Kfar Saba Kefar Sava, is a city in the Sharon region, of the Central District of Israel. In 2017 it had a population of 100,039; the origins of the name are not known - in Hebrew and Aramaic it means'grandfather's village'. Kfar Saba was an important settlement during the Second Temple period in ancient Judea, is mentioned for the first time in the writings of Josephus, in his account of the attempt of Alexander Jannaeus to halt an invasion from the North led by Antiochus. Kfar Saba appears in the Talmud in connection to the Capharsaba sycamore fig tree. Kfar Saba is mentioned in the Mosaic of Rehob, the oldest known Talmudic text, which dates from around the 3rd century C. E. Excavations on the site have revealed the remains of a large Roman bathhouse. In the Byzantine periods the ruins of the bathhouse were first converted into fish pools, into some form of industrial installation. Following the Muslim conquest of the Levant in the 7th century, the Arab village of Kafr Saba was established in the area.
Around 985 C. E. Al-Muqaddasi described it as a village with a large mosque on the road to Damascus. In 1047, Nasir-i-Khusraw described it as a town on the road to Ramla rich in olive trees; the village continued to exist during the Ottoman Empire's rule over the Levant. In 1596, Kafr Saba was inhabited by 42 Muslim families. In the 1870s it was described as "a mud village of moderate size with mud-ponds around it and good water in the wells of Neby Yemin, to the east."In 1898, the Jewish town of Kfar Saba was established as a moshava on 7,500 dunams of land purchased from the Arab village. Despite attractive advertisements in Jerusalem and London, attempts to sell plots to private individuals were unsuccessful, as the land was located in a desolate, neglected area far from any other Jewish settlement; the Ottoman pasha of Nablus, to whose governorate the land belonged, refused to give building permits, therefore the first settlers lived in huts made of clay and straw. They earned their living by growing almonds and olives.
A well was dug in 1906. Most of the manual laborers on the land were peasants from Qalqilya. In 1910, an Arab guard employed by the landowners shot at a group of almond thieves from Qalqilya, killing one. An Arab mob descended on Kfar Saba, beating residents and looting equipment, taking two Jewish guards prisoner; the situation was defused when reinforcements from Petah Tikva arrived, a peace was negotiated. This attack drew widespread public attention among Jews in Palestine and around the world, it was subsequently decided to turn Kfar Saba into a permanent settlement without building permits. In 1912, the construction of twelve single-story permanent houses began along a route, now Herzl Street; the houses were camouflaged due to the lack of building permits. Construction was finished in 1913; when World War I broke out in 1914, the Ottoman authorities harassed the residents, confiscating work animals and crops. The 1915 Palestine locust infestation destroyed vegetation in the area. Before Kfar Saba had recovered, about a thousand Jewish refugees of the Tel Aviv and Jaffa deportation who were seeking shelter arrived.
The town's few houses could not accommodate the large number of refugees, many died due to the harsh sanitary conditions. In the Palestine Campaign of the war, Kfar Saba was on the front line between General Edmund Allenby's British Army and the Ottoman Army for a year, by the time of the British victory in September 1918, it had been destroyed. Following Kfar Saba's destruction in World War I, residents began rebuilding the town. During the 1921 Jaffa riots, Kfar Saba a small and isolated town, was evacuated on orders of the Haganah, it was attacked during the riots. In May 1921 the original residents found their homes had been looted and burned, they began to rebuild the town for a third time, it recovered. In 1924 additional settlers joined Kfar Saba. In this period the moshava began to redevelop as cultivation of citrus fruit began, replacing almonds; the first elections for the local council were held. In 1930, the town had a population of 1,405 people living in 207 homes, as well as about 2,000 dunams of orchards.
The 1930s saw great development in Kfar Saba, but it suffered attacks during the Great Arab Revolt of 1936-1939. In 1939, the town had a population of 3,000; the town continued to expand during the 1940s. From 1943 onward, it began absorbing Jewish refugees from Europe fleeing the Holocaust, immigrants from Yemen and Turkey. New housing units were built to accommodate them. In 1945, the "Onim" youth village was established in Kfar Saba. During the 1940s, Haganah and Lehi branches operated in Kfar Saba. In August 1947, a Jewish man was found shot to death outside the town. In December 1947, as the Civil War in Palestine between the Arab and Jewish communities got underway and Jewish leaders in the area pledged to keep the peace between the local communities. In the following months, Kfar Saba was attacked by local Arab militia from nearby Kafr Saba; the Arab Liberation Army, an army consisting of volunteers from several neighboring Arab countries, sent troops to aid in these attacks. Kfar Saba was subjected to Arab attacks from other Arab villages in the area.
Jewish workers were attacked on their way to work in the fields, attempts were made to cut its transport links. On May 13, 1948, one day before Israeli independence was declared, Jewish forces captured the Arab village of Kafr Saba; the Arab population fled ahead of the Jewish forces. In May 1948, when Israeli independence was declared, Kfar Saba had a population of 5,500. Following the war, it expanded as
Bat Yam is a city located on Israel's Mediterranean Sea coast, on the central coastal strip, just south of Tel Aviv. Part of the Gush Dan metropolitan area in Tel Aviv District, the city had a population of 128,655 in 2017. Bat Yam was established in 1926 as Bayit VeGan. During the 1929 Palestine riots, the town was attacked by Palestinian fighters from Jaffa and was evacuated by British Authorities.. In 1930, it was re-settled. In 1936, it was granted local council status. In 1937 it was renamed Bat Yam. By 1945, 2,000 Jews were living in Bat Yam. According to the Jewish National Fund, in 1947 it had a population of 4,000. Following the United Nations vote in favour of a partition plan on November 29, 1947 and the subsequent civil war, inhabitants of both Bat Yam and Jaffa reported violent incidents, including sniping. On May 13, 1948, Jaffa surrendered to Jewish forces. In the years following Israel's creation, Bat Yam grew due to mass immigration and gained city status in 1958. A small Hasidic enclave of Bobover Hasidim, known as Kiryat Bobov, was established in 1959.
The city gained a sizeable community of Jews from Turkey. Bat Yam again experienced a period of rapid growth in the early 1980s to the late 1990s with the mass immigration of Jews from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia. There is a small Arab community in Bat Yam, both Muslim and Christian, many of whom relocated from Jaffa; the vast majority of Israelis of Vietnamese origin live in Bat Yam. Bat Yam is expected to lose its status as an independent municipality and become a part of neighboring Tel Aviv; the Israeli Interior Ministry aims to incorporate the city into Tel Aviv in 2023. In the early 2000s, following financial scandals under the leadership of Yehoshua Sagi, the city was on the brink of bankruptcy. In 2003 a new mayor, Shlomo Lahiani, was elected and the city began to rejuvenate. Large investments were made in education and the appearance of the city.. In the 2008 municipal elections, Shlomo Lahiani was re-elected mayor of Bat Yam with 86% of the vote. In 2014, Lahiani pleaded guilty to three counts of breach of public trust after being charged with bribery and income tax fraud.
In 2008 the Bat-Yam International Biennale of Landscape Urbanism, devoted to re-examining urban spaces through art and architecture, was held in Bat Yam. In 2010 the second Biennale, "Timing" took place, which featured site-specific installations from designers and architects from around the world; the city has two shopping malls, Kanyon Bat Yam, which opened in 1993, Kanyon Bat Yamon. The location of Bat Yam on the Mediterranean makes it popular with beach-goers. Bat Yam has a 3.2 km long promenade along the ocean lined with restaurants. The city has six beaches, one of, protected by a breakwater; the Museum of Bat Yam exhibits contemporary art. Other museums include the Ben Ari Museum and Ryback Museum that houses the work of Issachar Ber Ryback. There is a museum in the memory of the Yiddish writer Sholem Asch, who lived his last years in Bat Yam, a small Holocaust museum. Bat Yam-Yoseftal Railway Station and Bat Yam-Komemiyut Railway Station opened in 2011 as part of the new Tel Aviv – Rishon LeZion West line.
Bat Yam will be the terminus for the red line of the Tel Aviv Light Rail. The city's major football club, Maccabi Ironi Bat Yam plays in Liga Leumit, the third level of Israeli football; the club was formed by a 2004 merger of Maccabi Bat Yam. Bat Yam's Al Gal beach is regarded to be one of the best surfing spots in the region, having consistent surf conditions during the summer months. Bat Yam is twinned with: Sholem Asch, Yiddish writer Michael Barkai, Commander of the Israeli Navy Henryk Hechtkopf, illustrator Elana Eden, actress Meir Dagan, Director of the Mossad Rita Katz, terrorism analyst Shlomo Lahiani, mayor of Bat Yam David D'Or, singer and songwriter Achinoam Nini, singer Matt Haimovitz, US cellist Itzik Zohar, soccer player Peter Roth, pop singer and composer Miri Ben-Ari, hip hop violinist Vered "Vardush" Buskila, Olympic sailor Shay Abutbul, soccer player Tomer Chencinski, Israeli–Canadian soccer player Yohai Aharoni, soccer player Gal Shish, soccer player Moshe Biton, soccer player Sharon Farber, composer Official website Surfing in Bat-Yam
Haifa is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv – with a population of 281,087 in 2017. The city of Haifa forms part of the Haifa metropolitan area, the second- or third-most populous metropolitan area in Israel, it is home to the Bahá'í World Centre, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a destination for Bahá'í pilgrims. Built on the slopes of Mount Carmel, the settlement has a history spanning more than 3,000 years; the earliest known settlement in the vicinity was Tell Abu Hawam, a small port city established in the Late Bronze Age. In the 3rd century CE, Haifa was known as a dye-making center. Over the millennia, the Haifa area has changed hands: being conquered and ruled by the Canaanites, Phoenicians, Hasmoneans, Byzantines, Crusaders and the British. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the Haifa Municipality has governed the city; as of 2016, the city is a major seaport located on Israel's Mediterranean coastline in the Bay of Haifa covering 63.7 square kilometres.
It is the major regional center of northern Israel. According to researcher Jonathan Kis-Lev, Haifa is considered a relative haven for coexistence between Jews and Arabs. Two respected academic institutions, the University of Haifa and the Technion, are located in Haifa, in addition to the largest k-12 school in Israel, the Hebrew Reali School; the city plays an important role in Israel's economy. It is home to Matam, one of the largest high-tech parks in the country. Haifa Bay is a center of petroleum refining and chemical processing. Haifa functioned as the western terminus of an oil pipeline from Iraq via Jordan; the ultimate origin of the name Haifa remains unclear. One theory holds; some Christians believe. Another theory holds it could be derived from the Hebrew verb root חפה, meaning to cover or shield, i.e. Mount Carmel covers Haifa. Other spellings in English included Caipha, Caiffa and Khaifa; the earliest named settlement within the area of modern-day Haifa was a city known as Sycaminum.
The remains of the ancient town can be found in a coastal tell, or archaeological mound, known in Hebrew as Tel Shikmona, meaning "mound of the Ficus sycomorus", in Arabic as Tell el-Semak or Tell es-Samak, meaning "mound of the sumak trees", names that preserved and transformed the ancient name, by which the town is mentioned once in the Mishnah for the wild fruits that grow around it. The name Efa first appears during Roman rule, some time after the end of the 1st century, when a Roman fortress and small Jewish settlement were established not far from Tel Shikmona. Haifa is mentioned more than 100 times in the Talmud, a work central to Judaism. Hefa or Hepha in Eusebius of Caesarea's 4th-century work, Onomasticon, is said to be another name for Sycaminus; this synonymizing of the names is explained by Moshe Sharon, who writes that the twin ancient settlements, which he calls Haifa-Sycaminon expanded into one another, becoming a twin city known by the Greek names Sycaminon or Sycaminos Polis.
References to this city end with the Byzantine period. Around the 6th century, Porphyreon or Porphyrea is mentioned in the writings of William of Tyre, while it lies within the area covered by modern Haifa, it was a settlement situated south of Haifa-Sycaminon. Following the Arab conquest in the 7th century, Haifa was used to refer to a site established on Tel Shikmona upon what were the ruins of Sycaminon. Haifa is mentioned by the mid-11th-century Persian chronicler Nasir Khusraw, the 12th- and 13th-century Arab chroniclers, Muhammad al-Idrisi and Yaqut al-Hamawi; the Crusaders, who captured Haifa in the 12th century, call it Caiphas, believe its name related to Cephas, the Aramaic name of Simon Peter. Eusebius is said to have referred to Hefa as Caiaphas civitas, Benjamin of Tudela, the 12th-century Jewish traveller and chronicler, is said to have attributed the city's founding to Caiaphas, the Jewish high priest at the time of Jesus. Haifa al-'Atiqa is another name used by some locals to refer to Tell es-Samak, when it was the site of Haifa while a hamlet of 250 residents, before it was moved in 1764-5 to a new fortified site founded by Zahir al-Umar 1.5 miles to the east.
The new village, the nucleus of modern Haifa, was first called al-imara al-jadida by some, but others residing there called it Haifa al-Jadida at first, simply Haifa. In the early 20th century, Haifa al'Atiqa was repopulated with many Arab Christians in an overall neighborhood in which many Middle Eastern Jews were established inhabitants, as Haifa expanded outward from its new location. A town known today, it was a fishing village. Mount Carmel and the Kishon River are mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. A grotto on the top of Mount Carmel is known as the "Cave of Elijah", traditionally linked to the Prophet Elijah and his apprentice, Elisha. In Arabic, the highest peak of the Carmel range is called the Muhraka, or "place of burning," harking back to the burnt offerings and sacrifices there in Canaanite and early Israelite times In the 6th c
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Arraba known as'Arrabat al-Battuf, is an Arab city in Israel. It is located in the Lower Galilee in the Northern District, within Sakhnin valley, adjacent to Sakhnin and Deir Hanna, climbing a bit on Yodfat range to its south, while owning some lands south of that in the Beit Netofa Valley to the north of Nazareth area. Arraba attained local council status in 1965, city status in 2016. In 2017 its population was 24,972; the symbol of the local council is an onion, a watermelon and a cantaloupe which symbolize the crops for which Arraba is famous. Throughout history Arraba was an agricultural village depending on the al-Batuf Plain to grow crops; however the dependence on agriculture is declining due to the rise in population, urbanization and a subsequently more modern lifestyle. Arraba is associated with the Jewish village called Arab, mentioned in Josephus' writings by its pronunciation in the Greek, but in the Mishnah and the Jerusalem Talmud as Arab; the Rabbi and scholar, Yohanan ben Zakkai, is said to have lived there eighteen years.
During the Jewish war with Rome, Vespasian sacked the city, killing those of its Jewish citizens who had not fled. The place is presumed to have been resettled by Jews in the third-fourth centuries, since the town is mentioned as being the place of residence of one of the priestly courses known as Pethahiah, as inscribed in the Caesarea Inscription. In the 5th or 6th century CE there were Christians living here, as witnessed by a church whose mosaic floor and inscription have been unearthed. In the Crusader era, it was known as Arabiam. In 1174 it was one of the casalia given to Phillipe le Rous. In 1236 descendants of Phillipe le Rous confirmed the sale of the fief of Arraba. In 1250 it was one of the casalia belonging to a Crusader order. In the 13th century Arrabah is mentioned by Syria geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi in his famous work Mu'jam al-Buldān, as a "place in the province of Acca"; the village was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517 with all of Palestine, in 1596 Arraba appeared in the tax registers as being in the Nahiya of Tabariyya, part of Sanjak Safad.
It had an all Muslim population of 2 bachelors. The villagers paid a fixed tax rate of 20% on wheat, summer crops or fruit trees and goats or beehives. 1/4 of the revenue went to a waqf. At some point in the mid-17th century the Zayadina, an Arab Muslim tribe, immigrated to Arraba, its sheikh acquired control of the town and its district after wresting control of the area from the Druze sheikh of Sallama. Sallama and other Druze villages in the vicinity were subsequently destroyed, Druze suzerainty over the Shaghur district came to an end and the Zayadina gained significant influence in the area, including the role of tax collector of Shaghur on behalf of the Ottoman wali of Sidon Province. Arraba became home to Zahir al-Umar, a sheikh of the Zayadina tribe. According to local legend, he sought refuge there after killing a Turkish soldier, he won the support of the local sheikh, Muhammad Nasser, by helping him settle a score with a neighboring village, which set off a series of campaigns that led to the conquest of the entire Galilee.
A building said. In 1838, Arabeh was noted as a Muslim and Christian village in the Esh-Shagur district, located between Safad and Tiberias. In 1875 Victor Guérin found Arrabah to have 900 Muslim inhabitants and 100 Greek-Orthodox Christians. In the 1881 the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine, Arrabet al Buttauf was described as "A large stone-built village, containing about 1,000 Moslems and Christians, surrounded by groves of olives and arable land. Water is obtained from cisterns; this was the place where Dhaher el Amr´s family was founded, was long occupied by them."A population list from about 1887 showed that Arrabet had 970 inhabitants. In the 1922 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Arrabeh had a population of 984, 937 Muslim and 47 Christian, of the Christians, 42 were Melkite, 4 Orthodox and one was Anglican. At the time of the 1931 census, Arraba had 253 occupied houses and a population of 1187 Muslims and 37 Christians. In the 1945 statistics the population was 1,800.
3,290 dunams were used for plantations and irrigable land, 14,736 dunams for cereals, while 140 dunams were built-up land. In 1948, during Operation Hiram, the town surrendered to the advancing Israeli army. Many of the inhabitants fled; the village remained under Martial Law until 1966. Arraba was home to the first Land Day demonstrations in 1976. Together with Sakhnin and Deir Hanna it forms. Israel's reaction to control the protest was forceful and six people were killed by Israeli police. On March 11, 1976, the Israeli government published an expropriation plan including lands in the Galilee for official use, it affected some 20,000 dunams of land between the Arab villages of Arraba. The land was said to be used for security purposes, but was used to build new Jewish settlements. David McDowall identifies the resumption of land seizures in the Galilee and the acceleration of land expropriations in the West Bank in the mid-1970s as the immediate catalyst for both the Land Day demonstration and simila
Israeli occupation of the West Bank
The Israeli occupation of the West Bank began on 7 June 1967 during the Six-Day War when Israel occupied the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, continues to the present day. The status of the West Bank as an occupied territory has been affirmed by the International Court of Justice and, with the exception of East Jerusalem, by the Israeli Supreme Court, The official Israeli government view is that the law of occupation does not apply and it claims the territories are "disputed". Considered to be a classic example of an "intractable" conflict, the length of Israel's occupation was regarded as exceptional after two decades and is now the longest in modern history. Israel has cited several reasons for retaining the West Bank within its ambit: a claim based on the notion of historic rights to this as a homeland as affirmed in the Balfour Declaration; the most researched modern conflict, controversies abound as to what terminology is the most appropriate, with pro-Israeli sources favouring one set of terms and the Palestinian Authority advocating a different nomenclature.
How the media portrays the conflict, the implications of keywords that dominate the different viewpoints, has led to arguments protesting either a systematic pro-Israeli bias or prejudice against Israel. The domain of public discussion is subject to debate, with some organizations saying that pro-Israeli Jewish students are subject to vilification and harassment on campus, while others note that proposed talks on campus concerning Palestinian issues can be rescinded for fears that audiences might not be able to objectively eavluate the material. Attempts have been made to silence several high-profile critics of Israeli policies in the territories, giving rise to anxieties that the topic itself is at risk, that the political pressures circumscribing research and discussion undermine academic freedom. Among the most controversial policies enacted as part of its occupation, Israel has established numerous Israeli settlements throughout the West Bank, including East Jerusalem; the international community considers these settlements illegal under international law, though Israel disputes this.
The United Nations Security Council has reaffirmed that settlements in that territory are void of legality and are a "flagrant violation of international law", most with United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334. The creation and ongoing expansion of the settlements have led to Israel's policies being criticized as an example of colonialism. Israel has been accused of exercising methods of control in its administration of the occupation that constitute major violations of International human rights law. Israeli settlers and civilians travelling through the West Bank are subject to Israeli civilian law while Palestinian civilians are subject to military law, leading to comparisons to apartheid; the occupation has numerous critics in Israel itself, with some Israel Defense Forces draftees refusing to serve due to their objections to the occupation. Terminology bias, it has been argued, is written into reportage about the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, with concerns over language manipulation expressed, with Peter Beinart suggesting there was a pattern of Orwellian "linguistic fraud and a culture of euphemism" at work- Each party has its preferred set of descriptive words.
The word "occupation", once current, has slipped from view in US mainstream reportage, is taboo. A survey of British newspapers readers in 2001 found that only 9% knew that Israel occupied the Palestinian territories; the West Bank vs Samaria. The way the conflict is reported are extensively monitoring and analysed: in addition to Israel's public diplomacy, intent on countering negative press images, there are many private pro-Israeli organizations, among them CAMERA, FLAME, HonestReporting, Palestinian Media Watch, Canary Mission and the Anti-Defamation League which claim much reportage is distorted; the term Pallywood was coined to suggest that Palestinian coverage of their plight is manipulative fake news. John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt have argued that United States media coverage, compared to other countries, tilts in Israel's favour; this view that American media are biased against Palestinians has been challenged by authors who cite research that concluded most mainstream media have a "liberal" bias, a criticism extended to European outlets like Le Monde and the BBC.
Internal Israeli studies have argued that local press coverage has traditionally been conservative, reflecting the tendentious and biased views of the political and military establishment, similar tendencies have been noted in Palestinian reportage. Tamar Liebes, former director of the Smart Institute of Communication at the Hebrew University, argued that Israeli "Journalists and publishers see themselves as actors within the Zionist movement, not as critical outsiders"; the explosive expansion of the Internet has opened up a larger sphere of controversy, with digital forensics on social networks revealing pro
Baqa al-Gharbiyye is a predominantly Arab city in the Haifa District of Israel, located near the Green Line. In 2003, Baqa al-Gharbiyye united with the Jatt local council to form Baqa-Jatt, a unification, dissolved a few years later; the city had a population of 29,035 in 2017. Pottery remains from the Intermediate Bronze Age, Iron Age II and Hellenistic era have been found here. An olive press, quarries and a winepress seeming to date to the Hellenistic or Early Roman period have been found. Ceramic objects from the late Roman or early Byzantine periods have been found, a burial cave, with remains dating to Byzantine and the beginning of the Umayyad periods. In 1265 Sultan Baibars divided the village between the emirs'Ala' al-Din Taibars al-Zahiri and Ala' al-Din'Ali al-Tunkuzi when the villages of Palestine were divided and given to the fighters who fought against the Crusaders. Baqa was mentioned in an Ottoman document in 1538, as a five-family small village with 11 non-married people. In 1596, Baqa al-Gharbiyye appeared in Ottoman tax registers as being in the Nahiya of Jabal Shami, part of the Sanjak of Nablus.
It had a population of 5 Muslim households who paid a fixed tax rate of 33,3% on wheat, summer crops, goats or beehives, a press for olives or grapes. Half of the revenue went to the waqf of al-Haramayn as-Sarifayn. In 1799, Pierre Jacotin misplaced Atil instead of Baka, on his map made during the French campaign in Egypt and Syria. In 1838 it was noted as a village, the west, in the western Esh-Sha'rawiyeh administrative region, north of Nablus. In 1870, the French explorer Victor Guérin visited the village, he described it as standing on a low hill. A few wells and cisterns looked ancient, the rest had a modern appearance, he estimated the population to be 1500. In 1882 the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Baqa al-Gharbiyye as a village of moderate size white and conspicuous, it had a few olive trees, orchards to the south. In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Baqa Gharbiyeh had a population of 1,443. In the 1931 census of Palestine, Baqa was recorded as having a population of 1,640 Muslims living in 403 houses.
These numbers included the nearby smaller locality El Manshiya. Like other Palestinian villages a strict British martial law controlled the village; when the battles reached a peak in 1938 a state of emergency was declared by Britain and tough collective punishment was imposed on every village where militants were found. A British military camp was established near the al-Madrasa al-Foqa School. On 25 August 1938 a clash took place between British troops and local militants and resulted in an armed battle which resulted two dead British officers and injuring three militants; the same day British military forces stormed the village and larger battles begun and continued until next day morning by which British losses raised to three. The next day, 26 August 1938, the British ordered the villagers to leave homes without taking anything with them and those to refused were taken out by force, they were driven to a nearby camp. On raids over the village started and continued until evening, leaving a great devastation for such a small village then: most of the wooden homes were burnt and over 70 homes were flattened.
After the raids were over the villagers were forced to walk to the Nur al-Shams Camp near Tulkarm. The next day the villagers returned to the village to find out the huge damage that occurred to Baqa, the news spread out in the Palestinian cities; this was one of the largest British attacks on a Palestinian village during the revolt. In the 1945 statistics the population of Baqa al-Gharbiyye consisted of 2,240 Muslims with a total land area of 21,116 dunams, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 861 dunams were designated for plantations and irrigable land, 18,986 for cereals, while 76 dunams were built-up areas. In the early years of Israeli independence, Baqa al-Gharbiyye was one of the headquarters of the Israeli military administration; the land holdings of the town, 21,116 dunams in 1945, were reduced to 8,228 dunams by 1962 due to expropriation in 1953–1954. In 1963, the Baka canning plant went into partnership with Priman, an Israeli company that relocated to Baqa al-Gharibiyye.
In 1996, Baqa al-Gharbiyye was declared a city. In 2003 it was combined with the nearby town Jatt to become the city of Baqa-Jatt. Baqa al-Gharbiyye is separated from its West Bank sister city, Baqa ash-Sharqiyya, by the Israeli West Bank barrier which in this section coincides with the Green Line; as a result, a concrete wall topped with barbed wire runs through one neighbourhood. As the Israeli foreign minister in April and June 2008, Tzipi Livni raised the possibility of territorial exchange with Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas, she proposed transferring Israeli Arab communities, among them Baqa al-Garbiyeh, to the Palestinian side of the border. The Palestinians rejected the proposal. In 2003, the official population was 24,000. Together with Jatt the estimated population is 32,500; the ethnic makeup of the city is Muslim Arab, with no Jewish population and some European and foreign exceptions. The city is made up of 49 % females. Baqa has a population growth rate of 3.1%. The population of the city is spread out with 48.6% 19 years of age or younger, 18.4% between 20 and 29, 18.9% between 30 and 44, 9.5% from 45 to 59, 1.8% from 60 to 64, 2.8% 65 years of age or older.
According to CBS, 47.8% of 12th grade students were entit