Herceg Novi is a coastal town in Montenegro located at the entrance to the Bay of Kotor and at the foot of Mount Orjen. It is the administrative center of the Herceg Novi Municipality with around 33,000 inhabitants. Herceg Novi was known as Castelnuovo between 1482 and 1797, when it was part of Ottoman Empire and the Albania Veneta of the Republic of Venice, it remains a Latin titular see as Novi. Herceg Novi has had a turbulent past, despite being one of the youngest settlements on the Adriatic. A history of varied occupations has created a blend of diverse and picturesque architectural style in the city. In Montenegrin, the town is known as Herceg Novi or Херцег Нови. Archeological findings from Luštica peninsula and Vranjaj cavern imply that the area was populated in Neolothic and early Bronze Age. In 3rd century BC, after beating the Illyrians, the area was ruled by Roman Republic. After the split of the Roman Empire, the area fell under rule of Western Roman Empire. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area was dominated by Byzantine Empire.
Slavic tribes began inhabiting these lands in 7th century AD. During these times the small settlement was part of Byzantine-held Dračevica district, which in turn belonged to Principality of Travunija. In 10th century Dračevica comes under the control of various Dioclean/Zetan dukes, who were in turn incorporated into Kingdom of Serbia ruled by the Nemanjić dynasty. After the death of Emperor Stefan Dušan, Serbian Empire begins to fracture into smaller principalities and districts, Dračevica being administered by great duke Vojislav Vojinović. After the rulership of Vojinović, the area, along with most of modern Montenegro, comes under the rule of Balšić noble family; the medieval town was founded on a small fishing village as a fortress in 1382 by the first King of Bosnia, Stefan Tvrtko I Kotromanić and was named Sveti Stefan. After the death of Tvrtko, Duke Sandalj Hranić of the Herzegovinian Kosačas acquired Sveti Stefan. During his reign, the town picked up trading salt; when Hranić died, his nephew, Herzog Stjepan Vukčić Kosača inherited it.
During the reign of Duchy of Saint Sava, the town grew in importance and became Stjepan's seat, getting a new name in the process: Herceg Novi. Herzog Stjepan founded Savina monastery; the Turks conquered Herceg Novi in 1482, ruled for 200 years, until 1687. They built Kanli Tower on the upper edge of the city. However, there was a short pause between 1538 and 1539 when it was held by the Spaniards before they were defeated in the Siege of Castelnuovo. In their brief overlordship, the Spanish built a Hispaniola fort above the city, well-preserved today. Venice gained control of the city and included it into Albania Veneta, an administrative unit on the territory of present-day coastal Montenegro. In Venice, the city was known as Castelnuovo; the Venetians refortified the old town walls and towers and reinforced the fortress with a Citadella tower. On 24 August 1798, Herceg Novi was annexed by Habsburg Austria but was ceded to Russia as per the Treaty of Pressburg on 26 December 1805; the Russians occupied Herceg Novi between 28 February 1806 and 12 August 1807.
On 7 July 1807, Herceg Novi was ceded to Napoleon I Bonaparte's French Empire as per the Treaty of Tilsit. Official French rule over Herceg Novi began on 12 August 1807; the city was part of Dalmatia until 14 October 1809, when it was annexed to the newly created Illyrian Provinces. Herceg Novi, as well as the rest of the Bay of Kotor, was overtaken by Montenegrin forces in 1813, it was under control of a temporary government based in Dobrota between 11 September 1813 and 10 June 1814, supported by Montenegro. The appearance of Austrian forces in 1814 caused the Prince-Bishop of Montenegro to turn over the territory to Austrian administration on 11 June. After Herceg Novi was retaken, as well as the rest of the bay, it became part of the Dalmatian crownland; the bay was under Austro-Hungarian control until 1918. In 1900, the two names ERZEG NOVI and CASTELNUOVO PRESSO CATTARO were used in bilingual cancellations; the Kingdom of Montenegro attempted to retake the Bay of Kotor during World War I, it was bombarded from Lovćen, but by 1916 Austria-Hungary defeated Montenegro.
On 7 November 1918, the Serbian Army entered the bay and were greeted by the people as Slavic liberators. The bay became a part of the self-proclaimed State of Slovenes and Serbs. Within a month, this region united with Serbia as part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, renamed to Yugoslavia in 1929; the bay was a municipality of Dalmatia until it was, like all historic entities, abolished in 1922. It was incorporated from 1929 style Zeta Banate. Herceg Novi was annexed by Mussolini's fascist Italy during World War II in 1941, it became a part of the province of Cattaro. Herceg Novi was retaken by Yugoslav Partisan forces on 10 September 1943. Within Tito's Communist reformed Yugoslavia, Herceg Novi became part of the People's Republic of Montenegro, it would follow its fate at the dismemberment of Yugoslavia into the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003, as that fell apart in 2006 into independent Montenegro. It once was a Catholic bishopric. In 1933 the diocese was nominally restored by establishing in the Latin Church of the Catholic Church a titular bishopric of Novi, listed as suffragan of the Archdiocese of Doclea (which in Classical times controlled its region in the Roman
Podgorica is the capital and largest city of Montenegro. Between 1946 and 1992 – in the period that Montenegro formed, as the Socialist Republic of Montenegro, part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia – the city was known as Titograd in honour of Josip Broz Tito. Podgorica's favourable position at the confluence of the Ribnica and Morača rivers and at the meeting-point of the fertile Zeta Plain and Bjelopavlići Valley has encouraged settlement; the city is close to winter skiing centres in the north and to seaside resorts on the Adriatic Sea. Podgorica Municipality covers 10.4% of Montenegro's territory and is home to 29.9% of the country's population. It is the nation's administrative centre and its economic and educational focus; the name Podgorica means " below Gorica". Gorica, meaning "little hill", is the name of one of the cypress-covered hillocks that overlook the city centre; some three kilometres north-west of Podgorica lie the ruins of the Roman-era town of Doclea, from which the Roman Emperor Diocletian hailed.
In centuries, Romans "corrected" the name to Dioclea, guessing wrongly that an "i" had been lost in vulgar speech. "Duklja" is the version of that word. At its foundation, the town was called Birziminium. In the Middle Ages, it was known as Ribnica; the name Podgorica was used from 1326. From 1946 to 1992, the city was named Titograd in honour of Josip Broz Tito, the former President of Yugoslavia. Podgorica is at the crossroads of several important routes, near the rivers Zeta, Morača, Ribnica and Mareza in the valley of Lake Skadar and near the Adriatic Sea, in fertile lowlands with favourable climate; the earliest human settlements were in prehistory: the oldest physical remains are from the late Stone Age. In the Iron Age, the area between the Zeta and Bjelopavlići valleys was occupied by two Illyrian tribes, the Labeates and the Docleatae; the population of the town of Doclea was 8,000–10,000, in which all core urban issues were resolved. The high population density was made possible by the geographical position, favourable climate and economic conditions and by the defensive positions that were of great importance at that time.
From the 5th century AD, with the arrival of the first Slavic and Avar tribes and the beginning of the break-up of the Roman Empire, the area bore witness to many noteworthy events. With time, the fortifications ceased their function and new towns were built, it was first mentioned during the reign of the Nemanjić dynasty, as part of the Serbian kingdom. The importance of Ribnica was its position as crossroads in communications with the west; the name Podgorica was first mentioned in 1326 in a court document of the Kotor archives. The city was economically strong: trade routes between the Republic of Ragusa and Serbia, well developed at that time, were maintained via the road that led to Podgorica through Trebinje and Nikšić; as a busy crossroad, Podgorica was a vibrant regional centre of trade and communication. This boosted its development, economic power, military strength and strategic importance; the Ottoman Empire captured Podgorica in 1474. Podgorica became a kaza of the Sanjak of Scutari in 1479.
The Ottomans built a large fortress in Podgorica, the existing settlement, with its developed merchant connections, became the main Ottoman defensive and attacking bastion in the region. At the beginning of 1474 the Ottoman sultan intended to rebuild Podgorica and Baleč and settle them with 5,000 Muslim families, in order to stop cooperation between the Principality of Zeta and Albania Veneta. Podgorica fell again, but this time to the Turks in 1484, the character of the town changed extensively; the Turks fortified the city, building towers and defensive ramparts that give Podgorica the appearance of an oriental military city. In 1864, Podgorica became a kaze of the Scutari Vilayet called Böğürtlen. On October 7, 1874, in a violent reaction over the murder of a local named Juso Mučin Krnić, Ottoman forces killed at least 15 people in Podgorica; the massacre was reported outside of Montenegro and contributed to the buildup to the Montenegrin-Ottoman War. The end of the Montenegrin-Ottoman War in 1878 resulted in the Congress of Berlin recognizing vast territories, including that of Podgorica, as part of the newly-recognized Kingdom of Montenegro.
At that time there were about 1,500 houses in Podgorica, with more than 8.000 people living there - of Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Muslim faiths flourishing together. After the Berlin Congress in 1878, when Podgorica was annexed to the Principality of Montenegro, marking the end of four centuries of Ottoman rule, the beginning of a new era for Podgorica and Montenegro; the first forms of capital concentration were seen in 1902, when roads were built to all neighbouring towns, tobacco became Podgorica's first significant commercial product. In 1904, a savings bank named Zetska formed the first significant financial institution, it would soon grow into Podgorička Bank. World War I marked the end of dynamic development for Podgorica, which by was the largest city in the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Montenegro. Podgorica was occupied, as was the rest of the country, by Austria-Hungary from 1916 to 1918. After the liberation
Ulcinj is a town on the southern coast of Montenegro and the capital of Ulcinj Municipality. It has an urban population of the majority being Albanians; as one of the oldest settlements in the Adriatic coast, it was founded in 5th century BC. It was captured by the Romans in 163 BC from the Illyrians. With the division of the Roman Empire, it became part of the Byzantine Empire. During the Middle Ages it was under South Slavic rule for a few centuries. In 1405 it became part of Republic in 1571 part of Ottoman Empire. Ulcinj was ceded to the Principality of Montenegro in 1878, it remains a Latin titular see. Ulcinj is a destination for tourists, because of its Long Beach, Lake Šas, Ada Bojana Island and for its two-millennia-old Ulcinj Castle. Ulcinj is the centre of the Albanian community in Montenegro. Early historian Livy mentioned it, as did Pliny the Elder, who mentioned it as Olcinium, its old name Colchinium, "founded by Colchis". Ptolemy mentions the city as Greek Oulkinion. An alternative etymology for the name of the settlement connects it with the Albanian word ukas meaning wolf in English.
The name, through Late Roman, became Middle Latin Ulcinium, Italian: Dulcigno, Slavic: Ulcinj, Albanian: Ulqin or Ulqini and Turkish: Ülgün. Çarshia, is a town centre which connects the old and new parts. In 2009 it was reconstructed, with the asphalt being changed into sett and the water and electrical system were changed; the neighbourhood has some 200 shops. It has an oriental atmosphere. There are two mosques located in the Namazgjahu Mosque and Kryepazari Mosque. Ulcinj is an ancient seaport; the wider area of Ulcinj has been inhabited since the Bronze Age, based on dating of Illyrian tombs found in the village of Zogaj, in the vicinity of Ulcinj. The town is believed to have been founded in the 5th century BC by colonists from Colchis, as mentioned in the 3rd century BC poem by Apollonius of Rhodes. Illyrians lived in the region at the time as there are traces of immense Cyclopean walls still visible in the old Citadel. All the way in the pre-medieval period, Ulcinj was known as one of the pirate capitals of the Adriatic Sea.
This is seen during the period of Illyrian Kingdom. Inhabitants of Ulcinj were known before time of Christ from 20 BC to around 300 AD, to be confrontational to those who were foreigners to their land. In 168 BC, during the Third Illyrian War, Olcinium defected to the Romans. Under Roman rule the town received the status of oppidum civium Romanorum, only to be granted municipium status. A section of their re-fortification can be distinguished from the Illyrio-Greek by the rustication of the walls; the Periplus Maris Erythraei names several Indian ports from where large ships sailed in an easterly direction to Khruse. After the division of the Roman Empire, Ulcinj became a part of the Byzantine province of Prevalis and the population converted to Christianity. From Medieval times, quiet earlier, it was regarded as an important trading and maritime center and still maintained the status of city autonomy. From circa 820, the city was the see of a Diocese of Ulcinj, only suppressed in 1532, would be revived as a Latin titular bishopric.
In the 9th century, it was in a military governorate of the Byzantine Empire. In 1010, Tsar Samuel of Bulgaria failed to conquer the town during the war against the Byzantines. By 1040, archon Stefan Vojislav of Duklja conquered the region. In 1183, Serbian Prince Stefan Nemanja conquered Olcinium and the town prospered as one of the most significant coastal towns. Ulcinj remained in Nemanjić hands in their Kingdom and Empire, after the death of Emperor Dušan, the region, known as Lower Zeta, was under the supervision of gospodin Žarko, a voivode of Emperor Uroš the Weak until his death in 1360. Žarko's lands were held by the Balšić family. Under Balšić control, Ulcinj continued to be an important town and minted coins; the Balšić Tower in the upper part of the Old Town was built by the Balšić noble family in the late 14th century. In 1405 the Venetians conquered the town. Under Venetian control, the city was renamed Dulcigno in Italian, it was incorporated in the Albania Veneta; the Venetians maintained control until 1571, when the Ottoman Turks conquered Dulcigno with the help of Barbary pirates, who didn't leave the town after conquering.
It remained within the Ottoman domain for over 300 years, during which time its far-reaching reputation as a lair of pirates was established. In the 17th century a self-proclaimed Jewish Messiah named Sabbatai Zevi caused turmoil throughout the Turkish Empire with his evangelizing, which attracted thousands of followers, he was captured and exiled to Ulcinj in 1666, where he died ten years later. He was buried in the courtyard of a Muslim house, still preserved as a mausoleum. In 1867, Ulcinj became a kaza of the İşkodra sanjak of Rumeli veyalet. After the Congress of Berlin in 1878, borders between Montenegro and the Ottoman Empire were redrawn, with Ulcinj becoming part of Montenegro. Although prepared to cede Plav and the villages of Grudë, Hoti and Kastrati, Turkey still wanted to retain Ulcinj. Despite resistance a
Pljevlja is a town and the center of Pljevlja Municipality located in the northern part of Montenegro. The city lies at an altitude of 770 m. In the Middle Ages, Pljevlja had been a crossroad of the important commercial roads and cultural streams, with important roads connecting the littoral with the Balkan interior. In 2011, the municipality of Pljevlja had a population of 30,786, while the city itself had a population of about 19,489; the municipality borders those of Žabljak, Bijelo Polje and Mojkovac in Montenegro, as well as the republics of Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. With a total area of 1,346 km2, it is the third largest municipality in Montenegro. Pljevlja is the birthplace of Gojko Ružičić a Serbian-American linguist, who lived and worked in the United States, he was a professor emeritus at Columbia University and contributed to the development of Slavic studies in the United States. The first traces of human life in the region date between 50,000 and 40,000 BC, while reliable findings show that the Ćehotina River valley was inhabited no than 30,000 BC.
The oldest traces of human presence in the town area, a flint tool, had been found in the cave under Gospić Peak. The traces of settlements in the stages of the Stone Age were found in two large archaeological sites called Mališina Stijena and Medena Stijena, dating to 12,000–8,000 BC. During the Bronze and Iron Age, since around 2,000 BC up until the Roman conquests, a large number of necropolises with tumuli, as well as fortified settlements rose along the Ćehotina valley around villages of Mataruge, Kakmuža, Hoćevina and Gotovuša; the tumuli found in Ljutići, Gotovuša and Borovica have been archeologically researched. The first attested tribe in the region was called the Pirustae, an Illyrian Pannonian tribe, existed until the Roman invasion in the 1st century AD; the Romans had a town built on the ruins of their town, it was called Municipium S, located in the Komini neighbourhood. Within the borders of present-day Montenegro, Municipium S is believed to have been the second largest town after Doclea.
It was a large trade– and religious center of the Roman province of Dalmatia. A large number of valuable objects including jewellery pieces, glass vases and pottery have been found; the most valuable object is the diatreta or cage cup, a glass vase trimmed with blue glass threads, considered to be priceless. In the Middle Ages, the region of Pljevlja was a part of nucleus of the Serbian state under the Nemanjić dynasty, until the end of the rule of the Emperor Stefan Dušan. After his death, Pljevlja was under the rule of Serbian autonomous rulers Vojislav Vojinović and Nikola Altomanović. After the defeat of Altomanović 1373 by the joint forces of Serbian lord Lazar Hrebeljanović and Bosnian Ban Tvrtko I, the region of Pljevlja became part of the eastern section of the Kingdom of Bosnia, subsequently part of Sandalj Hranić's province and the Duchy of Saint Sava. In 1465, the Ottoman Empire conquered Pljevlja. During the Ottoman offensive, the fortress of Kukanj, the residence of Stjepan Vukčić Kosača, was destroyed.
Fearing an onslaught, many merchants all feudal land owners and wealthier population fled from Pljevlja, seeking refuge in the Republic of Venice, Republic of Ragusa, or further north into the Kingdom of Hungary or Austrian Empire. In Turkish, the town was known as Taşlıca. In the Ottoman defter of 1475/76, the majority of local inhabitants were Eastern Orthodox Christian, numbering some 101 households; the town was expanded into a larger Ottoman city without a fortress. The 15th and 16th centuries were a period of much construction in the city: in 1465 the Holy Trinity Monastery was founded, in 1569 Husein-paša's mosque was built and during the 16th century the city got a sewage system; when the center of Sanjak of Herzegovina was moved to Pljevlja from Foča in 1572, the city started to change rapidly: urban housing increased: 72 houses in 1468, 150 in 1516, 300 in 1570. The first Muslim religious school, was built in the 17th century; the Russian consul visited Pljevlja in the 19th century and wrote that Pljevlja was a beautiful oriental city with gardens and fountains and churches and over 800 houses in the city center which made Pljevlja the second largest city in the Herzegovina Sanjak besides Mostar.
After two big fires that burned the city center to the ground, the city's economy was ruined. That was the reason for displacing the center of Herzegovina to Mostar in 1833. After 1833 the city stagnated in both an cultural sense. In 1875, after a failed uprising, mass emigration took place around Pljevlja in the direction of Užice and the Drina river basin; as a result of the Congress of Berlin in 1878, Pljevlja and the rest of the Sandžak region were given to Austria-Hungary, interrupting Ottoman rule in the area for the first time in four centuries. However, by 1879, a special convention between Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire transferred western parts of the Sanjak of Novi Pazar into dual jurisdiction between Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. In 1880, Pljevlja was named the capital of the newly formed Sanjak of Pljevlja. Administration remained in Turkish hands, with Austro-Hungarian military presence in the cities of Pljevlja and Priboj; some 5,000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers and their families came to Pljevlja.
As a result, Austro-Hungarian businesses expanded in Pljevlja.
Budva is a Montenegrin town on the Adriatic Sea, former bishopric and present Latin Catholic titular see. It has around 60,000 inhabitants, it is the centre of Budva Municipality; the coastal area around Budva, called the Budva riviera, is the center of Montenegrin tourism, known for its well-preserved medieval walled city, sandy beaches and diverse nightlife. Budva is 2,500 years old. In Montenegrin the town is known as Budva. Extensive archaeological evidence places Budva among the oldest urban settlements of the Adriatic coast. Substantial documentary evidence provides historical references dating back to the 5th century BC. A legend recounts that Bouthoe was founded by Cadmus, the founder of Thebes, when exiled out of Thebes, finding a shelter in this place for him and his wife, goddess Harmonia. Greek colonization of Adriatic began in 4th century BC, when an Emporium was established on the site of Budva. In the 2nd century BC, the area of Budva became part of the Roman Empire. Upon the fall of the Empire and its division into east and west, the defensive barrier which separated the two powers happened to run across this area, subsequently making a lasting impact on the history and culture of this town.
In the 6th century, Budva was part of the Byzantine Empire, in the following two centuries, Slavs and, to a lesser extent, Avars began to arrive in the area, mixing with the native Roman population. Budva bay was known as Avarorum sinus during the Avar incursions. In 841, Budva was sacked by Muslim Saracens. In the early Middle Ages, Budva was reigned by a succession of Doclean kings, as well as Serbian and Zetan aristocrats. Circa 1200, it became the see of a Roman Catholic Diocese of Budua, which lasted until 1828 and was nominally revived as a Latin titular bishopric; the Venetians ruled the town for nearly 400 years, from 1420 to 1797. Budva, called Budua in those centuries, was part of the Venetian Republic region of Albania Veneta and was fortified by powerful Venetian walls against Ottoman conquests. According to the historian Luigi Paulucci in his book "Le Bocche di Cattaro nel 1810", most of the population spoke the Venetian language until the beginning of the 19th century. One of the most renowned theater librettists and composers, Cristoforo Ivanovich, was born in Venetian Budua.
With the fall of Republic of Venice in 1797, Budva came under the rule of the Habsburg Monarchy. During the Napoleonic Wars, Montenegrin forces allied with Russia took control over the city in 1806, only to relinquish the city to France in 1807. French rule lasted until 1813, when Budva was ceded to the Austrian Empire, which remained in control of the city for the next 100 years. A union of Boka Kotorska with Montenegro took place for a brief period, but from 1814 until the end of World War I in 1918, Budva remained under Austria-Hungary; the southernmost fortress in the Austro-Hungarian empire, Fort Kosmač, was constructed nearby to guard the road from Budva to Cetinje. After the war, the Serbian army entered Budva after it was abandoned by Austrian forces and it came under the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In 1941, with the beginning of World War II, Budva was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy. Budva was liberated from Axis rule on 22 November 1944 and incorporated in the Socialist Republic of Montenegro.
A catastrophic earthquake struck Budva on 15 April 1979. Much of old town was devastated, but today there is little evidence of the catastrophe – all the buildings were restored to their original form. Montenegro became an independent country with Budva as its primary tourist destination; the municipal parliament consists of 33 deputies elected directly for a four-year term. Following the last local election held on 16 October 2016, the ruling DPS lost its absolute majority, the new local government being formed by a coalition of opposition parties. Budva is the administrative centre of Budva municipality, which includes the neighbouring towns of Bečići and Petrovac, has a population of 19,218; the town itself has 13,338 inhabitants. Ethnicity in 2018: 19,262 Montenegrins 36,780 Serbs 5.446 Russians 1,480 Ukrainians 2,332 Others The Old Town of Budva is situated on a rocky peninsula, on the southern end of Budva field. Archaeological evidence suggests that Illyrian settlement was formed on the site of the Old Town before Greek colonization of the Adriatic.
While the site was permanently settled since Roman era, most of existing city walls and buildings were erected during the Venetian rule. The entire town is encircled with defensive stone walls; the fortifications of Budva are typical of the Medieval walled cities of the Adriatic, complete with towers, fortified city gates and a citadel. There were gates on all of the four sides of the walled city. However, sea-facing gates were closed up over the years; the main city gate is the grand entry to the city from the west. It is the beginning of the city's main thoroughfare, Njegoševa Street. There are four more gates on the north wall, facing Budva marina, one small gate facing the southwestern beach of Ričardova glava; the layout of the town is orthogonal, although many streets deviate from the grid, resulting in somewhat irregular pattern, with many piazzas connected with narrow
Nikšić is the second largest city of Montenegro, with a total population of 56,970 located in the west of the country, in the centre of the spacious Nikšić field at the foot of Trebjesa Hill. It is the center of Nikšić Municipality with population of 72,443 according to 2011 census, the largest municipality by area and second most inhabited after Podgorica, it was largest municipality by area in former Yugoslavia. It is an important industrial and educational center; the Romans built a military camp in the 4th century AD, known as Ostrogothic fortress Anagastum on an earlier Illyrian tribal settlement. Slavs settled in the area in the 7th century; the Roman name was transformed into Slavic Onogošt, the name of the town and župa throughout the Middle Ages. During the Early Middle Ages, it was located within the South Slavic tribal provinces of Travunia or Duklja. With the fall of the Vlastimirovići and the hinterland regions in the second half of the 10th century, Serbia was resurrected with Stefan Vojislav and his Vojislavljević dynasty, succeeded by Stefan Nemanja and his Nemanjić dynasty, at which time the Onogošt župa existed.
With the fall of the Serbian Empire, Onogošt came under the rule of Kingdom of Bosnia in 1373, was under the rule of the Kosača noble family, which held territory in Herzegovina from 1448 until Herzegovina fell to the Ottomans. The Ottoman Empire took hold of Onogošt in 1455, it stayed under control of the Turks for more than four hundred years, as a part of Herzegovina Province. Onogošt was first referred to as "Nikšić" in a document titled Radonia Pribisalich de Nichsich printed in 1518; the name "Nikšić" was used alongside Onogošt until 1767, when the name Nikšić was implemented after an "Ayani night", a high-profile meeting of Ottoman feudal lords, common at the time. During the years of Ottoman occupation, the town served as a significant fortified military stronghold. During the course of Ottoman rule, a total of four mosques were built in Nikšić; the first one, was constructed between 1695 and 1703. A second mosque called Hadžidanuša was constructed sometime in the early 1700s by an Ottoman military captain, Hadži-Husejin Danević.
A third mosque, known as "Pasha's mosque", was the largest in Nikšić. It was said to be architectually similar to Jashar Pasha Mosque in Pristina. A fourth mosque called Hadži-Ismail's mosque was erected in 1807, was the only mosque to survive the departure of the Ottoman Empire from Nikšić that century. In 1807, armed forces led by Petar I Petrović-Njegoš along with 1,000 Russian troops attempted to take Nikšić, but Ottoman forces prevailed. On July 18, 1876, the Principality of Montenegro defeated Ottoman forces in the Battle of Vučji Do in the western edge of the municipality of Nikšić. On 27 August 1877, the rest of Nikšić was taken by the Montenegrin Army under the command of Vojvoda Mašo Vrbica after a 47-day siege against the Ottoman authorities. English archaeologist Arthur Evans witnessed the negotiations between Nikola I of Montenegro and the remaining Muslims after the siege, subsequently wrote about them in his diary: Nikšić was recognized as a part of the Principality of Montenegro in the Treaty of Berlin.
The small Ottoman hamlet began to transform into a modern urban settlement. The first urban plan was adopted in 1883, commissioned by King Nikola, who appointed Croatian architect Josip Slade to develop the city planning. In addition to designing contemporary Nikšić, he designed the monumental Carev Most nearby; the ousting of King Nikola and the context of the transition to the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes resulted in considerable tension and violence in Nikšić. On December 23, 1918, Nikšić was the site of a skirmish between Montenegrin Greens and Serbian troops under the command of Dragan Milutinović; the Greens had launched an attack on Nikšić during the Christmas Uprising, although Serbian forces prevailed. After the Christmas Uprising ended, some Montenegrin Greens continued a resistance against the Yugoslav government for many years. On December 28, 1923, 11 Montenegrin "Komiti" who continued guerilla activities after the Christmas Uprising were executed in Nikšić by the Serbian Gendarmery.
Nikšić saw the establishment of rail transport during the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. On July 12, 1938, after thirteen years of on-and-off construction, the first train arrived from Bileća at the newly constructed railway station in Nikšić. A gate was decorated in front of the new station, on which a portrait of King Petar II was installed with "Long Live Yugoslavia!" Written under the portrait. 5,000 people waited for the first train to arrive in Nikšić when its arrival was delayed by two hours on a hot day. During the delay, much of the public was impatient, with two war veterans leading a kolo dance on the railroad tracks before the train arrived. During World War II, Nikšić was first occupied by the Italian governorate in Montenegro; the occupation resulted in several insurrections, with one of the earliest started by the Yugoslav Partisans. The first Partisan advances were violently repressed, as Nikšić became the site of a large number of public executions, including those of notable communists Ljubo Čupić and 16-year old Joka Baletić.
Over the course of April 7-8, 1944, Nikšić was bombed by the Royal Air Force, using Vickers Wellington long-range bombers. One of the Yugoslav Partisans' commanders in Montenegro, Peko Dapčević, requested to J
Bijelo Polje is a town in northeastern Montenegro on the Lim River. It has an urban population of 15,400, it is the administrative, economic and educational centre of northern Montenegro. Bijelo Polje is the center of Bijelo Polje Municipality, it is the unofficial center of the north-eastern region of Montenegro. Bijelo Polje means "White Field" in all related South Slavic languages. Bijelo Polje's Church of Saint Peter and Paul is the place where the famous UNESCO Miroslav's Gospel of Miroslav, brother of Serb ruler Stefan Nemanja was written. During World War II, Bijelo Pole was a prominent location for the anti-fascist resistance movement in Yugoslavia, Montenegro in particular. Bijelo Polje is the administrative centre of the Bijelo Polje municipality, which in 2011 had a population of 46,251; the town of Bijelo Polje itself has 15,400 citizens. Population of Bijelo Polje: 1981 - 11,927 1991 - 16,464 2003 - 15,883 2011 - 15,400Population of Bijelo Polje: 1948 - 36,795 1953 - 41,432 1961 - 46,651 1971 - 52,598 1981 - 55,634 1991 - 55,268 2003 - 50,284 2011 - 46,051Religion: Orthodox Islam Catholic Atheist Christians Ethnic composition in 2011 Bijelo Polje was the birthplace of the oral poet Avdo Međedović and of many prominent writers, such as Ćamil Sijarić, Miodrag Bulatović, as well as basketball player Nikola Peković and Swedish footballing brothers Ajsel Kujović and Emir Kujović.
Belgrade–Bar Bijelo Polje is connected to the rest of Montenegro by two major roads. It is situated on the main road connecting Montenegro's coast and Podgorica with northern Montenegro and Serbia. Bijelo Polje is a station on Belgrade–Bar railway, the last station in Montenegro for trains leaving for Belgrade, it serves as a regional train station. Podgorica Airport is 130 km away, has regular flights to major European destinations. Bijelo Polje has a humid continental climate with warm summers, cold winters, abundant precipitation year round. Miodrag Bulatović, writer Ćamil Sijarić, writer Risto Ratković, writer Milutin Karadžić, actor Ajsel Kujović, footballer Emir Kujović, footballer Duško Ivanović, basketball coach Nikola Peković, basketball player Predrag Drobnjak, basketball player Suad Šehović, basketball player Sead Šehović, basketball player Official website Visit-Montenegro.com Census info, njegos.org.