Bell Gardens, California
Bell Gardens is a city in Los Angeles County, California. The population was 42,072 at the 2010 census, down from 44,054 at the 2000 census. Bell Gardens is part of the Gateway Cities Region, or Southeast Los Angeles County is a urbanized region located in southeastern Los Angeles County, Southern California between the City of Los Angeles, Orange County, the Pacific Ocean. Bell Gardens is notable for being one of only six Los Angeles County cities to permit casino gambling and for being home of the oldest building in Los Angeles County. Bell Gardens is named after James Bell; the “gardens” of its name derives from the many Japanese who, early in Bell Gardens’ existence established vegetable gardens and rice fields in the fertile soil. The city of Bell Gardens has a Native American history dating back thousands of years. In the late 18th century, when the area was associated with a large amount of land situated along the lower basin of the Rio Hondo area in Los Angeles County, Bell Gardens was once a bustling agricultural center for Californios during the Spanish Empire, 1509–1823, the Mexican government, 1823–1848, the United States, after the Mexican-American war concluded in 1848.
Among those early Spanish settlers was one of the Lugos. While stationed at Mission San Antonio de Padua near Salinas, Francisco Lugo's son Antonio Maria Lugo was born in 1783. In 1810 Antonio Lugo, a 35-year-old corporal in the Spanish army, was given the 29,514-acre Rancho San Antonio land grant; the land grant was a reward for his military service during the establishment of the Franciscan Missions in California while being the attendant of colonization for the area. Today the grant includes the cities of Bell Gardens, Maywood, Huntington Park, Walnut Park, South Gate and Commerce. Antonio Lugo built several adobe homes within the boundaries of the Rancho San Antonio grant, raised cattle. One of the adobe houses, built in 1795, is the oldest house in Los Angeles County and is still standing at 7000 Gage Avenue. Lugo was given a term as Mayor of Los Angeles. According to Dr. Roy Whitehead in his book Lugo, "Don Antonio Maria Lugo…rode around Los Angeles and his Rancho San Antonio in great splendor.
He never still spoke only Spanish. He rode magnificent horses, sitting in his $1,500 silver trimmed saddle erect and stately, with his sword strapped to the saddle beneath his left leg…People knew him far and wide, the Indians sometimes named their children after him, as he was one Spanish Don that they admired." Antonio María Lugo died at the age of 85 in 1860. One of his nine children, Vicente Lugo and built a two-story adobe home in 1850, located at 6360 Gage Avenue. A daughter of Antonio Lugo married Stephen C. Foster, Mayor of Los Angeles in 1854, lived in an adobe house just east of 6820 Foster Bridge Road, now a parking lot. A granddaughter of Antonio Lugo married Wallace Woodworth, an early-day merchant and civic leader in Los Angeles, their eldest son, Joseph Woodworth, built a two-story colonial style house at 6820 Foster Bridge Road in 1924. The land's original adobe dwelling was named Casa de Rancho San Antonio by Lugo; when Henry T. Gage, a lawyer who married Antonia Lugo's granddaughter Frances V. Rains, occupied the residence, he added two wings and redwood siding, installed bronze fireplaces, imported expensive fabric wallpaper from France to serve as background for the Gage coat of arms, which enjoys a place of prominence in every room.
The Bell Gardens’ school system began in 1867 when the San Antonio School was built where Bell Gardens Elementary stands today. Area farmers sent their children to the San Antonio School, one of the earliest educational institutions in the County of Los Angeles; because of the rich soil and abundant land, many Japanese immigrants are part of Bell Gardens’ early history. Japanese Gardeners farmed to produce quality vegetables for the marketplace. Rice fields mushroomed within the city limits of Bell Gardens. With some of the richest agricultural land in the country, Bell Gardens remained a farming community until the 1930s. Beginning in the 1930s, cheap homes were constructed, filled by defense plant workers. In 1927, Firestone Tire Company bought some of the land at $7,000 an acre. By 1900, Bell Gardens was divided into tracts of 40 to 100 acres; the land adjoining. Both Bell Gardens and Bell are named for James George Bell. In 1930, O. C. Beck purchased property and begins to build affordable homes for those suffering through the depression era.
It was during this period that the area was known as'Billy Goat Acres'. To this day, Bell Gardens is affectionately known by this moniker. World War I and World War II brought defense plants to the area that helped build the economic stability and the population, which led to construction of new homes, more schools, a prosperous business climate; this land used to be floodplains, farmlands split into long, narrow plots by depression-era developers. Tiny houses were sold and rented to Oakies, the Cherokee, the Cree, forced from their homes by dust bowls and Manifest Destiny. By the 1980s, high-wage factories had left, taking with them all of the whites and many of the blacks. In their places—coming from the Mexican states of Michoacan, Jalisco and Zacatecas— were large families of immigrants. Latinos moved here for work and some brought their small businesses. Thousands of Central Americans fleeing civil wars in the 1980s came to the region and created small businesses and worked in the same service industry jobs.
By the 1990s, Colmar Elementary chang
Manhattan Beach, California
Manhattan Beach is a city in southwestern Los Angeles County, United States, on the Pacific coast south of El Segundo, north of Hermosa Beach. Manhattan Beach is one of the three Beach Cities; the climate is unusually moderate because of Manhattan Beach's proximity to the Pacific Ocean, with an average year-round high of 69.1ºF and an average year-round low of 56.4ºF. Its schools are run independently of Los Angeles Unified School District with a separate school board based in Manhattan Beach. Mira Costa High School in Manhattan Beach is ranked in the top 1% of high schools nationally and has students from both Manhattan Beach and Hermosa Beach. According to a May 18, 2017 PropertyShark study the City of Manhattan Beach 90266 zip code ranked as the 32nd most expensive zip code in the United States. According to a December 2017 PropertyShark study the City of Manhattan Beach had the highest median price per square foot for residential properties of all 88 cities in L. A. County, ahead of Malibu and Beverly Hills.
The community is known for a long beach stretching 2.1 miles and 450 feet wide. The residents have a median age of 44.2 years, an average household size of 2.5, 55.6% are married. Manhattan Beach is known for having less traffic congestion than other parts of Los Angeles, along with many fine dining options, a casual beach culture. In 1863, a Scottish immigrant, Sir Robert Burnett, purchased Rancho Sausal Redondo and Rancho Aguaje de la Centinela from Avila's heirs for $33,000. Ten years in 1873, Burnett leased the ranch to a Canadian, Daniel Freeman. Burnett returned to Scotland. Freeman started growing various crops. On May 4, 1885, Freeman bought the ranch from Burnett for $140,000. George H. Peck owned a lot of the land. A coin flip decided the town's name. Around 1902, the beach suburb was named "Manhattan" after developer Stewart Merrill's home, the New York City borough of Manhattan. "Beach" was appended to the city's name in 1927 at the behest of the postmaster. The land in Manhattan Beach was sand dunes.
During the 1920s and 1930s, Kuhn Brothers Construction Company leveled uneven sandy sites and some excess sand was sold and shipped to Waikiki, Hawaii, to convert their reef and rock beach into a sandy beach. The sand was used to build the Los Angeles Coliseum and portions of the Pacific Coast Highway. Manhattan Beach benefits from ocean breezes that provide clean air and summer temperatures that are 10 to 20 °F cooler than the inland regions of Southern California; the Manhattan Beach Unified School District has test scores ranked #3 in the state of California according to California Department of Education statistics. Forbes magazine ranked Manhattan Beach Unified as the sixth best School District in the U. S. According to a July 5, 2014, article in the Beach Reporter newspaper, the city of Manhattan Beach has more educated residents than any other Los Angeles suburb. Many high-profile individuals in the sports and entertainment industry live in Manhattan Beach due to its oceanfront desirability, top performing school district, commuting distance to Los Angeles.
GQ Magazine named Manhattan Beach one of the nation's six best beaches in their July 2014 issue. The city has a total area of 3.9 square miles. Manhattan Beach features 2.1 miles of ocean frontage. Manhattan Beach is a hotspot for beach surfing. A majority of the land in Manhattan Beach was once exposed sand dunes which now lie beneath the city's buildings and streets; the underlying dunes afford residents ocean views throughout western portions of the city. The tallest hill is 244 feet high and located in the city's southwest region; the only remaining exposed sand dune is at Sand Dune Park, where sand resembling the original landscape can be found. In the late 1920s, Manhattan Beach excess sand was purchased by Hawaiʻian developers, who negotiated a deal with the Kuhn Brothers Construction Company to ship the sand across the Pacific Ocean from Manhattan Beach via Los Angeles Harbor to Waikiki Beach over a 10-year period; the beach is 400 feet wide and 2.1 miles long. In the early part of the last century, the beach was sloping.
From 1938 to 1989, it more than doubled in width when large quantities of sand were placed on beaches to the north during construction of the Hyperion Treatment Plant, Marina Del Rey, Scattergood Power Plant. The sand widened Manhattan Beach; every August, the city hosts the Manhattan Beach Open Volleyball Tournament and the International Surf Festival. Residents have divided the city into several distinct neighborhoods, including the "Strand" "Sand Section", "Hill Section", "Tree Section", "Gas Lamp Section", "Manhattan Village", "Manhattan Heights", "East Manhattan Beach", "Liberty Village", "The Poet's Section", "El Porto"; the Roth Tract, between Herrin and Peck, is sometimes referred to as the "Bird Section." The "Hill Section" is known for its high priced homes where many of the residences are remodeled or newly constructed. The steep hills allow panoramic city views; the nearby "Sand Section" is notable for its quiet walk-street neighborhoods adjacent to the ocean. Oceanfront homes stretch along the bike path and walking lane of "The Strand".
"The Strand" section of Manhattan Beach includes some of the most expensive real estate per square fo
Glendora is a city in the San Gabriel Valley in Los Angeles County, California, 23 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. As of the 2010 census, the population of Glendora was 50,073. Known as the "Pride of the Foothills", Glendora is nestled in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains, its downtown area, known as the Glendora Village, has been voted as one of the best downtowns in the San Gabriel Valley. It hosts dozens of restaurants, cafes and boutiques along the main street, Glendora Avenue, with many community events scheduled throughout the year. A small town vibe combined with low crime rates and a high-ranking school district, has made the city an attractive choice for families in the region. Glendora celebrated its centennial as an incorporated city in 2011. Neighborhoods and residences in Glendora reflect the city's history and range from Queen Annes, to Folk Victorians, early 20th-century bungalows, to ranch style homes, to mid-rise Multi-family residential complexes, to modern mansions.
Glendora's most expensive neighborhoods contain many large, estate homes with sweeping views across the San Gabriel Valley to Downtown Los Angeles. These neighborhoods include Morgan Ranch, Gordon Highlands, Bluebird Hill, Silent Ranch, Oak Tree Rancho, Hidden Springs, Oakhart Estates, Easley Canyon Estates. Glendora is home to the exclusive Glendora Country Club, which includes a Robert Trent Jones Sr. 18-hole golf course, played by many professional golfers. Glendora is bordered by Azusa to the west, San Dimas to the east and south and the unincorporated community of Charter Oak to the south, the San Gabriel Mountains range to the north. Ygnacio Palomares received the 22,340-acre land grant Rancho San Jose from Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado in 1837; the land included the present day cities of Pomona, Claremont, La Verne, San Dimas, Glendora. Like so many cities in the San Gabriel Valley, Glendora was established on remote agricultural land when the area became connected to the outside world upon the completion of the Santa Fe Railway's main transcontinental line from Los Angeles to Chicago in May 1887.
Located at the foot of the San Gabriel Mountains, Glendora was started on 300 acres that were subdivided and sold by George D. Whitcomb in late March 1887. On the first day of sale, 300 lots were sold. Whitcomb was the founder of the Whitcomb Locomotive Works in Chicago and Rochelle and had moved to California in the early 1880s, he devised the name Glendora by combining the name of his wife, Leadora Bennett Whitcomb, with the location of his home in a glen of the San Gabriel Mountains. In December 1907, the development of Glendora got a boost when passenger service opened on a new extension of the Pacific Electric Railway's Monrovia-Glendora line which provided service from downtown Glendora to the Pacific Electric Building at Sixth and Main in Downtown Los Angeles. Prior to its 1911 incorporation, Glendora's administrator occupied the office of President of Glendora; the downtown area as it appears now is the product of years of renovation and maintenance by the city. There once stood a movie theatre, various banks, playhouses but all were converted into more modern commercial buildings.
The original layout can be read about on the Downtown Glendora Historical Walk, by reading placards placed along Glendora Avenue. The original townsite was bounded by Sierra Madre Avenue on the north, Minnesota Avenue on the east, Ada Avenue and the railroad on the south, Pennsylvania Avenue on the west. Glendora used to be home to several military academies, which have since been converted into either churches or private school facilities; these academies included Brown Military Academy, now St. Lucy's Priory High School and Church of the Open Door on Sierra Madre, Harding Military Academy, whose property is now home to North Glendora Private, a prestigious private community adjacent to Easley Canyon atop Glendora Avenue. From 1960 to 1978, Glendora was home to Clokey Productions which produced 85 episodes of Gumby and 65 episodes of Davey and Goliath in town. In celebration of this history, Glendora hosted the first Gumby Fest in 2014 which brought thousands of people from around the country and Canada.
In 2015 the 2nd GumbyFest was held at Citrus College over an entire weekend. Several wildfires have affected the city in recent years, the most notable being the Colby Fire, which displaced hundreds of Glendora residents. A relief concert titled "Glendora Band Aid" was held shortly after the fire to help raise funds to assist the homeowners who lost their homes in the fire. Glendora has an active Chamber of Commerce, established in 1903; the mission of the Glendora Chamber is to provide tools and resources to assist the business community in prospering and adapting to the economic climate, while growing membership and promoting local purchasing. Glendora is located at 34°7′51″N 117°51′15″W; the city lies in the eastern end of the San Gabriel Valley between the San Gabriel Mountains range to the north and the South Hills to the south. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.6 square miles, of which 19.4 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles, or 0.84%, is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 50,073 people, 16,819 households, 12,866 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,581.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 17,145 housing units at an average density of 895.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.1% White, 1.9% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 8.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.2% from other races
City of Industry, California
City of Industry, or referred to as Industry, is an industrial suburb of Los Angeles in the San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County, United States. Home to over 3,000 businesses and 67,000 jobs, but only 219 residents according to the 2010 census, the city is entirely industrial, it was incorporated on June 18, 1957, has become the economic hub for the San Gabriel Valley. Industry is located at 34°1′N 117°57′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.1 square miles, of which 11.8 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square mile of it is water. Industry is a suburb of Los Angeles, 22 miles away from downtown. In 1841, William and Nicolasa Workman, who emigrated with John Rowland and others, received a land grant for Rancho La Puente from the governor of Alta California; the ranch grew to 49,000 acres. The Workmans established themselves as cattle ranchers and did well financially during the Gold Rush supplying fresh beef in the gold fields. Following the discovery of oil by their son on land they owned in the Montebello hills, the Workmans' grandson, Walter P. Temple, his wife, bought the Workman House and surrounding land in 1917.
This property is now known as the Workman and Temple Family Homestead Museum and is a museum in current day City of Industry, free and open to the public. In the 1910's Tract 1343 was created and shows a large portion of today's City boundaries; the City of Industry was incorporated on June 18, 1957. A little under fifteen years from its incorporation, the City of Industry created a general plan to guide its future development and the 1971 document remains in effect today nearly a half-century later; the plan was overseen by planning consultants Gruen Associates, a firm established in 1950 by Austrian-born Victor Gruen, a visionary architect and urban planner. The goals and objectives section of the general plan identified the primary goal of the city as "creating and maintaining an ideal setting for manufacturing and industrial facilities."In 1962, the Industry Chamber of Commerce formed and in 1974, the Workman House became a historical landmark. In 1981, the Industry Hills Expo Center opened as a community multi-purpose event facility.
In 1985, the inaugural Charity Pro Rodeo took place, to raise funds for youth in the San Gabriel Valley. The annual Rodeo still takes place annually. In 1991, in partnership with the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, the Youth Activities League was formed to offer sports to at-risk children as an alternative to gang activity. In recognition of the importance of mass transit, the City invested in the development of this Metrolink transit station near the confluence of the 60 and 57 freeways and in 1993, the City of Industry Metrolink Station opened. In 2004, the Environmental Impact Report and Design for the 57/60 Confluence Project was completed; the three-phased program of improvements consists of ramp and interchange reconfigurations as well as the addition of bypass lanes to reduce weaving, resulting in less congestion for the sixth-worst congested and dangerous freeway interchange in the nation. In the California State Legislature, Industry is in the 22nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Susan Rubio, in the 57th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Ian Calderon.
In the United States House of Representatives, Industry is split between California's 32nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Grace Napolitano and California's 39th congressional district, represented by Democrat Gil Cisneros. The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department operates the Industry Station in Industry; the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Pomona Health Center in Pomona, serving Industry. City of Industry's City Council members, composed of five members, are elected at large and the elections are held on a Tuesday after the first Monday in June of odd-numbered years; the city is opposing California's Senate Bill 415, which would force it to change election dates to coincide with Los Angeles County and federal elections in even-numbered years, due to a low voter turnout. The city's zoning is devoted to business: 92% is industrial, 8% is commercial; the few residences in the city either existed before incorporation, are on properties adjacent to either Industry Hills Golf Club, Industry Hills Recreation Center or in a small neighborhood adjacent to City Hall.
In addition, there are residents at the El Encanto Healthcare Center, a nursing home owned by the City. The City of Industry has no business taxes and is funded through retail sales tax from shopping centers located within the city limits, property tax on parcels within the City; the city has the highest property tax rate in Los Angeles County, at 1.92%. In addition, there is a revenue-generating hillside hotel resort, known as the Pacific Palms Resort, completely surrounded by the city of La Puente but located in the City of Industry. City of Industry is a popular investment area for Chinese businessmen and the city has emerged as a high-tech import/export center for computer parts, with business links to the Asian marketplace. For convenience many Chinese entrepreneurs and staff live in nearby Rowland Heights, Hacienda Heights, West Covina, Diamond Bar and Walnut; some of the companies with headquarters in Industry are: Arconic Antec Alta Dena AMI ClubWear CSC Enterprise Corp. CyberPowerPC Dacor DUB Emtek Products Hot Topic Gigabyte Technology Called GBT Co, Ltd. as its corporate name in the United States iStarUSA Group ITC-Diligence, Inc.
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of Southern California, United States, 12 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles. The population at the 2010 census was 103,340. Billed as the "Media Capital of the World" and only a few miles northeast of Hollywood, numerous media and entertainment companies are headquartered or have significant production facilities in Burbank, including Warner Bros. Entertainment, The Walt Disney Company, Nickelodeon Animation Studios, The Burbank Studios, Cartoon Network Studios with the West Coast branch of Cartoon Network, Insomniac Games; the Hollywood Burbank Airport was the location of Lockheed's Skunk Works, which produced some of the most secret and technologically advanced airplanes, including the U-2 spy planes that uncovered the Soviet Union missile components in Cuba in October 1962. Burbank consists of two distinct areas: a downtown/foothill section, in the foothills of the Verdugo Mountains, the flatland section; the city was referred to as "Beautiful Downtown Burbank" on Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.
The city was named after David Burbank, a New Hampshire–born dentist and entrepreneur who established a sheep ranch there in 1867. The city of Burbank occupies land, part of two Spanish and Mexican-era colonial land grants, the 36,400-acre Rancho San Rafael, granted to Jose Maria Verdugo by the Spanish Bourbon government in 1784, the 4,063-acre Rancho Providencia created in 1821; this area was the scene of a military skirmish which resulted in the unseating of the Spanish Governor of California, his replacement by the Mexican leader Pio Pico. Remnants of the military battle were found many years in the vicinity of Warner Bros. Studio when residents dug up cannonballs. Dr. David Burbank purchased over 4,600 acres of the former Verdugo holding and another 4,600 acres of the Rancho Providencia in 1867 and built a ranch house and began to raise sheep and grow wheat on the ranch. By 1876, the San Fernando Valley became the largest wheat-raising area in Los Angeles County, but the droughts of the 1860s and 1870s underlined the need for steady water supplies.
A professionally trained dentist, Burbank began his career in Maine. He joined the great migration westward in the early 1850s and, by 1853 was living in San Francisco. At the time the American Civil War broke out he was again well established in his profession as a dentist in Pueblo de Los Angeles. In 1867, he purchased Rancho La Providencia from David W. Alexander and Francis Mellus, he purchased the western portion of the Rancho San Rafael from Jonathan R. Scott. Burbank's property reached nearly 9,200 acres at a cost of $9,000. Burbank would not acquire full titles to both properties until after a court decision known as the "Great Partition" was made in 1871 dissolving the Rancho San Rafael, he became known as one of the largest and most successful sheep raisers in southern California, as a result, he closed his dentistry practice and invested in real estate in Los Angeles. Burbank later owned the Burbank Theatre, which opened on November 27, 1893, at a cost of $150,000. Though the theater was intended to be an opera house, instead it staged plays and became known nationally.
The theatre featured famous actors of the time including Fay Bainter and Marjorie Rambeau, until it had deteriorated into a burlesque house. When the area that became Burbank was settled in the 1870s and 1880s, the streets were aligned along what is now Olive Avenue, the road to the Cahuenga Pass and downtown Los Angeles; these were the roads the Native Americans traveled and the early settlers took their produce down to Los Angeles to sell and to buy supplies along these routes. At the time, the primary long-distance transportation methods available to San Fernando Valley residents were stagecoach and train. Stagecoaching between Los Angeles and San Francisco through the Valley began in 1858; the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived in the Valley in 1876, completing the route connecting San Francisco and Los Angeles. A shrewd businessman, foreseeing the value of rail transport, Burbank sold Southern Pacific Railroad a right-of-way through the property for one dollar; the first train passed through Burbank on April 5, 1874.
A boom created by a rate war between the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific brought people streaming into California shortly thereafter, a group of speculators purchased much of Burbank's land holdings in 1886 for $250,000. One account suggests Burbank may have sold his property because of a severe drought that year, which caused a shortage of water and grass for his livestock. 1,000 of his sheep died due to the drought conditions. The group of speculators who bought the acreage formed the Providencia Land and Development Company and began developing the land, calling the new town Burbank after its founder, began offering farm lots on May 1, 1887; the townsite had Burbank Boulevard/Walnut Avenue as the northern boundary, Grandview Avenue as the southern boundary, the edge of the Verdugo Mountains as the eastern boundary and Clybourn Avenue was the western border. The establishment of a water system in 1887 allowed farmers to irrigate their orchards and provided a stronger base for agricultural development.
The original plot of the new townsite of Burbank extended from what is now Burbank Boulevard on the north, to Grandview Avenue in Glendale, California on the south, from the top of the Verdugo Hills on the east to what is now known as Clybourn Avenue on the west. At the same time, the arrival of the railroad provided immediate access for the farmers to bring crops to market. Packing houses and warehouses were built alo
Redondo Beach, California
Redondo Beach is coastal city in Los Angeles County, United States, located in the South Bay region of the Greater Los Angeles area. It is one of three adjacent beach cities along the southern portion of Santa Monica Bay; the population was 66,748 at the 2010 census, up from 63,261 at the 2000 census. Redondo Beach was part of the 1785 Rancho San Pedro Spanish land grant that became the South Redondo area; the city's territory has an unusual shape including an area along the beach and another strip inland from Manhattan Beach and Hermosa Beach. The primary attractions include Municipal Pier and the sandy beach, popular with tourists and a variety of sports enthusiasts; the western terminus of the Metro Rail Green Line is in North Redondo Beach. The Chowigna Indians used the site of today's Hopkins Wilderness Park Nike missile site LA-57 from 1956 to 1963, in Redondo Beach, California, as a lookout place; the wetlands located at the site of today's AES power plant in Redondo Beach were a source of foods including halibut and sea bass, of salt.
In the 1700s, the Chowigna bartered salt from the old Redondo Salt Lake, "a spring-fed salt lake about 200 yards wide and 600 yards long situated about 200 yards from the ocean", with other tribes. Their village by the lake was called "Onoova-nga", or "Place of Salt." The Chowigna were relocated to missions in 1854, when Manuel Dominguez sold 215 acres of Rancho San Pedro, including the lake, to Henry Allanson and William Johnson for the Pacific Salt Works. Moonstone Beach was a tourist attraction from the late 1880s to the early 1920s. Tourists gathered moonstones from the many mounds; the City of Redondo Beach is a Charter City in Southern California. Two thirds of the residents in LA County, the majority in Southern California, a plurality of Californians live in Charter Cities according to the 2010 US Census; as a Californian Charter City, Redondo Beach can adopt Amendments to the City Charter. In response to alleged overdevelopment, a group of Redondo’s residents formed a PAC called Building a Better Redondo and worked to place Measure DD on the ballot.
The City Council responded with Measure EE. Both measures are initiative petitions which would amend the Charter of the City of Redondo Beach by requiring both City Council approval and voter approval before a “major change in allowable land use” would become effective. However, the difference was in scope. Measure DD would apply to any zoning changes that would have the effect of converting any public land to private use. Measure DD was an initiative that earned a place on the ballot because its supporters collected over 6,000 signatures on petitions, while Measure EE was placed on the November ballot through the referral process by a vote of the Redondo Beach City Council. Out of Redondo’s 39,155 registered voters, 29,653 voted on Measure DD, 28,570 voted on Measure EE, with the turnout being 75.7 percent and 72.9 percent respectively. Measure DD passed 52.7 – 41.3 percent, Measure EE passed 50.9 – 49.1 percent. When two initiative measures conflict, the one with the greatest number of votes wins, since Measure DD defeated Measure EE by 2,884 votes, it was added to the Redondo Beach City Charter.
On July 30th, 2010 the Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Robert O’Brien confirmed that Measure DD was broad in scope, as intended by the voters. Measure DD led to the passage of Measure G, it passed, 12,622 votes to 11,422 votes. Building a Better Redondo proposed Measure A in November of 2013, which would have zoned 60 percent of the AES property as parkland and the rest – commercial. AES spent over $650K on the campaign promising everything from power failures to huge lawsuits if Measure A won. Measure A failed, with 6,553 "no" 6,295 "yes" votes. Buoyed by Measure A’s failure, AES, the operator of the powerplant and owner of the property, proposed Measure B, a mixed use development with residential and commercial components, poured over $1M into the campaign. Measure B failed, with 6,684 "no" 6,072 "yes" votes. In 2017 another activist group, Rescue Our Waterfront, which had quite a few crossover members from Building a Better Redondo, proposed Measure C; this was in reaction to a project called "The Waterfront", which moved the required boat ramp to Mole B, which would impact outrigger canoe clubs and was deemed dangerous by Harbor Patrol staff.
Measure C, or the King Harbor CARE Act, would tighten up the zoning passed in Measure G. It was designed to ensure long established recreational uses and views of the harbor were protected in future development and prevent the impacts of the proposed "Waterfront" project; the measure passed, with 9,229 “yes” votes and 6,925 “no” votes, swept Mayor Bill Brand, Councilmembers Todd Lowenstein and Nils Nehrenheim into office. The developer responded with a lawsuit. On August 9th, 2018, the California Coastal Commission certified Measure C, as is, without the additions that were suggested by its own staff, thus ending the ten year old saga. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.2 square miles, over 99% of it land. Redondo Beach was part of the 1784 Rancho San Pedro Sp
Alhambra is a city located in the western San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County, United States eight miles from the Downtown Los Angeles civic center. It was incorporated on July 11, 1903; as of the 2010 census, the population was 83,089. The city's ZIP Codes are 91801 and 91803; the original inhabitants of the land where Alhambra now sits are the Tongva. The San Gabriel Mission was founded nearby on September 8, 1771 as part of the Spanish conquest and occupation of Alta California; the land that would become Alhambra was part of a 300,000 acre land grant given to Manuel Nieto, a soldier from the Los Angeles Presidio. In 1820 Mexico won its independence from the Spanish crown and lands once ruled by them became part of the Mexican Republic; these lands transferred into the hands of the United States following the defeat in the Mexican–American War. A wealthy developer, Benjamin Davis Wilson, married Ramona Yorba, daughter of Bernardo Yorba, who owned the land which would become Alhambra.
With the persuasion of his daughter, Yorba named the land after a book she was reading, Washington Irving's Tales of the Alhambra, which he was inspired to write by his extended visit to the Alhambra palace in Granada, Spain. Alhambra was founded as a suburb of Los Angeles that remained an unincorporated area during the mid-19th century; the first school in Alhambra was Ramona Convent Secondary School, built on hillside property donated by the prominent James de Barth Shorb family. Thirteen years before the city was incorporated, several prominent San Gabriel Valley families interested in the Catholic education of their daughters established the school in 1890; the city's first public high school, Alhambra High School, was established in 1898, five years before the city's incorporation. On July 11, 1903, the City of Alhambra was incorporated; the Alhambra Fire Department was established in 1906. Alhambra was promoted as a "city of homes", many of its homes have historical significance, they include styles such as craftsman, Spanish Mediterranean, Spanish colonial, Italian beaux-arts, arts and crafts.
Twenty-six single-family residential areas have been designated historic neighborhoods by the city, including the Bean Tract, the Midwick Tract, the Airport Tract, the Emery Park area. There are a large number of condominiums, rental apartments, mixed-use residential/commercial buildings in the downtown area. Alhambra's main business district, at the intersection of Main and Garfield, has been a center of commerce since 1895. By the 1950s, it was "the" place to go in the San Gabriel Valley. While many of the classic historical buildings have been torn down over the years, the rebuilding of Main Street has led to numerous dining and entertainment establishments. Alhambra has experienced waves of new immigrants, beginning with Italians in the 1950s, Mexicans in the 1960s, Chinese in the 1980s; as a result, a active Chinese business district has developed on Valley Boulevard, including Chinese supermarkets, shops, banks and medical offices. The Valley Boulevard corridor has become a national hub for many Asian-owned bank headquarters, there are other nationally recognised retailers in the city.
The historic Garfield Theatre, located at Valley Boulevard and Garfield Avenue from 1925 until 2001, was a vaudeville venue and is rumored to have hosted the Gumm Sisters, featuring a young Judy Garland. Faded from its original glory, for its last few years it was purchased and ran Chinese-language films, in 2001 went out of business. Subsequently, developers have remodeled the dilapidated building, turning it into a vibrant commercial center with many Chinese stores and eateries. In 2003, actress Lana Clarkson was shot to death in the Alhambra home of record producer Phil Spector. Spector lived in Alhambra's largest and most notable residence, the Pyrenees Castle, built in 1926. In 2009, Spector was convicted of second-degree murder in connection with Clarkson's death. Alhambra is bordered by South Pasadena on the northwest, San Marino on the north, San Gabriel on the east, Monterey Park on the south, the Los Angeles districts of Monterey Hills and El Sereno on the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.6 square miles, over 99% of, land.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Alhambra had a population of 83,089. Its population density was 10,887.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Alhambra was 43,957 Asian, 23,521 White, 1,281 African American, 538 Native American, 81 Pacific Islander, 10,805 from other races, 2,906 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28,582 persons; the census reported that 82,475 people lived in households, 132 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 482 were institutionalized. There were 29,217 households, of which 9,357 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 13,679 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 4,818 had a female householder with no husband present, 2,097 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,370 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 183 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 6,479 households were made up of individuals, 2,301 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82.
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