St. Louis Park, Minnesota
Saint Louis Park is a city in Hennepin County, United States. The population was 45,250 at the 2010 census, it is a first-ring suburb west of Minneapolis. Other adjacent cities include Edina, Golden Valley, Minnetonka and Hopkins. St. Louis Park is the birthplace or childhood home of movie directors Joel and Ethan Coen, musician Peter Himmelman, New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman, former Senator Al Franken, songwriter Dan Israel, guitarist Sharon Isbin, writer Pete Hautman, football coach Marc Trestman, film director Joe Nussbaum. Baseball announcer Halsey Hall lived there; the Pavek Museum of Broadcasting, which has a major collection of antique radio and television equipment, is in the city. Items range from radios produced by local manufacturers to the Vitaphone system used to cut discs carrying audio for the first "talkie", The Jazz Singer; the Coen brothers set their 2009 film A Serious Man in St. Louis Park circa 1967, it was important to the Coens to find a neighborhood of original-looking suburban rambler homes as they would have appeared in St. Louis Park in the mid-1960s, after careful scouting they opted to film scenes in a neighborhood of nearby Bloomington, as well as at St. Louis Park's B'nai Emet Synagogue, sold and converted into a school.
The 1860s village that became St. Louis Park was known as Elmwood, which today is a neighborhood inside the city. In August 1886, 31 people signed a petition asking county commissioners to incorporate the Village of St. Louis Park; the petition was registered on November 19, 1886. The name "St. Louis Park" was derived from the Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway that ran through the area. In 1892, lumber baron Thomas Barlow Walker and a group of wealthy Minneapolis industrialists incorporated the Minneapolis Land and Investment Company to focus industrial development in Minneapolis. Walker's company began developing St. Louis Park for industrial and residential use. Development progressed outward from the original village center at the intersection of the Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway with Wooddale Avenue, but Minneapolis soon expanded as far west as France Avenue, its boundary may have continued to move westward had it not been for St. Louis Park's 1886 incorporation. By 1893, St. Louis Park's downtown had three hotels, many newly arrived companies surrounded downtown.
Around 1890, the village had more than 600 industrial jobs associated with agriculture implement manufacturing. The financial panic of 1893 put a damper on the village's growth. Walker left St. Louis Park to pursue other business ventures. In 1899, St. Louis Park became the home to the Peavey–Haglin Experimental Concrete Grain Elevator, the world's first concrete, tubular grain elevator, which provided an alternative to combustible wooden elevators. Despite being nicknamed "Peavey's Folly" and dire predictions that the elevator would burst like a balloon when the grain was drawn off, the experiment worked and concrete elevators have been used since. At the end of World War I, only seven scattered retail stores operated in St. Louis Park because streetcars provided easy access to shopping in Minneapolis. Between 1920 and 1930, the population doubled from 2,281 to 4,710. Vigorous homebuilding occurred in the late 1930s to accommodate the pent-up need created during the Depression. With America's involvement in World War II, all development came to a halt.
Explosive growth came after World War II. In 1940, 7,737 people lived in St. Louis Park. By 1955, more than 30,000 new residents had joined them. From 1940 to 1955, growth averaged 6.9 persons moving into St. Louis Park every day. Sixty percent of St. Louis Park's homes were built in a single burst of construction from the late 1940s to the early 1950s. Residential development was followed by commercial developers eager to bring goods and services to these new households. In the late 1940s, Minnesota's first shopping center — the 30,000-square-foot Lilac Way — was constructed on the northeast corner of Excelsior Boulevard and Highway 100. Miracle Mile shopping center, built in 1950, Knollwood Mall, which opened in 1956, remain open today. In the late 1940s, a group of 11 former army doctors opened the St. Louis Park Medical Center in a small building on Excelsior Boulevard; the medical center merged with Methodist Hospital and today is Park Nicollet Health Services, part of HealthPartners, the second-largest medical clinic in Minnesota.
During the period between 1950 and 1956, 66 new subdivisions were recorded to make room for 2,700 new homes. In 1953 and 1954, the final two parcels — Kilmer and Shelard Park — were annexed; these parcels came to St. Louis Park because of their ability to provide water service. In 1954, voters approved a home rule charter that gave an overwhelmed St. Louis Park the status of a city; that enabled the city to hire a city manager to assume some of the duties handled by the part-time city council. Several bridges built during that time are now being razed. In those days, the primary concerns were the physical planning of St. Louis Park, updating zoning and construction codes, expanding sewer and water systems, paving streets, acquiring park land and building schools. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.86 square miles, of which 10.64 square miles is land and 0.22 square miles is water. Interstate 394, U. S. Highway 169, Minnesota State Hi
Washington County, Minnesota
Washington County is a county located in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 238,136, making it the fifth-most populous county in Minnesota, its county seat is Stillwater. The largest city in the county is Woodbury; the county was established in 1849. Washington County is included in the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Washington County was one of the nine original counties created when the Minnesota Territory was organized in 1849; the county was established October 27, 1849, named after George Washington. Early development in the area was on the St. Croix River, which now forms the boundary with Wisconsin on the county's eastern side; the river not only provided a means of transportation to move people upstream, but move logs downstream. The area was forested and the early economy was dependent on the logging and lumber industries; the first settlement and seat was named Dacotah, was located as early as 1838 in what is now northern Stillwater, where Brown's Creek flows into the St. Croix River.
The creek's name is from the founder of Joseph Renshaw Brown. However, a sawmill was built at Marine-on-St.-Croix in 1839, another was built in the current location of downtown Stillwater in 1844. The success of these soon attracted the settlers from Dacotah, Stillwater became the county seat in 1846. During this early period, the region was part of the Wisconsin Territory, but Wisconsin became a state in 1848. Brown and other leaders called together settlers in this now-ungoverned territory to what has become known as the "Stillwater Convention" on August 26, 1848. Held in John McKusick’s store, the settlers drafted a Memorial to Congress that a new territory be created with the name “Minnesota,” and elected Henry Hastings Sibley to deliver this citizen’s petition to the U. S. Congress; because of this convention, Stillwater calls itself the “Birthplace of Minnesota.” After becoming a territory, growth continued, with the first Sheriff of Washington County appointed by Governor Alexander Ramsey in 1849, the county's school district founded in 1850.
After the forests were depleted, the economy of Washington County became agricultural. With the growth of neighboring Ramsey County and St. Paul, some of Washington County developed based on tourism and recreation, as with Mahtomedi and Landfall. Late in the 20th century, the population increased with the suburban expansion of St. Paul. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 423 square miles, of which 384 square miles is land and 38 square miles is water, it is the fourth-smallest county in Minnesota by land fifth-smallest by total area. Chisago County Polk County, Wisconsin St. Croix County, Wisconsin Pierce County, Wisconsin Dakota County Ramsey County Anoka County Mississippi National River and Recreation Area Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway The ethnic makeup of the country, according to the 2010 U. S. Census, was the following: 87.77% White 3.60% Black 0.49% Native American 5.07% Asian >0.01% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 2.10% Two or more races 0.97% Other races 3.41% Hispanic or Latino As of the census of 2010, there were 238,136 people, 87,446 households, 64,299 families residing in the county.
The population density was 607 people per square mile. There were 87,446 housing units at an average density of 223 per square mile. 39.4% were of German, 14.4% Irish, 13.0% Norwegian, 9.9% Swedish ancestry. There were 87,446 households out of which 38.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.6% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.5% were non-families. 21.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.14. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 32.90% from 25 to 44, 28.7% from 45 to 64, 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 98.02 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.03 males. The median income for a household in the county was $79,735, the median income for a family was $92,497.
The per capita income for the county was $36,786. About 5.2% of the population was below the poverty line. According to the 2007-2011 American Community Survey, of the county's population 25 years and over, 1.4% had less than 9th grade education, 2.8% held 9th to 12th grade with no diploma, 23.6% had High school graduate or equivalent, 22.2% held Some college with no degree, 27.0% had bachelor's degree, 13.0% earned Graduate or professional degree. As of the 2000 census, there were 201,130 people, 71,462 households, 54,668 families residing in the county; the population density was 514 people per square mile. There were 73,635 housing units at an average density of 188 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.63% White, 1.83% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 2.14% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.60% from other races, 1.37% from two or more races. There were 71,462 households out of which 41.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.80% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.50% were non-families.
18.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the
Ramsey County, Minnesota
Ramsey County is a county located in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 508,640, making it the second-most populous county in Minnesota, its county seat is St. Paul, Minnesota's state capital; the county was founded in 1849 and is named for Alexander Ramsey, the first governor of the Minnesota Territory. Ramsey County is included in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is the smallest and most densely populated county in Minnesota, as well as one of the most densely populated counties in the United States. With the establishment of the Minnesota Territory in 1849, many new settlers were attracted to Ramsey County and established farms in the northern part of the county. One of these early settlers was Heman Gibbs, whose farm is now operated as the Gibbs Museum of Pioneer and Dakotah Life in Falcon Heights; this area remained farmland until small villages began to appear in the late 19th century with the incorporation of North St. Paul in 1887, New Brighton in 1891, White Bear Lake in 1921.
The Ramsey County Sheriff is the top law enforcement official in Ramsey County. The Ramsey County Sheriff is elected for a four-year term via an election running concurrent with the federal mid-term elections; the current sheriff is Bob Fletcher, who won the general election for Ramsey County Sheriff on November 6, 2018. Providing safety in Ramsey County is a collaborative effort across multiple agencies; the Ramsey County Sheriff's office provides a number of unique services across the county as mandated by law. This includes detention for court and other court services; this includes safety and law enforcement on the waterways. Proactively, the Sheriff's office provides multiple safety classes and coordinates community volunteer efforts; the sheriff's office provides patrol and investigation for communities without local police forces and is available as backup for all communities. An emergency 911 call will send the appropriate agency according to the caller's location and law enforcement availability.
The Ramsey County Attorney prosecutes felony crimes that occur within the jurisdiction of Ramsey County. The current County Attorney is John Choi, elected in 2010; the county commission elects a chair. Commissioners as of April 12, 2019: According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 170 square miles, of which 152 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water, it is the smallest county by area in Minnesota. It has been considered urbanized since the 1990 United States Census. Anoka County Washington County Dakota County Hennepin County Mississippi National River and Recreation Area Ramsey County is served by several interstate highways, including Interstate 35 and Interstate 94. I-35 has two routes through Ramsey County. I-35E enters the county from Dakota County to the south and proceeds north through Saint Paul, where it intersects I-94 continues north to Little Canada, where it runs east concurrently with I-694 for several miles before turning north through North Oaks to Washington County.
I-35W crosses from Minneapolis to the west through Saint Anthony before turning north through New Brighton, where it intersects I-694, to Anoka County where it goes on to rejoin I-35E in Washington County. Near the western edge of the county, I-94 enters from Minneapolis where it runs parallel to University Avenue until it meets I-35E in Saint Paul and continues east to Washington County. I-494 passes through the southeast corner of the county between Washington Counties. From Anoka County in the west, I-694 takes a path through New Brighton, where it meets I-35W, to the junction with I-35E in Little Canada and to Washington County in the east. Ramsey County is accessible by several U. S. Highways, in particular US 10, US 52, US 61. US 10 enters from Washington County in the south and continues north to meet I-94 just east of Saint Paul where it turns west to run concurrently with I-94, I-35E, I-694, I-35W before continuing northwest to Anoka County. US 52 runs from South Saint Paul in Dakota County north to downtown Saint Paul where it meets I-94 and turns west to run concurrently with it all the way to the North Dakota border.
From the south, US 61 runs concurrently with US 10 and I-94 until it continues northeast on surface streets through the East Side of Saint Paul. From Saint Paul, US 61 continues north through Maplewood and White Bear Lake before crossing the border into Washington County. In addition to these federal highways, Ramsey County is served by a number of Minnesota State Highways, including MN 36 and MN 51 which are divided highways for much of their length; the county has jurisdiction over 264,108 miles of County State Aid Highways as well as 21,031 miles of county roads and 59 bridges that are maintained and monitored by the Public Works Department of Ramsey County. Ramsey County is a major freight hub along BNSF's Northern Transcon route, as well as being served by Union Pacific and Canadian Pacific. Amtrak offers daily intercity passenger rail service on the Empire Builder from Union Depot in Saint Paul. Light rail service is provided by Metro, a light rail and bus rapid transit system operated by Metro Transit that connects several communities in Ramsey and Hennepin Counties.
The primary airport serving Ramsey County is Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport located in neighboring Hennepin County. The only airport located in Ramsey County is Saint Paul Downtown Airport, a smaller commercial airport with three runways used for general aviation and military operations; as of the 2010 Census, there were 508,640 people, 202,691 households, 117,799 fami
Hennepin County, Minnesota
Hennepin County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census the population was 1,152,425, it is the 35th-most populous county in the United States. Its county seat is the state's most populous city; the county is named in honor of the 17th-century explorer Father Louis Hennepin. Hennepin County is included in the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area; the center of population of Minnesota is in the city of Minneapolis. Hennepin County was created in 1852 by the Minnesota Territorial Legislature. Father Louis Hennepin's name was chosen because he named St. Anthony Falls and recorded some of the earliest accounts of the area for the Western world. Hennepin County's early history is linked to the establishment of the cities of Minneapolis and St. Anthony; the history of Hennepin County is cataloged at the Hennepin History Museum, located in Minneapolis. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 607 square miles, of which 554 square miles is land and 53 square miles is water.
Hennepin is one of 17 Minnesota counties with more savanna soils than either prairie or forest soils, is one of only two Minnesota counties with more than 75% of its area in savanna soils. The highest waterfall on the Mississippi River, the Saint Anthony Falls is in Hennepin County next to downtown Minneapolis, but in the 19th century, the falls were converted to a series of dams. Barges and boats now pass through locks to move between the parts of the river above and below the dams. Anoka County Ramsey County Dakota County Scott County Carver County Wright County Sherburne County Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge Mississippi National River and Recreation Area As of the 2010 Census, there were 1,152,425 people, 475,913 households, 272,885 families residing in the county; the racial makeup of the county was 74.4% White, 11.8% Black or African American, 0.9% Native American, 6.2% Asian, 3.4% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. 6.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the largest ancestry groups were German, Norwegian and Swedish. At the 2000 Census, there were 1,116,200 people, 456,129 households, 267,291 families residing in the county; the population density was 774/km². There were 468,824 housing units at an average density of 325/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 80.53% White, 8.95% Black or African American, 1.00% Native American, 4.80% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.06% from other races, 2.60% from two or more races. 4.07% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 456,129 households out of which 28.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.30% were married couples living together, 9.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.40% were non-families. 31.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county 24.00% of the population was under the age of 18, 9.70% was between 18 and 24, 33.70% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 11.00% were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 97.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $51,711, the median income for a family was $65,985 Accounting for inflation, these figures rise again to $76,202.87 for individuals, $92,353.46 for households, adjusted for 2014 dollars. Males had a median income of $42,466 versus $32,400 for females; the per capita income for the county was $28,789. About 5.00% of families and 8.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.50% of those under age 18 and 5.90% of those age 65 or over. Hennepin County is the wealthiest county in Minnesota and one of the 100 highest-income counties in the United States. Besides English, languages with significant numbers of speakers in Hennepin County include Arabic, Khmer, Russian, Somali and Vietnamese. Like all counties in Minnesota, Hennepin is governed by an elected and nonpartisan board of commissioners.
In Minnesota, county commissions have five members, but Hennepin, Dakota, Anoka and St Louis counties have seven members. Each commissioner represents a district of equal population. In Hennepin the county commission appoints the medical examiner, county auditor-treasurer and county recorder; the sheriff and county attorney are elected on a nonpartisan ticket. The county government's headquarters are in downtown Minneapolis in the Hennepin County Government Center; the county oversees the Hennepin County Library system, Hennepin County Medical Center. The county commission elects a chair. Commissioners as of January 7, 2019 Hennepin County's normal operations are coordinated by the County Administrator David Hough, Deputy County Administrator for Health and Human Services Jennifer DeCubellis, Assistant County Administrator for Operations Chester Cooper, Acting Assistant County Administrator for Public Works Chris Sagsveen, Assistant County Administrator for Public Safety Mark Thompson. Under Administrator H
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
St. Cloud, Minnesota
St. Cloud is a city in the U. S. state of Minnesota and the largest population center in the state's central region. Its population is 67,984 according to the 2017 US census estimates, making it Minnesota's tenth largest city. St. Cloud is the county seat of Stearns County and was named after the city of Saint-Cloud, named after the 6th-century French monk Clodoald. Though in Stearns County, St. Cloud extends into Benton and Sherburne counties, straddles the Mississippi River, it is the center of a small, contiguous urban area totaling over 120,000 residents, with Waite Park, Sauk Rapids, Sartell, St. Joseph, St. Augusta directly bordering the city, Foley, Kimball, Clear Lake, Cold Spring nearby. With 189,093 residents at the 2010 census, the St. Cloud metropolitan area is the fourth-largest in Minnesota, behind Minneapolis–St. Paul, Duluth–Superior, Rochester. St. Cloud is 65 miles northwest of the Twin Cities of Minneapolis–St. Paul along Interstate 94, U. S. Highway 10, Minnesota State Highway 23.
The St. Cloud Metropolitan Statistical Area is made up of Stearns and Benton Counties; the city was included in a newly defined Minneapolis–St. Paul–St. Cloud Combined Statistical Area in 2000. St. Cloud as a whole has never been part of the 13-county MSA comprising Minneapolis, St. Paul and parts of western Wisconsin, although its Sherburne County portion is considered part of the Twin Cities metropolitan area by Census Bureau definition. St. Cloud State University, Minnesota's third-largest public university, is located between the downtown area and the Beaver Islands, which form a maze for a two-mile stretch of the Mississippi; the 30 undeveloped islands are a popular destination for kayak and canoe enthusiasts and are part of a state-designated 12-mile stretch of wild and scenic river. St. Cloud owns and operates a hydroelectric dam on the Mississippi that can produce up to nine megawatts of electricity. What is now the St. Cloud area was occupied by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years.
Europeans encountered the Ottawa and Winnebago when they started to trade with Native American peoples. Minnesota was organized as a territory in 1849; the St. Cloud area was opened up to settlers in 1851 after treaty negotiations with the Winnebago tribe in 1851 and 1852. John Wilson, a Maine native with French Huguenot ancestry and an interest in Napoleon, named the settlement St. Cloud after Saint-Cloud, the Paris suburb where Napoleon had his favorite palace. St. Cloud was a waystation on the Middle and Woods branches of the Red River Trails used by Métis traders between the Canada–US border at Pembina, North Dakota and St. Paul; the cart trains consisted of hundreds of oxcarts. The Métis, bringing furs to trade for supplies to take back to their rural settlements, would camp west of the city and cross the Mississippi in St. Cloud or just to the north in Sauk Rapids The City of St. Cloud was incorporated in 1856, it developed from three distinct settlements, known as Upper Town, Middle Town, Lower Town, that were established by European-American settlers starting in 1853.
Remnants of the deep ravines that separated the three are still visible today. Middle Town was settled by Catholic German immigrants and migrants from eastern states, who were recruited to the region by Father Francis Xavier Pierz, a Catholic priest who ministered as a missionary to Native Americans. Lower Town was founded by settlers from the Northern Tier of New England and the mid-Atlantic states, including former residents of upstate New York. Upper Town, or Arcadia, was plotted by General Sylvanus Lowry, a slaveholder and trader from Kentucky who brought slaves with him, although Minnesota was organized as a free territory, he served on the territorial Council from 1852 to 1853 and was elected St. Cloud's first mayor in 1856, serving for one year. Jane Grey Swisshelm, an abolitionist newspaper editor who had migrated from Pittsburgh attacked Lowry in print. At one point Lowry organized a "Committee of Vigilance" that broke into Swisshelm's newspaper office and removed her press, throwing it into the Mississippi River.
Lowry started The Union. The US Supreme Court's 1857 decision in the Dred Scott case ruled that slaves could not file freedom suits, as well as declaring the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, so the territory's prohibition against slavery became unenforceable. Nearly all Southerners left the St. Cloud area when the Civil War broke out, taking their slaves with them. Lowry died in the city in 1865. Beginning in 1864, Stephen Miller served a two-year term as Minnesota governor, the only citizen of St. Cloud to hold the office. Miller was a "Pennsylvania German businessman", writer, active abolitionist, personal friend of Alexander Ramsey, he was on the state's Republican electoral ticket with Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Steamboats docked at St. Cloud as part of the fur trade and other commerce, although river levels were not reliable; this ended with the construction of the Coon Rapids Dam in 1912–14. Granite quarries have operated in the area since the 1880s, giving St. Cloud its nickname, "The Granite City."
In 1917, Samuel Pandolfo started the Pan Motor Company in St. Cloud. Pandolfo claimed, he was convicted and imprisoned for attempting to defraud investors. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 41.08 square miles. The ci
Edina is a city in Hennepin County, United States. Edina began as a small milling community in the 1860's; the population was 47,941, as of 2010. Edina began as part of Minnesota. By the 1870s, 17 families, most of them immigrating as a result of the potato famine in Ireland, had come to Minnesota and claimed land in the southwest section of what was Richfield Township, they were followed by settlers from New England and Germany, who claimed additional land near Minnehaha Creek. The Baird and Grimes neighborhoods, the Country Club District are located in the northeast part of Edina, were among the first areas to be established; the area known as the Cahill Settlement, at West 70th Street and Cahill Road, was an early community center and the home of Cahill School. In 1888, the residents of the township held a meeting to consider founding a new village, thus separating themselves from Richfield Township; the idea was favorably accepted by those within the community and a committee was established to oversee the transition.
After the decision was made to form a new village, a debate ensued regarding the naming of the new village. Several town meetings were held in the Minnehaha Grange Hall, during which the names Hennepin Park and Edina were suggested. Minutes taken by Henry F. Brown, a farmer and future owner of the Edina Mill, are summarized as follows: A long debate ensued with regard to the name by which the corporation shall be called. A motion was made and passed to reconsider the vote taken at the previous meeting of the name of the proposed village, Westfield. Another motion was made by Andrew Craik to call the proposed village Edina. Before the motion could be decided, James A. Bull, a member of the five person committee, made another motion to adjourn, seconded by the majority. However, the chairman of the meeting called this motion out of order, at which time disorder ensued with Baird, Wilson and Bull declaring their intent to no longer serve as members of the committee if a gag law was to prevail. During this heated moment the meeting became somewhat boisterous until, after a few minutes order was restored.
Seeing that no more work could be done at this time, a final motion was made and passed to reschedule the meeting to a future date. At the next meeting, the name Edina was chosen with a vote of 47 for and 42 against. There has been a prevailing myth about the decision to name the new village Edina, which states that two opposing communities—the Irish Cahill community and the Scottish Mill community—fought about whether to give the community an Irish name or a Scottish name; the 1860 census, indicates that there were no Scottish people in Edina in 1860, only a couple were present at the time of Edina's founding. The first suburban development in Edina occurred during the early 1900s in Morningside, a neighborhood in the northeastern part of the village; as Morningside grew, conflict arose between its residents who wanted more city services, the residents of the rest of the village who wanted to maintain Edina's rural character. As a result of that conflict, Morningside became a separate village.
In 1966, the Village of Morningside once again became part of Edina. Before its incorporation in 1888, the village was a beacon of racial tolerance. According to historian Deborah Morse-Kahn, the Quaker village that existed where Edina would be built included African American families of Civil War veterans and freed slaves "became involved in community life—especially as farmland owners and cultural leaders." At the November 1898 general election, J. Frank Wheaton, a Republican African American, was elected to the Minnesota House of Representatives representing District 42, which included all of Edina. Wheaton beat his white Democratic opponent in every Minneapolis city ward and in every village within the legislative district, including Edina though the legislative district had only 100 African American residents out of a total of 40,000 residents. In the early 20th century suburban development brought discriminatory policies that led to nearly all of the African Americans, living in Edina to move away.
James W. Loewen described the suburb as a sundown town. Researchers point in particular to Samuel Thorpe's development of the Country Club Historic District, which used deed restrictions as means to exclude non-whites, stating explicitly that: No lot shall be sold, leased, or rented to any person other than one of the white or Caucasian race, nor shall any lot be used or occupied by any person other than one of the white or Caucasian race, except such as may be serving as domestics for the owner or tenant of said lot, while said owner or tenant is residing thereon. Other developments, like that built by N. P. Dodge Corporation just a mile away, followed suit in attempting to protect land values through racial policies. Though the Supreme Court ruled these kinds of discriminatory housing clauses unenforceable in its Shelley v. Kraemer decision of 1948, reports of discrimination persisted through the 1950s and 1960s. According to the Edina Historical Society's story about the first black family in Morningside in 1960, attempts to keep them out included tactics like trying "to get lot condemned for drainage."
In response, then-mayor Ken Joyce wrote a note dismissing the drainage concern and challenging citizens "to live the Golden Rule". Shortly thereafter