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photoplay. The most common term in the United States is movie, while in Europe film is preferred. Terms for the field, in general, include the big screen, the screen, the movies, and cinema. In early years, the sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film, sets, production, actors, storyboards, much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène.
Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images, the magic lantern, probably created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, which was achieved by various types of mechanical slides
The proletariat is a term for the class of wage-earners, in a capitalist society, whose only possession of significant material value is their labor-power, a member of such a class is a proletarian. The proletarii constituted a class of Roman citizens owning little or no property. This assembly, which met on the Campus Martius to discuss public policy issues, was used as a means of designating military duties demanded of Roman citizens. The top infantry class assembled with full arms and armor, the two classes brought arms and armor, but less and lesser, the fourth class only spears. In voting, the cavalry and top class were enough to decide an issue, as voting started at the top. As a result of the Marian reforms initiated in 107 B. C. by the Roman general Gaius Marius, proletarians are wage-workers, while some refer to those who receive salaries as the salariat. For Marx, wage labor may involve getting a salary rather than a wage per se, intermediate positions are possible, where some wage-labor for an employer combines with self-employment.
Socialist parties have often struggled over the question of whether they should seek to organize and represent all the lower classes, according to Marxism, capitalism is a system based on the exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeoisie. Instead of hiring those means of production, they themselves get hired by capitalists and work for them and these goods or services become the property of the capitalist, who sells them at the market. Surplus value is the difference between the wealth that the proletariat produces through its work, and the wealth it consumes to survive and to provide labor to the capitalist companies. A part of the value is used to renew or increase the means of production, either in quantity or quality. What remains is consumed by the capitalist class, the commodities that proletarians produce and capitalists sell are valued for the amount of labor embodied in them. The same goes for the labor power itself, it is valued, not for the amount of wealth it produces. Marxists argue that new wealth is created through labor applied to natural resources, prole drift, short for proletarian drift, is a term that suggests the tendency in advanced industrialized societies for everything inexorably to become proletarianized, or to become commonplace.
This trend is attributed to mass production, mass selling, mass communication, examples include best-seller lists and music that must appeal to the masses and shopping malls. Why workers can change the world, hal Draper, Karl Marxs Theory of Revolution, Vol.2, The Politics of Social Classes
Rajendra Prasad was the first President of the Republic of India. An Indian political leader, lawyer by training, Prasad joined the Indian National Congress during the Indian independence movement, a supporter of Mahatma Gandhi, Prasad was imprisoned by British authorities during the Salt Satyagraha of 1931 and the Quit India movement of 1942. Prasad served one term as President of the Indian National Congress from 1934 to 1935, after the 1946 elections, Prasad served as minister of food and agriculture in the central government. Upon independence in 1947, Prasad was elected president of the Constituent Assembly of India, when India became a Republic in 1950, Prasad was elected its first President by the Constituent Assembly. Following the general election of 1951, he was elected President by the college of the first Parliament of India. As President, Prasad established a tradition of non-partisanship and independence for the office-bearer, although a ceremonial head of state, Prasad encouraged the development of education in India and advised the Nehru government on several occasions.
In 1957, Prasad was re-elected to the presidency, becoming the president to have been in the office twice. Rajendra Prasad was a Hindu and born in Zeradai, in the Siwan district of Bihar. His father Mahadev Sahai, was a scholar of both the Sanskrit and Persian languages, while his mother, Kamleshwari Devi, was a woman who would tell stories from the Ramayana to her son. When Prasad was five years old, his parents placed him under the tutelage of a Moulavi, an accomplished Muslim scholar, to learn the Persian language and arithmetic. After the completion of elementary education, he was sent to the Chapra District School Meanwhile, in June 1896, at an early age of 12. He, along with his elder brother Mahendra Prasad, went to study at T. K, ghoshs Academy in Patna for a period of two years. He secured first in the examination to the University of Calcutta and was awarded Rs.30 per month as a scholarship. Prasad joined the Presidency College, Calcutta in 1902, initially as a science student and he passed Intermediate level classes called as F. A.
under the University of Calcutta in March 1904 and further graduated with First Division from there itself in March 1905. Impressed by his intellect, an examiner once had commented on his answer sheet examinee is better than examiner, he decided to focus on the study of arts and did his M. A. in Economics with first division from the University of Calcutta in December 1907. There he lived with his brother in the Eden Hindu Hostel, a devoted student as well as a public activist, he was an active member of The Dawn Society. It was due to his sense of duty towards his family, Prasad was instrumental in the formation of the Bihari Students Conference in 1906 in the hall of the Patna College. Rajendra Prasad served in various institutions as a teacher
Education in Delhi
Education is based on three-tier model which includes primary schools, followed by secondary schools and tertiary education at universities or other institutes of same level. Education Department of the Government of Delhi is a body which looks into the educational affairs. Tertiary education is administrated by the Directorate of Higher Education, as per the 2011 census, Delhi has a literacy rate of 86. 3% with 91. 0% of males and 80. 9% of females. In 1860-61, the North-Western Provinces education system was abolished in Delhi, there are about 500,000 university students in Delhi NCR attending around more than 165 universities and colleges. Delhi has nine universities, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, Premier institute for agricultural research and education in India, http. Delhi boasts several private and few government engineering institutions like Ambedkar Institute of Advanced Communication Technologies and Research, pant Engineering College, New Delhi, which are usually affiliated to the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University and a Faculty of Engineering under Jamia Millia Islamia University.
Industrial training institute and industrial training centres, constituted under the Ministry of Labour and Employment, there are several ITIs in Delhi NCR. Normally a person who has passed 10 standard is eligible for admission to an ITI, the objective of opening of ITI is provide technical manpower to industries. Delhi has eight medical institutes, out of which six provide both undergraduate and postgraduate education in medicine while other two are researched based and these medical institutes are either affiliated to the University of Delhi or GGSIPU, only AIIMS is central based. Faculty of Dentistry and Maulana Azad Dental College are some of the dental schools, schools in Delhi are run either by government or private sector. As per the survey conducted in 2001, Delhi had some 2416 primary,715 middle and 1576 secondary schools, in 2004–05, approximately 1.5 million students were enrolled in primary schools,822,000 in middle schools and 669,000 in secondary schools across Delhi. Female students represented 49% of the total enrolment, the same year, the Delhi government spent between 1. 58% and 1. 95% of its gross state domestic product on education.
Students can opt for two languages and an optional third language from the list of Scheduled languages or Foreign languages. There are several libraries in Delhi, which are maintained by the government bodies or private organisations. A History of Educational Institutions in Delhi, Delhi Government Delhi Directorate of Education Education in Delhi Top 10 Engineering College of Delhi
Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence. He is considered to be the architect of the modern Indian nation-state, a sovereign, secular and he was known as Pandit Nehru due to his roots with the Kashmiri Pandit community while many Indian children knew him as Chacha Nehru. The son of Motilal Nehru, a prominent lawyer and nationalist statesman and Swaroop Rani, Nehru was a graduate of Trinity College and the Inner Temple, where he trained to be a barrister. Upon his return to India, he enrolled at the Allahabad High Court, and took an interest in national politics, a committed nationalist since his teenage years, he became a rising figure in Indian politics during the upheavals of the 1910s. He became the prominent leader of the factions of the Indian National Congress during the 1920s. As Congress President in 1929, Nehru called for independence from the British Raj. Nehru and the Congress dominated Indian politics during the 1930s as the country moved towards independence, but these achievements were seriously compromised in the aftermath of the Quit India Movement in 1942, which saw the British effectively crush the Congress as a political organisation.
The Muslim League under his old Congress colleague and now bête noire, negotiations between Nehru and Jinnah for power sharing failed and gave way to the independence and bloody partition of India in 1947. As Prime Minister, he set out to realise his vision of India, the Constitution of India was enacted in 1950, after which he embarked on an ambitious program of economic and political reforms. Chiefly, he oversaw Indias transition from a colony to a republic, while nurturing a plural, in foreign policy, he took a leading role in Non-Alignment while projecting India as a regional hegemon in South Asia. Under Nehrus leadership, the Congress emerged as a party, dominating national and state-level politics and winning consecutive elections in 1951,1957. He remained popular with the people of India in spite of troubles in his final years. In India, his birthday is celebrated as Childrens Day, Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889 in Allahabad in British India. His father, Motilal Nehru, a barrister who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community.
His mother, Swaruprani Thussu, who came from a well-known Kashmiri Brahmin family settled in Lahore, was Motilals second wife, Jawaharlal was the eldest of three children, two of whom were girls. The elder sister, Vijaya Lakshmi, became the first female president of the United Nations General Assembly, the youngest sister, Krishna Hutheesing, became a noted writer and authored several books on her brother. Nehru described his childhood as a sheltered and uneventful one and he grew up in an atmosphere of privilege at wealthy homes including a palatial estate called the Anand Bhawan. His father had him educated at home by governesses and tutors
Lajpat Nagar is a residential and commercial neighbourhood of the South Delhi district of Delhi. It is named in honour of Lala Lajpat Rai, known the Lion of Punjab, There is one more Lajpat Nagar in Ghaziabad in the NCR region. The suburb is divided into four parts, Lajpat Nagar I, II, III, housing colonies like Amar Colony, Dayanand Colony, Double Storey, National Park and Vikram Vihar are located in it. Lajpat Nagar is famous for Central Market, which is a shopping destination, and is known for the garments. The colony falls partially under the New Delhi and part of it is in the South Delhi, Lajpat Nagar was developed in 1950s and most of its early residents were Hindus and Sikhs moving east from newly formed Pakistan following the partition of India in 1947. As such, many of these individuals are Multanis and Sindhis, the colony was initially named as Cheap Colony or Cheap Cantonment. One part of Lajpat Nagar -4 was named after Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati, initially refugee camps were set up in Purana Quila.
Plots and the people were allotted plots in areas like Lajpat Nagar, Patel Nagar, the plots were of 15x60 feet constructed like army barracks. The houses were all single storey, with asbestos roofs, in the beginning, but now most of the houses are multi-storied. The colony housed a camp for Bengali widows which came up much known as Kasturba Ashram. The colony has a line passing through the north and has a local railway station where one can board the EMU trains. The line is used by freight trains. At present, it is common to see individuals from different parts of India, Lajpat Nagar is well connected by Delhi Transport Corporation bus services and the Delhi Mass Rapid Transit System. Route no.543 connects East Delhi Anand Vihar to Lajpat Nagar, the Lajpat Nagar Station of the Delhi Metro is an elevated station lying on the Metro’s Violet Line. It is located between the Jangpura and Moolchand stations, the station was opened to public along with the first section of the Violet Line. Kalkaji is another place in south delhi, which is very near to Lajpat Nagar.
Visitors can take Delhi Metro from Kalka Mandir metro station to reach Lajpat Nagar, a new underpass connection has been opened in 2014 below Defence Colony-Lajapat Nagar flyover between Lajpat Nagar and Jungpura for easy access to areas like Jungpura Extn. Indira Gandhi International Airport is 23 km from Lajpat Nagar,10 minutes from Kalka Mandir metro station via Delhi Metro. Another metro station is under construction and scheduled to open in 3 years, Lajpat Nagar is home to a large Punjabi community that is featured in multiple movies
Noida, short for the New Okhla Industrial Development Authority, is a systematically planned Indian city under the management of the New Okhla Industrial Development Authority. It is part of National Capital Region of India, Noida came into administrative existence on 17 April 1976 and celebrates 17 April as Noida Day. It was set up as part of an urbanisation thrust during the controversial Emergency period, the city was created under the UP Industrial Area Development Act by the initiatives of Sanjay Gandhi. The city has the highest per capita income in the whole National Capital Region, the Noida Authority is among the richest civic bodies in the country. As per provisional reports of Census India, the population of Noida in 2011 is 642,381, roads in Noida are lined by trees and it is considered to be Indias greenest city with about 50% green cover, the highest of any city in India. Noida is located in Gautam Buddh Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh state, the districts administrative headquarters are in the nearby town of Greater Noida.
However, the districts highest government official, the District Magistrate, has its official camp office in Noida Sector-27, the city is a part of the Noida Vidhan Sabha constituency and Gautam Buddha Nagar. Minister of State for Culture, Tourism of Civil Aviation Mahesh Sharma of the BJP is the current MP of Noida, the current MLA is Pankaj Singh. Noida has emerged as a hot spot for IT and IT-enabled services industry with large companies setting up their businesses here. Noida is located in the Gautam Buddh Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh state India, Noida is about 25 kilometres southeast of New Delhi,20 kilometres northwest of the district headquarters - Greater Noida and 457 kilometres northwest of the state capital, Lucknow. Noida falls under the catchment area of the Yamuna River, and is located on the old river bed, the soil is rich and loamy. Since Noida can be termed as being situated on the tail of Aravali, other common trees are Neem, Banyan and Teak that grow naturally. Recent urbanisation has introduced laburnam, red cotton, and other trees on the roadsides, people take a lot of interest in planting amaltash and Gulmohar.
For these reasons, different trees surround roads of Noida from almost everywhere, There are various types of grasses that grow naturally on the free ground, as this land was perfect for agriculture before construction work took over. Sugarcane and vegetables were grown in great extent along with Mango and you can record a great number of birds in Noida, Crows, Bulbuls, Kingfishers and Bushchats can be spotted anywhere. With careful eyes one can see barbets, Okhla Bird Sanctuary is one such place to go and do bird watching and it has a great number of birds varying from cormorants to jacanaa and seagulls. More than 55 species are present and around the same number are seasonal. Surajkund Sanctuary, village areas are not far off for nature viewing, the Noida-Greater Noida Expressway is poised to become a self-sustaining urban pocket in Noida with good infrastructure
Connaught Place, New Delhi
Connaught Place is one of the largest financial and business centres in New Delhi, India. It is often abbreviated to CP and houses the headquarters of several noted Indian firms. The main commercial area of the new city, New Delhi, during the erstwhile British Raj and it was developed as a showpiece of Lutyens Delhi with a prominent Central Business District. Named after Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, a metro railway station built under it is named Rajiv Chowk. Prior to the construction of Connaught Place, the area was a ridge, covered with trees and populated with jackals. Residents of the Kashmere Gate, Civil Lines area visited during the weekends for partridge hunting, the Hanuman Temple attracted many visitors from the old walled city, who came only on Tuesdays and Saturdays and before sunset, as the return trip was considered dangerous. Residents of villages including Madhoganj, Jaisingh Pura and Raja ka Bazaar were evicted to clear the area for the construction of Connaught Place and the development of its nearby areas.
The villages were situated along the historic Qutb Road, the main road connecting Shahjahanabad. The displaced people were relocated in Karol Bagh to the west, three structures were spared demolition. These were Hanuman temple, a Jain temple in Jaisinghpura and the Jantar Mantar, plans to have a central business district were developed as the construction of the new capital of Imperial India began to take shape. Headed by W. H. Nicholls, the architect to the Government of India. Connaught Places Georgian architecture is modelled after the Royal Crescent in Bath, the circle was eventually designed with two concentric circles, creating an Inner Circle, Middle Circle and the Outer Circle with seven roads radiating from a circular central park. As per the plan, the different blocks of Connaught Place were to be joined from above, employing archways. However, the circle was broken up to give it a grander scale, even the blocks were originally planned to be 172 metres in height, but reduced to the present two-storied structure with an open colonnade.
Government plans to have New Delhi Railway Station built inside Central Park were rejected by authorities as they found the idea impractical. Early commercial establishments belonged to traders from the Kashmere Gate area, Galgotia, most of the rulers of the Indian princely states had their local homes in the nearby areas around Kings way, and would frequent shops for designer clothes, artefacts and pianos. Wengers, the confectioners, was one of the first shops in Connaught Place, davicos across Connaught Plaza, and the Standard restaurant were popular for decades before fading away. Another old timer, the Embassy Restaurant, opened in 1948, the Imperial, New Delhi’s first luxury hotel opened in 1931 on Queens Way, and eventually became a haunt for the royalty and a place for political discussions
He debuted as an actor in the film Jwar Bhata in 1944 produced by Bombay Talkies. His career has spanned six decades and with over 60 films. Kumar is known for his roles in such as the romantic Andaz, the swashbuckling Aan, the dramatic Devdas, the comical Azaad, the historical Mughal-e-Azam. He is the winner of nine Filmfare Awards and is the first recipient of Filmfare Best Actor Award and he still holds the record for the most number of Filmfare awards won for that category with eight wins. Critics acclaimed him among one of the greatest actors in the history of Hindi cinema, the Government of Pakistan honoured him with its highest civilian honour, the Nishan-e-Imtiaz, in 1997. His father, Lala Ghulam Sarwar, was a landlord and fruit merchant who owned orchards in Peshawar, Dilip Kumar was schooled at Barnes School, Deolali. In the late 1930s, his family relocated to Bombay, around 1940, while still in his teens and after an altercation with his father, Dilip Kumar left home for Pune. With the help of an Iranian cafe owner, and an elderly Anglo-Indian couple, without letting on his family antecedents, he got the job on the merit of his knowledge of good written and spoken English.
He managed to set up a stall at the army club. In 1942, anxious to start some venture to help out his father with finances, he met Dr. Masani at Churchgate Station. Here he met actress Devika Rani, owner of Bombay Talkies, here he met actor Ashok Kumar who was to influence his acting style telling him to act natural. He met Sashadhar Mukherjee, and both these people very close to Kumar over the years. Initially, Kumar helped out in the story-writing and scripting department because of his proficiency in Urdu language. Devika Rani requested to change his name from Yousuf to Dilip Kumar, and cast him in a role for the film Jwar Bhata. Dilip Kumars first film was Jwar Bhata in 1944 which went unnoticed, after a few more unsuccessful films, it was Jugnu in which he starred alongside Noor Jehan that became his first major hit at the box office. His next major hits were the 1948 films Shaheed and Mela and he got his breakthrough role in 1949 with Mehboob Khans Andaz in which he starred alongside Raj Kapoor and Nargis.
Shabnam released that year was another box office hit, Kumar went on to have success in the 1950s with playing leading roles in romantic films like Jogan, Tarana Hulchul Deedar, Uran Khatola, Devdas and Madhumati. These films established his image as the Tragedy King