Wichita is the largest city in the U. S. state of Kansas and the county seat of Sedgwick County. As of 2017, the estimated population of the city was 390,591. Wichita is the principal city of the Wichita metropolitan area which had an estimated population of 644,610 in 2015. Located in south-central Kansas on the Arkansas River, Wichita began as a trading post on the Chisholm Trail in the 1860s and was incorporated as a city in 1870, it became a destination for cattle drives traveling north from Texas to Kansas railroads, earning it the nickname "Cowtown."In the 1920s and'30s, businessmen and aeronautical engineers established aircraft manufacturing companies in Wichita, including Beechcraft and Stearman Aircraft. The city became a U. S. aircraft production hub known as "The Air Capital of the World." Textron Aviation, Learjet and Spirit AeroSystems continue to operate design and manufacturing facilities in Wichita, the city remains a major center of the American aircraft industry. Wichita is home to McConnell Air Force Base, Wichita Dwight D. Eisenhower National Airport, the largest airport in Kansas.
As an industrial hub, Wichita is a regional center of culture and trade. It hosts several universities, large museums, theaters and entertainment venues, notably Intrust Bank Arena and Century II Performing Arts & Convention Center; the city's Old Cowtown Museum maintains historical artifacts and exhibits on the city's early history. Wichita State University is the third-largest post-secondary institution in the state. Archaeological evidence indicates human habitation near the confluence of the Arkansas and Little Arkansas Rivers, the site of present-day Wichita, as early as 3000 B. C. In 1541, a Spanish expedition led by explorer Francisco Vázquez de Coronado found the area populated by the Quivira, or Wichita, people. Conflict with the Osage in the 1750s drove the Wichita further south. Prior to American settlement of the region, the site was located in the territory of the Kiowa. Claimed first by France as part of Louisiana and acquired by the United States with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, it became part of Kansas Territory in 1854 and the state of Kansas in 1861.
The Wichita returned in 1864 due to the American Civil War and established a settlement on the banks of the Little Arkansas. During this period, trader Jesse Chisholm established a trading post at the site, one of several along a trail extending south to Texas which became known as the Chisholm Trail. After the war, the Wichita permanently relocated south to Indian Territory. In 1868, trader James R. Mead established another trading post at the site, surveyor Darius Munger built a house for use as a hotel, community center, post office. Business opportunities attracted area hunters and traders, a new settlement began to form; that summer and others organized the Wichita Town Company, naming the settlement after the Wichita tribe. In 1870, Munger and German immigrant William "Dutch Bill" Greiffenstein filed plats laying out the city's first streets. Wichita formally incorporated as a city on July 21, 1870. Wichita's position on the Chisholm Trail made it a destination for cattle drives traveling north from Texas to access railroads which led to markets in eastern U.
S. cities. The Atchison and Santa Fe Railway reached the city in 1872; as a result, Wichita became a railhead for the cattle drives, earning it the nickname "Cowtown". Across the Arkansas River, the town of Delano became an entertainment destination for cattlemen thanks to its saloons and lack of law enforcement; the area had a reputation for violence until local lawmen, Wyatt Earp among them, began to assertively police the cowboys. By the end of the decade, the cattle trade had moved west to Dodge City. Wichita annexed Delano in 1880. Rapid immigration resulted in a speculative land boom in the late 1880s, stimulating further expansion of the city. Fairmount College, which grew into Wichita State University, opened in 1886. By 1890, Wichita had become the third-largest city in the state after Kansas City and Topeka with a population of nearly 24,000. After the boom, the city entered an economic recession, many of the original settlers went bankrupt. In 1914 and 1915, deposits of oil and natural gas were discovered in nearby Butler County.
This triggered another economic boom in Wichita as producers established refineries, fueling stations, headquarters in the city. By 1917, there were five operating refineries in Wichita with another seven built in the 1920s; the careers and fortunes of future oil moguls Archibald Derby, who founded Derby Oil, Fred C. Koch, who established what would become Koch Industries, both began in Wichita during this period; the money generated by the oil boom enabled local entrepreneurs to invest in the nascent airplane manufacturing industry. In 1917, Clyde Cessna built his Cessna Comet in the first aircraft built in the city. In 1920, two local oilmen invited Chicago aircraft builder Emil "Matty" Laird to manufacture his designs in Wichita, leading to the formation of the Swallow Airplane Company. Two early Swallow employees, Lloyd Stearman and Walter Beech, went on to found two prominent Wichita-based companies, Stearman Aircraft in 1926 and Beechcraft in 1932, respectively. Cessna, started his own company in Wichita in 1927.
The city became such a center of the industry that the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce dubbed it the "Air Capital of the World" in 1929. Over the following decades and aircraft manufacturing continued to drive expansion of the city. In 1934, Stearman's Wichita facilities became part of Boeing which would become the city's largest employer. I
Olathe is the county seat of Johnson County, United States. It is the fourth most populous city in Kansas. With a 2010 population of 125,872. By 2017, the Census Bureau estimated Olathe's population had grown to 137,472, it is the headquarters of Garmin. Olathe was founded by Dr. John T. Barton in the spring of 1857, he rode to the center of Johnson County and staked two quarter sections of land as the town site. He described his ride to friends: "...the prairie was covered with verbena and other wild flowers. I kept thinking the land was beautiful and that I should name the town Beautiful." Purportedly, Barton asked a Shawnee interpreter. The interpreter responded, "Olathe."Olathe was incorporated in 1857, while not the first city in Johnson County, its rapid growth lead to it being named the county seat in October 1859. Rising tensions across the nation over the issue of slavery lead to numerous clashes between abolitionists settlers and neighboring slave state Missouri; these clashes would further escalate and become a part of the greater conflict known as Bleeding Kansas.
With the admission of Kansas into the Union as a free state in 1861, violence began to dissipate. Peace, would continue to elude Olathe for many years to come. In 1861 Union officials and local military forces created a military post in the city, it housed one company of troops along with the local militia. On September 6, 1862, William Quantrill led a surprise raid of guerrillas Confederates against the city, which resulted in a half dozen deaths and the destruction of most of the city. Quantrill tried forcing the men to swear an oath to the Confederacy; the oath was deemed invalid in November 1862 since the guerrillas were not considered legitimate enemy military units. Kansas militia continued to occupy the Olathe military post through the rest of the Civil War. Confederate forces would attempt two further raids against the city; the first happened on August 20–21, 1863 as Quantrill was passing through on his way to Lawrence, Kansas. The second raid occurred October 24-5, 1864, when Confederate Major General Sterling Price, with a force of 10,000 men passed through on their retreat South.
With the Confederate surrender, the military post was decommissioned in August 1865. Olathe served as a stop on the Oregon Trail, the California Trail, the Santa Fe Trail. Catering to travelers was the main source of income for local stores and businesses; the Mahaffie House, a popular resupply point for wagons headed westward, is today a registered historical site maintained by the City of Olathe. The staff wears period costumes, stagecoach rides and farm animals make the site a favorite among children. Visitors can participate in Civil War re-enactments, Wild West Days, other activities. After the construction of the transcontinental railroad, the trails to the west lost importance, Olathe faded into obscurity and remained a small, sleepy prairie town. In the 1950s, the construction of the Interstate Highway system and, more directly, I-35, linked Olathe to nearby Kansas City; the result was tremendous residential growth as Olathe became a part of the Kansas City metropolitan area. In the 1980s, Olathe experienced tremendous commercial growth, which drew more residents.
It is estimated that Olathe's population surpassed 100,000 in 2001, current projections show Olathe's growth continuing as the city expands into the farm fields south and north of town. In 2008, the U. S. Census Bureau ranked Olathe the 24th fastest-growing city in the nation; the same year, CNN/Money and Money magazine ranked Olathe #11 on its list of the "100 Best Cities to Live in the United States."On February 22, 2017, Adam Purinton made racial statements and opened fire at crowded Austins Bar and Grill in southern Olathe and injuring three people, one fatally. The victims were identified as Alok Madasani, Srinivas Kuchibhotla, Ian Grillot. Purinton was arrested in Clinton, Missouri, he was charged with one count of first-degree murder and two counts of attempted first-degree murder. This shooting gained international attention. Despite efforts by preservationists, Olathe city officials committed to upscale apartment development and county government expansion projects have fast-tracked demolition of 19th century historic homes and neighborhoods, including the Hubbard House, a Greek Revival landmark built in 1887 by an early Olathe surveyor, reduced to rubble in less than an hour in January, 2018 despite a petition signed by more than 6,000 local residents.
Artifacts from the home, including a grandfather clock and clawfoot tub, were retained for display in a future apartment clubhouse. Olathe is bordered by the cities of Lenexa to the north, Overland Park to the east, De Soto to the northwest, Gardner to the southwest. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 60.42 square miles of which 59.66 square miles is land and 0.76 square miles is water. Olathe has two public lakes: Lake Olathe with 172 acres of water surface and Cedar Lake with 45 acres. Olathe's Black Bob Park is named after Hathawekela Shawnee Chief Black Bob. Olathe has a humid continental climate, with hot summers. Temperatures range from an average high of 39 °F and low 20 °F in January to an average high of nearly 90 °F in July; the temperature reaches 90 °F an average of 36 days per year and 100 °F an average of 3 days per year. The minimum temperature falls below freezing an average of 102 days per year, but drops below 10 °F
Dodge City, Kansas
Dodge City is the county seat of Ford County, United States, named after nearby Fort Dodge. The city is famous in American culture for its history as a wild frontier town of the Old West; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 27,340. Fort Mann was the first settlement of nonindigenous people in the area that became Dodge City, built by civilians in 1847 to provide protection for travelers on the Santa Fe Trail. Fort Mann collapsed in 1848 after an Indian attack. In 1850, the U. S. Army arrived to provide protection in the region and constructed Fort Atkinson on the old Fort Mann site; the army abandoned Fort Atkinson in 1853. Military forces on the Santa Fe Trail were re-established farther north and east at Fort Larned in 1859, but the area remained vacant around what would become Dodge City until the end of the Civil War. In April 1865, the Indian Wars in the West began heating up, the army constructed Fort Dodge to assist Fort Larned in providing protection on the Santa Fe Trail. Fort Dodge remained in operation until 1882.
The town of Dodge City can trace its origins to 1871, when rancher Henry J. Sitler built a sod house west of Fort Dodge to oversee his cattle operations in the region, conveniently located near the Santa Fe Trail and Arkansas River, Sitler's house became a stopping point for travelers. Others saw the commercial potential of the region with the Santa Fe Railroad approaching from the east. In 1872, Dodge City was staked out on the 100th meridian and the legal western boundary of the Fort Dodge reservation; the town site was platted and George M. Hoover established the first bar in a tent to serve thirsty soldiers from Fort Dodge; the railroad arrived in September to find a town ready and waiting for business. The early settlers in Dodge City traded in buffalo bones and hides and provided a civilian community for Fort Dodge. However, with the arrival of the railroad, Dodge City soon became involved in the cattle trade; the idea of driving Texas Longhorn cattle from Texas to railheads in Kansas originated in the late 1850s, but was cut short by the Civil War.
In 1866, the first Texas cattle started arriving in Baxter Springs in southeastern Kansas by way of the Shawnee Trail. However, Texas Longhorn cattle carried a tick that spread Texas cattle fever, among other breeds of cattle. Alarmed Kansas farmers persuaded the Kansas State Legislature to establish a quarantine line in central Kansas; the quarantine prohibited Texas Longhorns from the settled, eastern portion of the state. With the cattle trade forced west, Texas Longhorns began moving north along the Chisholm Trail. In 1867, the main cowtown was Kansas. Profits were high, other towns joined in the cattle boom: Newton in 1871, Ellsworth in 1872, Wichita in 1872. However, in 1876, the Kansas State Legislature responded to pressure from farmers settling in central Kansas and once again shifted the quarantine line westward, which eliminated Abilene and the other cowtowns from the cattle trade. With no place else to go, Dodge City became the "queen of the cow towns". A new route known as the Great Western Cattle Trail or Western Trail branched off from the Chisholm Trail to lead cattle into Dodge City.
Dodge City became a boomtown, with thousands of cattle passing annually through its stockyards. The peak years of the cattle trade in Dodge City were from 1883 to 1884, during that time the town grew tremendously. In 1880, Dodge City got a new competitor for the cattle trade from the border town of Caldwell. For a few years, the competition between the towns was fierce, but enough cattle were available for both towns to prosper. Dodge City became famous, no town could match its reputation as a true frontier settlement of the Old West. Dodge City had more famous gunfighters working at one time or another than any other town in the West, many of whom participated in the Dodge City War of 1883, it boasted the usual array of saloons, gambling halls, brothels, including the famous Long Branch Saloon and China Doll brothel. For a time in 1884, Dodge City had a bullfighting ring where Mexican bullfighters would put on a show with specially chosen Longhorn bulls; as more agricultural settlers moved into western Kansas, pressure increased on the Kansas State Legislature to do something about splenic fever.
In 1885, the quarantine line was extended across the state and the Western Trail was all but shut down. By 1886, the cowboys, saloon keepers and brothel owners moved west to greener pastures, Dodge City became a sleepy little town much like other communities in western Kansas. Dodge City is located at 37°45′35″N 100°1′6″W at an elevation of 2,493 ft, it lies on the Arkansas River in the High Plains region of the Great Plains. The city sits above one of the world's largest underground water systems, the Ogallala Aquifer, is 25 miles from the eastern edge of the Hugoton Natural Gas Area. Located at the intersection of U. S. Routes 50, 56 and 283 in southwestern Kansas, Dodge City is 151 mi west of Wichita, 199 mi northeast of Amarillo, 301 mi southeast of Denver. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.55 square miles, of which 14.44 square miles is land and 0.11 square miles is water. Dodge City lies at the intersection of North America's semi-arid and humid subtropical climate zones, with hot summers variable winters, both warm and cold periods, low to moderate humidity and precipitation throughout the year.
Areas to the west are drier and more semi-
Garden City, Kansas
Garden City is a city in and the county seat of Finney County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 26,658; the city is home to Garden City Community College and the Lee Richardson Zoo, the largest zoological park in western Kansas. In February 1878, James R. Fulton, William D. Fulton and W. D.'s son, L. W. Fulton, arrived at the present site of Garden City; the original townsite was laid out on the south half of section 18 by engineer Charles Van Trump. The land was a loose, sandy loam and covered with sagebrush and soap weeds. Main Street ran directly south, dividing William D. and James R. Fulton's claims; as soon as they could get building material, they erected two frame houses. William D. Fulton building on his land, on the east side of Main Street, a house one story and a half high, with two rooms on the ground and two rooms above; this was called the Occidental Hotel. William D. Fulton was proprietor. No other houses were built in Garden City until November 1878, when James R. Fulton and L.
T. Walker each put up a building; the Fultons tried to get others to settle here, but only a few came, at the end of the first year there were only four buildings. Following a sustained drought, irrigation arrived in Finney County in 1879, with completion of the "Garden City Ditch"; the ditch helped to launch an agricultural boom in southwestern Kansas. Charles Jesse Jones known as "Buffalo" Jones, arrived in Garden City for an antelope hunt in January 1879. Before Jones returned home, the Fulton brothers procured his services to promote Garden City, in trying to influence the Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad to put in a switch station; the railroad agreed to place its station at Garden City. In the spring of 1879, more people began arriving to homestead in the area. During the years of 1885-1887, a rush was made for Western Kansas, a settler arrived for every quarter section; the United States Land Office located at Garden City, people went there to make filings on their land. Lawyers arrived in Garden City.
I. R. Holmes, the agent for the sale of lands of the ATSF, Holmes' partner, A. C. McKeever, in 1885 sold thousands of acres of railroad and private land; the streets of Garden City were crowded with horses, wagons and teams of oxen. Long lines of people stood out in the weather awaiting mail at the post office, there was always a crowd in front of the land office. During the height of the boom the town had nine lumber yards. Lumber was hauled in all directions to improve the nearby homesteads. Thirteen drug stores were in operation, the town had two daily newspapers. Nearly everyone used kerosene lamps, a few were placed on posts on Main Street. There was no city water works, so all depended on shallow wells, which were alkaline. Passenger trains of two and three sections arrived daily, loaded with people, most of whom got off at Garden City; the first issue of "The Garden City Newspaper" appeared April 3, 1879. Three months after the paper was established, the editor stated, "There are now forty buildings in town."
When the first telephone line was built, trees were growing on both sides of Main Street. These interfered with the wires, but local residents knew the value of trees in Western Kansas would not allow them to be cut, the telephone poles were set down the center of the street; the first long-distance telephone service from Garden City was a line nine miles long, built in 1902. In the 1970s, Garden City decided to allow a meatpacking plant to be built there; this helped to invigorate the economy. Many new residents arrived, but with population growth the unemployment rate was only about 3% in 2017. Many of the new arrivals were immigrants from outside the United States, such that over 48% of the 2010 population was Hispanic, less than 40% of the population was non-Hispanic white; the integration of this large immigrant population into the community was harmonious and amicable. In October 2016, Gavin Wright, Curtis Allen, Patrick Stein were arrested by the FBI for plotting a bombing attack on a housing complex where part of the town's Somali community lived.
A mosque was targeted in the same complex. The trio was charged in federal court with threatening to use weapons of mass destruction, namely explosives; the suspects came from the communities of Wright. Their trial began in April 2018. All three defendants were found guilty and have blamed Trump rhetoric and Russian trolls as the cause of their actions. Sentencing is Tuesday November 20, 2018; the prosecution is seeking life sentences. Garden City is at 37°58′31″N 100°51′51″W at an elevation of 2,838 feet. Located in southwestern Kansas at the intersection of U. S. Route 50 and U. S. Route 83, Garden City is 192 miles west-northwest of Wichita, 204 miles north-northeast of Amarillo, 255 miles southeast of Denver; the city lies on the north side of the Arkansas River in the High Plains region of the Great Plains. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.82 square miles, all land. Garden City has a semi-arid steppe climate with cold, dry winters. On average, January is the coldest month, July is the hottest month, June is the wettest month.
The average temperature in Garden City is 54.2 °F or 12.3 °C. Over the course of a year, temperatures range from an average low of 17.7 °F in January to an average high of 91.8 °F in July. The high temperature reaches or exceeds 90 °F or 32.2 °C an average of 66 afternoons a year and
Kansas is a U. S. state in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, with its most populated county being Johnson County. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north. Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe; the tribe's name is said to mean "people of the wind" although this was not the term's original meaning. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison. Kansas was first settled by European Americans in 1827 with the establishment of Fort Leavenworth; the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery debate. When it was opened to settlement by the U. S. government in 1854 with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, abolitionist Free-Staters from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine whether Kansas would become a free state or a slave state.
Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, was known as Bleeding Kansas. The abolitionists prevailed, on January 29, 1861, Kansas entered the Union as a free state. By 2015, Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn and soybeans. Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles is the 15th-largest state by area and is the 34th most-populous of the 50 states with a population of 2,911,505. Residents of Kansas are called Kansans. Mount Sunflower is Kansas's highest point at 4,041 feet. For a millennium, the land, Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans; the first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was the Spanish conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, who explored the area in 1541. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was acquired by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, was still a part of Spain and the Republic of Texas until the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, when these lands were ceded to the United States.
From 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today. In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state; the Kansas–Nebraska Act became law on May 30, 1854, establishing Nebraska Territory and Kansas Territory, opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs, Pueblo. Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border; these settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery. The secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas.
Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state on January 29, 1861, making it the 34th state to join the United States. By that time the violence in Kansas had subsided, but during the Civil War, on August 21, 1863, William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly 200 people, he was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature. His application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre-war criminal record. After the Civil War, many veterans constructed homesteads in Kansas. Many African Americans looked to Kansas as the land of "John Brown" and, led by freedmen like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, began establishing black colonies in the state. Leaving southern states in the late 1870s because of increasing discrimination, they became known as Exodusters. At the same time, the Chisholm Trail was opened and the Wild West-era commenced in Kansas.
Wild Bill Hickok was a marshal at Hays and Abilene. Dodge City was another wild cowboy town, both Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp worked as lawmen in the town. In one year alone, eight million head of cattle from Texas boarded trains in Dodge City bound for the East, earning Dodge the nickname "Queen of the Cowtowns." In response to demands of Methodists and other evangelical Protestants, in 1881 Kansas became the first U. S. state to adopt a constitutional amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages, repealed in 1948. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north; the state is divided into 105 counties with 628 cities, is located equidistant from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The geographic center of the 48 contiguous states is in Smith County near Lebanon; until 1989, the Meades Ranch Triangulation Station in Osborne County was the geodetic center of North America: the central reference point for all maps of North America. The geographic center of Kansas is in Barton County. Kansas is underlain by a sequence of horizontal to westward dipping sedimentary rocks.
A sequence of Mississippian and Permian rocks outcrop in the eastern and southern part of the state
Midwestern United States
The Midwestern United States referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau. It occupies the northern central part of the United States, it was named the North Central Region by the Census Bureau until 1984. It is located between the Northeastern United States and the Western United States, with Canada to its north and the Southern United States to its south; the Census Bureau's definition consists of 12 states in the north central United States: Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin. The region lies on the broad Interior Plain between the states occupying the Appalachian Mountain range and the states occupying the Rocky Mountain range. Major rivers in the region include, from east to west, the Ohio River, the Upper Mississippi River, the Missouri River. A 2012 report from the United States Census put the population of the Midwest at 65,377,684; the Midwest is divided by the Census Bureau into two divisions.
The East North Central Division includes Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, all of which are part of the Great Lakes region. The West North Central Division includes Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota and South Dakota, several of which are located, at least within the Great Plains region. Chicago is the most populous city in the American Midwest and the third most populous in the entire country. Other large Midwestern cities include: Columbus, Detroit, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Cleveland, St. Louis, St. Paul, Cincinnati and Des Moines. Chicago and its suburbs form the largest metropolitan statistical area with 9.9 million people, followed by Metro Detroit, Minneapolis–St. Paul, Greater St. Louis, Greater Cleveland, Greater Cincinnati, the Kansas City metro area, the Columbus metro area; the term Midwestern has been in use since the 1880s to refer to portions of the central United States. A variant term, Middle West, has been used since the 19th century and remains common. Another term sometimes applied to the same general region is the heartland.
Other designations for the region have fallen out of use, such as the Northwest or Old Northwest and Mid-America. The Northwest Territory was one of the earliest territories of the United States, stretching northwest from the Ohio River to northern Minnesota and the upper-Mississippi; the upper-Mississippi watershed including the Missouri and Illinois Rivers was the setting for the earlier French settlements of the Illinois Country and the Ohio Country. Economically the region is balanced between heavy industry and agriculture, with finance and services such as medicine and education becoming important, its central location makes it a transportation crossroads for river boats, autos and airplanes. Politically, the region swings back and forth between the parties, thus is contested and decisive in elections. After the sociological study Middletown, based on Muncie, commentators used Midwestern cities as "typical" of the nation. Earlier, the rhetorical question, "Will it play in Peoria?", had become a stock phrase using Peoria, Illinois to signal whether something would appeal to mainstream America.
The region has a higher employment-to-population ratio than the Northeast, the West, the South, or the Sun Belt states as of 2011. Traditional definitions of the Midwest include the Northwest Ordinance Old Northwest states and many states that were part of the Louisiana Purchase; the states of the Old Northwest are known as Great Lakes states and are east-north central in the United States. The Ohio River runs along the southeastern section while the Mississippi River runs north to south near the center. Many of the Louisiana Purchase states in the west-north central United States, are known as Great Plains states, where the Missouri River is a major waterway joining with the Mississippi; the Midwest lies north of the 36°30′ parallel that the 1820 Missouri Compromise established as the dividing line between future slave and non-slave states. The Midwest Region is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as these 12 states: Illinois: Old Northwest, Mississippi River, Ohio River, Great Lakes state Indiana: Old Northwest, Ohio River, Great Lakes state Iowa: Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, Missouri River state Kansas: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, Missouri River state Michigan: Old Northwest and Great Lakes state Minnesota: Old Northwest, Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, part of Red River Colony before 1818, Great Lakes state Missouri: Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, Missouri River, border state Nebraska: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, Missouri River state North Dakota: Louisiana Purchase, part of Red River Colony before 1818, Great Plains, Missouri River state Ohio: Old Northwest, Ohio River, Great Lakes state.
The southeastern part of the state is part of northern Appalachia South Dakota: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, Missouri River state Wisconsin: Old Northwest, Mississippi River, Great Lakes stateVarious organizations define the Midwest with different groups of states. For example, the Council of State Governments, an organization for communication and coordination among state governments, includes in its Midwe
Junction City, Kansas
Junction City is a city in and the county seat of Geary County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 23,353. Fort Riley, a major U. S. Army post, is nearby. Junction City is so named from its position at the confluence of the Smoky Hill and Republican rivers. In 1854, Andrew J. Mead of New York of the Cincinnati-Manhattan Company, Free Staters connected to the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company planned a community there called Manhattan; when the steamship Hartford delivering the immigrants could not reach the community because of low water on the Kansas River, the Free Staters settled 20 miles east in what today is Manhattan, Kansas. The community was renamed Millard City for Captain Millard of the Hartford on October 3, 1855, it was renamed Humboldt in 1857 by local farmers and renamed again that year to Junction City. It was formally incorporated in 1859. In 1923, John R. Brinkley established Radio Station KFKB using a 1 kW transmitter, it is one of the first—if not the first—radio stations in Kansas.
Brinkley used the station to espouse his belief that goat testicles could be implanted in men to enhance their virility. Among Junction City's residents is film director Kevin Wilmott, whose movies, including Ninth Street, are set in Junction City. Ninth Street refers to a bawdy area of the community, frequented by Fort Riley soldiers in the 1960s. In the 1980s a major initiative was undertaken to clean up the Ninth St. area. Timothy McVeigh rented the Ryder truck he used in the Oklahoma City bombing from an auto body shop in Junction City. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.22 square miles, of which 12.15 square miles is land and 0.07 square miles is water. Over the course of a year, temperatures range from an average low of about 15 °F in January to an average high of 90 °F in July; the maximum temperature reaches 90 °F an average of 47 days per year and reaches 100 °F an average of 7 days per year. The minimum temperature falls below the freezing point an average of 126 days per year.
The first fall freeze occurs during the month of October, the last spring freeze occurs during the month of April. The area receives over 32 inches of precipitation during an average year with the largest share being received during May and July—with a combined 29 days of measurable precipitation. During a typical year the total amount of precipitation may be anywhere from 23 to 43 inches. There are on average 86 days of measurable precipitation per year. Winter snowfall averages less than 14 inches. Measurable snowfall occurs an average of 6 days per year with at least an inch of snow being received on four of those days. Snow depth of at least an inch occurs an average of 17 days per year; as of the census of 2010, there were 23,353 people, 9,134 households, 6,109 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,922.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,480 housing units at an average density of 862.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 60.7% White, 22.3% Black, 0.9% Native American, 3.9% Asian, 0.9% Pacific Islander, 4.0% from other races, 7.3% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.0% of the population. There were 9,134 households of which 39.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.9% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.1% were non-families. 27.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.07. The median age in the city was 28.8 years. 29% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.9% male and 51.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 18,886 people, 7,492 households, 5,079 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,500.8 people per square mile. There were 8,740 housing units at an average density of 1,157.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 58.38% White, 26.69% African American, 0.82% Native American, 3.83% Asian, 0.39% Pacific Islander, 4.01% from other races, 5.88% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.31% of the population. There were 7,492 households out of which 35.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.8% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families. 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.2% under the age of 18, 13.4% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 18.5% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.5 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $30,084, the median income for a family was $35,093. Males had a median income of $25,695 versus $20,846 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,581.
About 11.2% of families and 14.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.4% of those under age 18 an