Gilbert is a town in Maricopa County, United States, located southeast of Phoenix, within the Phoenix metropolitan area. Once known as the "Hay Shipping Capital of the World", It is the sixth-largest municipality in Arizona, the fifth-largest in the Metropolitan Phoenix Area. Gilbert encompasses 76 square miles and has made a rapid transformation from an agriculture-based community to an economically diverse suburban center located in the southeast valley of the Greater Phoenix area. In the last three decades, Gilbert has grown at an high rate, increasing in population from 5,717 in 1980 to 208,453 as of the 2010 census; the town grew at an average annual growth rate of nearly 13% during this 30-year period. In 2017, the town's population was estimated to be at 242,354. Gilbert owes its beginnings to William "Bobby" Gilbert who provided land to the Arizona Eastern Railway in 1902 to construct a rail line between Phoenix and Florence, Arizona. Ayer's Grocery Store, the first store in Gilbert, opened in 1910 and became the location of the first post office in 1912.
The location of the town post office moved several times before settling on the east side of Gilbert Road in downtown, where it still stands today. In 1912, many Mormons who had fled the Mormon colonies in Mexico due to the actions of the forces of Pancho Villa settled in Gilbert. By 1915, they began holding church meetings at the Gilbert Elementary School. In 1918, they were organized into the Gilbert Ward. Incorporated in July 1920, Gilbert was a farming community fueled by the rail line and construction of the Roosevelt Dam and the Eastern and Consolidated Canals, it remained an agricultural town for many years and was known as the "Hay Capital of the World" from 1911 until the late 1920s. Gilbert is located in the southeast portion of the Phoenix metropolitan area, it is northeast of Chandler. According to the United States Census Bureau, in the 2000 Census, the town had an estimated area of 40 square miles; as of 2009, due to annexations the current Municipal Planning Area of Gilbert has a total area of 76.0 square miles, of which 75.76 square miles is land and 0.24 square miles is water.
Gilbert has a tropical and subtropical, hot desert type of climate with dry and hot summers, mild to warm winters, with a little amount of rainfall. As of the census of 2010, there were 208,453 people, 74,147 housing units, 3.01 persons per household. Fastest growing municipality in the United States from 1990–2003 4th fastest growing municipality in the United States Ranked by CNN's Money magazine in 2008 as one of the best places to live in the United States One of the top 25 safest cities in the United States 34.5% of Gilbert residents hold a bachelor's degree or higher. Highest household median income in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area with population 50,000+ According to Nielsen's Claritas demographics, in 2009 the racial makeup of the town was: 81.51% White 15.39% Hispanics or Latinos 3.08% Black or African American 0.79% Native American 4.70% Asian 0.23% Pacific Islander 5.97% from other races 3.73% from two or more races2009 estimated population data by gender/age: 31.37 average age male/female 50.22% male 30.03 est. average age 49.78% female 31.82 est. average age 37.14% population under 21 33.25% population under 18 70.01% population over 16 66.76% population over 18 62.86% population over 21 5.30% population over 652009 estimated population age 15+ by marital status: 20.87% never married 66.71% married, spouse present 2.23% married, spouse absent 2.11% widowed 8.07% divorced2009 estimated population age 25+ educational attainment: 92.33% high school/GED or higher 37.5% bachelor's degree or higher 10.46% master's degree or higher2009 estimated household by household income: $109,213 average household income $89,077 median household income $35,559 per capita Income 2.28% of families are below the poverty level Various religious denominations are represented in Gilbert.
The town has been known for its high population of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a fact evidenced by the building of [ dedicated March 2, 2014. According to the town's 2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: These performers have been associated with Gilbert: Elektrolytes, dance crew that won season 7 of America's Best Dance Crew Lydia, band Scary Kids Scaring Kids, band Lindsey Stirling, violinist and performer. Washington, DC-based CQ Press rated Gilbert the "safest municipality in Arizona, 25th safest in the nation."Since Gilbert remains incorporated as a town, it lacks the additional powers possessed by nearby Mesa and Chandler, which are incorporated as cities. For instance, Arizona towns do not have as much power to regulate utilities and construction within their borders as cities possess. Unlike most of its neighboring communities, Gilbert is theoretically vulnerable to annexation; the town is part of Arizona's 5th congressional district, represented by Republican and Gilbert resident Andy Biggs.
The mayor of Gilbert is Jenn Daniels. Gilbert is rated as a town of low crime. According to FBI records, Gilbert was the largest town in the United States with zero murders in 2005, 2007, 2014. Most of Gilbert is zoned to schools in the Gilbert Public Schools, while other portions are zoned to districts including the Chandler Unified School District, Mesa Public Schools, the Higley Unified School District
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of Arizona, with 1,626,000 people. It is the fifth most populous city in the United States, the most populous American state capital, the only state capital with a population of more than one million residents. Phoenix is the anchor of the Phoenix metropolitan area known as the Valley of the Sun, which in turn is part of the Salt River Valley; the metropolitan area is the 11th largest by population in the United States, with 4.73 million people as of 2017. Phoenix is the seat of Maricopa County and the largest city in the state at 517.9 square miles, more than twice the size of Tucson and one of the largest cities in the United States. Phoenix was settled in 1867 as an agricultural community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers and was incorporated as a city in 1881, it became the capital of Arizona Territory in 1889. It has a hot desert climate. Despite this, its canal system led to a thriving farming community with the original settler's crops remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades, such as alfalfa, cotton and hay.
Cotton, citrus and copper were known locally as the "Five C's" anchoring Phoenix's economy. These remained the driving forces of the city until after World War II, when high-tech companies began to move into the valley and air conditioning made Phoenix's hot summers more bearable; the city averaged a four percent annual population growth rate over a 40-year period from the mid-1960s to the mid-2000s. This growth rate slowed during the Great Recession of 2007–09, has rebounded slowly. Phoenix is the cultural center of the state of Arizona; the Hohokam people occupied the Phoenix area for 2,000 years. They created 135 miles of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable, paths of these canals were used for the Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, they carried out extensive trade with the nearby Ancient Puebloans and Sinagua, as well as with the more distant Mesoamerican civilizations. It is believed that periods of drought and severe floods between 1300 and 1450 led to the Hohokam civilization's abandonment of the area.
After the departure of the Hohokam, groups of Akimel O'odham, Tohono O'odham, Maricopa tribes began to use the area, as well as segments of the Yavapai and Apache. The O'odham were offshoots of the Sobaipuri tribe, who in turn were thought to be the descendants of the Hohokam; the Akimel O'odham were the major group in the area and lived in small villages, with well-defined irrigation systems that spread over the entire Gila River Valley, from Florence in the east to the Estrellas in the west. Their crops included corn and squash for food, while cotton and tobacco were cultivated, they banded together with the Maricopa for protection against incursions by the Yuma and Apache tribes. The Maricopa are part of the larger Yuma people; the Tohono O'odham lived in the region, as well, but their main concentration was to the south and stretched all the way to the Mexican border. The O'odham lived in small settlements as seasonal farmers who took advantage of the rains, rather than the large-scale irrigation of the Akimel.
They grew crops such as sweet corn, tapery beans, lentils, sugar cane, melons, as well as taking advantage of native plants such as saguaro fruits, cholla buds, mesquite tree beans, mesquite candy. They hunted local game such as deer and javelina for meat; the Mexican–American War ended in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern zone to the United States, residents of that region became U. S. citizens. The Phoenix area became part of the New Mexico Territory. In 1863, the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in Maricopa County, to the northwest of Phoenix. Maricopa County had not yet been incorporated; the Army created Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to forestall Indian uprisings. The fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866, the first settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam. Other nearby settlements merged to become the city of Tempe; the history of the city of Phoenix begins with Jack Swilling, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War.
He saw a potential for farming. He formed a small community that same year about four miles east of the city. Lord Darrell Duppa was one of the original settlers in Swilling's party, he suggested the name "Phoenix", as it described a city born from the ruins of a former civilization; the Board of Supervisors in Yavapai County recognized the new town on May 4, 1868, the first post office was established the following month with Swilling as the postmaster. On February 12, 1871, the territorial legislature created Maricopa County by dividing Yavapai County; the first election for county office was held in 1871. He ran unopposed; the town grew during the 1870s, President Ulysses S. Grant issued a land patent for the site of Phoenix on April 10, 1874. By 1875, the town had a telegraph office
Phoenix metropolitan area
The Phoenix Metropolitan Area – referred to as the Valley of the Sun, the Salt River Valley, or Metro Phoenix – is a metropolitan area, centered on the city of Phoenix, that includes much of the central part of the U. S. State of Arizona; the United States Office of Management and Budget designates the area as the Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale Metropolitan Statistical Area, defining it as Maricopa and Pinal counties. As of the Census Bureau's 2017 population estimates, Metro Phoenix had 4,737,270 residents, making it the 11th largest Metropolitan Area in the nation by population; the gross domestic product of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area was $242 billion in 2017, 16th largest amongst metro areas in the United States. It is one of the fastest growing major metropolitan areas, gaining nearly 600,000 residents from 2010 to 2017, nearly 1.4 million since 2000. The population of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area increased by 45.3% from 1990 through 2000, compared to the average United States rate of 13.2%, helping to make Arizona the second fastest growing state in the nation in the 1990s.
The 2000 Census reported the population of the metropolitan area to be 3,251,876. As for the 2010 Census, the two-county metropolitan area was reported to have a population of 4,192,887. Metro Phoenix grew by 941,011 people from April 2000 to April 2010, making it one of the fastest growing metro areas in the country; this contributed to the entire state's exceptional growth, as the area is home to just over two-thirds of Arizona's population. As of the 2010 census, there were 4,192,887 people, 1,537,137 households, 1,024,971 families residing within the MSA; the racial makeup of the MSA was 73.0% White, 5.0% Black, 3.3% Asian, 2.4% Native American or Alaska Native and 16.2% of other or mixed race. 29.5% were Hispanic of any race. In 2010 the median income for a household in the MSA was $50,385 and the median income for a family was $58,497; the per capita income was $24,809. What follows is a list of places in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area; the Office of Management and Budget defines a metropolitan area as the core city plus its county and any nearby counties that are economically dependent on the core city.
However, Arizona has large counties and a harsh, rugged desert landscape. For these reasons, much of the land, part of the Metropolitan Statistical Area is rural or uninhabited; the core part of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area is the Phoenix–Mesa, Arizona Urban Area, far smaller than the Metropolitan Statistical Area. Places that fall or within the boundaries of the Phoenix-Mesa, AZ UA are in bold below. Principal city Phoenix pop. 1,626,078Places with 250,000+ inhabitants Mesa pop. 496,401 Chandler pop. 253,458Places with 150,000–249,999 inhabitants Scottsdale pop. 249,950 Glendale pop. 246,709 Gilbert pop. 242,354 Tempe pop. 185,038 Peoria pop. 168,181Places with 75,000 to 149,999 inhabitants Surprise pop. 134,085 Avondale pop. 84,025 Goodyear pop. 79,858 Places with 30,000 to 74,999 inhabitants. 68,453 Casa Grande pop. 55,477 Maricopa pop. 48,007 Apache Junction pop. 40,538 Queen Creek pop. 39,184 El Mirage pop. 35,216Places with 10,000–29,999 inhabitants Florence pop. 26,074 Fountain Hills pop. 24,583 Eloy pop.
19,168 Paradise Valley pop. 14,293 Coolidge pop. 12,698Fewer than 10,000 inhabitants Wickenburg pop. 7,409 Tolleson pop. 7,205 Youngtown pop. 6,760 Guadalupe pop. 6,525 Litchfield Park pop. 6,009 Cave Creek pop. 5,622 Carefree pop. 3,783 Superior pop. 3,068 Kearny pop. 2,095 Gila Bend pop. 2,069 Mammoth pop. 1,611 Over 50,000 inhabitants San Tan Valley pop. 81,321Over 10,000 inhabitants Sun City pop. 37,499 Sun City West pop. 24,535 Anthem pop. 21,700 New River pop. 14,952 Sun Lakes pop. 13,975 Arizona City pop. 10,475 Gold Canyon pop. 10,159Under 10,000 inhabitants Aguila Ak-Chin Village Arlington Bapchule Cactus Forest Chuichu Circle City Eleven Mile Corner Komatke La Palma Liberty Morristown Olberg Palo Verde Queen Valley Rio Verde Sacaton Stanfield Tonopah Tortilla Flat Valley Farms Waddell Wintersburg Wittmann As of 2010, the Phoenix Metropolitan area consists of Maricopa and Pinal counties, comprising a total area of about 14,600 square miles. Because of the size of counties in Arizona though Maricopa and Pinal counties together contain nearly 4.5 million people, most of the area is uninhabited, which gives the MSA an low density compared to other major MSAs in the nation.
The average elevation is about 2,000 feet, with the highest point being 2,704 feet. The Phoenix Metropolitan area is notable for its warm, desert climate. On average, the area receives about 9 inches of rain annually, with less than 1 inch of snow every decade. In total, the region will see about 32 days of measurable precipitation each year; the MSA is one of the sunniest major metropolitan areas, receiving 295 days of sunshine, compared to the national average of 205. The average July high is about 104 °F, with the average January low being about 37 °F, still above freezing. Bestplaces gives the Phoenix Metropolitan Area a comfort index of 44/100, the national average. Below is a chart showing climate data collected from Sky Harbor Airport. Note that due to the vast area covered by the MSA, climates differ throughout the valley; the Phoenix Metropolitan area has been the center of the state's economy. As with the state of Arizona, the area relied on the 5 C's for its economic expansion. However, after World War II, the area entered the manufacturing industry, which spurred the growth of what would be one of the largest urban areas in the nation.
The two largest industries
Apache Junction, Arizona
Apache Junction is a city in Maricopa and Pinal counties in the state of Arizona. According to the 2017 U. S. Census estimates, the population of the city was 40,358. Apache Junction is named for the junction of the Apache Old West Highway. Superstition Mountain, the westernmost peak of the Superstition Mountains, is nearby. Apache Junction is at 33°24′54″N 111°32′46″W. Apache Junction is located in the Greater Phoenix Metropolitan area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of all land; the town is bounded by the Superstition Mountains on the east, the Goldfield Mountains with the Bulldog Recreation Area on the north and the city of Mesa on the west. Goldfield Ghost Town, a tourist location preserved from former prospecting days, lies near the western face of Superstition Mountain just off Highway 88, it is located just southwest of the site of the ghost town of Arizona. As of the census of 2010, there were 35,840 people, 15,574 households, 9,372 families residing in the city.
The population density was 929.3 people per square mile. There were 22,771 housing units at an average density of 665.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.5% White, 1.2% Black or African American, 1.1% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 4.9% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.4% of the population. There were 15,574 households out of which 19.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.8% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.85. In the city, the population had 19.9% under the age of 20, 4.5% from 20 to 24, 20.4% from 25 to 44, 27.1% from 45 to 64, 26.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47.5 years. The median income for a household in the city was $33,170, the median income for a family was $37,726.
Males had a median income of $31,283 versus $22,836 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,806. About 7.3% of families and 11.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.4% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. Apache Junction was incorporated as a city on November 24, 1978; the city is governed by a collection of elected officials and nine boards and commissions. The city council has seven members, which includes the vice-mayor; the mayor serves a two-year term. The current mayor is Jeff Serdy; this gallery includes images of some of the remaining historical structures located in Apache Junction. Among the exhibits on the grounds of the Superstition Mountain Museum are studio sets and other Western paraphernalia that were saved from the Apacheland fire of 1969. Apacheland was a 1,800-acre movie set which opened in 1960. Located in Apache junction is the ghost town of Goldfield. Goldfield was a mining town established in 1893 next to the Superstition Mountain.
When the mine vein faulted, the grade of ore dropped and the town became a ghost town. The town and its historic buildings were revived as a tourist attraction. Historic Apache Junction, Arizona Official website Arizona Renaissance Festival Local Weather Conditions Apache Junction Communities
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti