Évora is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 56,596, in an area of 1307.08 km². It is the seat of the Évora District; the present Mayor is Carlos Pinto de Sá of the CDU coalition. The municipal holiday is 29 June. Due to its well-preserved old town centre, still enclosed by medieval walls, a large number of monuments dating from various historical periods, including a Roman Temple, Évora is a UNESCO World Heritage site, it is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network.Évora is ranked number two in the Portuguese most livable cities survey of living conditions published yearly by Expresso. It was ranked first in a study concerning competitiveness of the 18 Portuguese district capitals, according to a 2006 study made by University of Minho economic researchers. Évora has a history dating back more than five millennia. It was known as Ebora by the Celtici, a tribal confederacy, south of the Lusitanians, who made the town their regional capital; the etymological origin of the name Ebora is from the ancient Celtic word ebora/ebura, plural genitive of the word eburos, name of a species of tree, so its name means "of the yew trees."
The city of York, in northern England, at the time of the Roman Empire, was called Eboracum/Eburacum, named after the ancient Celtic place name *Eborakon, so the old name of York is etymologically related to the city of Évora. Alternative hypotheses are that the name is derived from oro, aurum, as the Romans had extensive gold mining in Portugal, it may have been capital of the kingdom of Astolpas. See Ebora Liberalitas Julia for more on Roman Evora; the Romans expanded it into a walled town. Vestiges from this period still remain. Julius Caesar called it Liberalitas Julia; the city grew in importance. During his travels through Gaul and Lusitania, Pliny the Elder visited this town and mentioned it in his book Naturalis Historia as Ebora Cerealis, because of its many surrounding wheat fields. In those days, Évora became a flourishing city, its high rank among municipalities in Roman Hispania is shown by many inscriptions and coins. The monumental Corinthian temple in the centre of the town dates from the first century and was erected in honour of emperor Augustus.
In the fourth century, the town had a bishop, named Quintianus. During the barbarian invasions, Évora came under the rule of the Visigothic king Leovigild in 584; the town was raised to the status of a cathedral city. This was a time of decline and few artifacts from this period remain. In 715, the city was conquered by the Moors under Tariq ibn-Ziyad who called it Yaburah يابرة. During the Moorish rule, the town, part of the Taifa of Badajoz began to prosper again and developed into an agricultural center with a fortress and a mosque; the present character of the city is evidence of the Moorish influence. During that time, several notables hailed from Evora, including Abd al-Majid ibn Abdun Al-Yaburi عبد المجيد بن عبدون اليابري, a poet whose diwan still survives to this day. Évora was wrested from the Moors through a surprise attack by Gerald the Fearless in September 1165. The town came under the rule of the Portuguese king Afonso I in 1166, it flourished as one of the most dynamic cities in the Kingdom of Portugal during the Middle Ages in the 15th century.
The court of the first and second dynasties resided here for long periods, constructing palaces and religious buildings. Évora became the scene for a site where many important decisions were made. Thriving during the Avis Dynasty under the reign of Manuel I and John III, Évora became a major centre for the humanities and artists, such as the sculptor Nicolau Chanterene. Évora held a large part of the slave population of Portugal. Nicolas Clenard, a Flemish tutor at the Portuguese court, exclaimed in 1535 that "In Évora, it was as if I had been carried off to a city in hell: everywhere I only meet blacks." The city became the seat of an archbishopric in 1540. The university was founded by the Jesuits in 1559, it was here that great European Masters such as the Flemish humanists Nicolaus Clenardus, Johannes Vasaeus and the theologian Luis de Molina passed on their knowledge. In the 18th century, the Jesuits, who had spread intellectual and religious enlightenment since the 16th century, were expelled from Portugal, the university was closed in 1759 by the Marquis of Pombal, Évora went into decline.
The university was only reopened in 1973. The Battle of Évora was fought on 29 July 1808 during the Peninsular War. An outnumbered Portuguese-Spanish force of 2,500, assisted by poorly armed peasant militiamen, tried to stop a French-Spanish division commanded by Louis Henri Loison but it was routed. Led by the hated Loison, known as Maneta or One-Hand, the French went on to storm the town, defended by soldiers and armed townsmen. Breaking into the town, the attackers slaughtered combatants and non-combatants alike before pillaging the place; the French inflicted as many as 8,000 casualties while suffering only 290 of their own. In 1834, Évora wa
Amadora is a municipality and urbanized city in the northwest of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. The population in 2011 was 175,136, in an area of 23.78 km². It is the most densely populated municipality in Portugal. Named Porcalhota, for being a Majorat of the daughter of a man surnamed Porcalho, called for being a female Porcalhota; the Aqueduto das Águas Livres, which brings water from the Sintra hills to Lisbon, stretches 30 kilometres, was finished in the 1770s and includes the largest masonry arch built, located in Campolide — the local coat of arms displays the aqueduct. At the request of its population, in 1907, a decree issued during King Carlos I reign, merged the communities of Porcalhota and Venteira into one town named Amadora. At the present time Amadora does not have any airfield. However, in the 1920s a small airfield was located here; the first flight from Portugal to Brazil left from Amadora. The Captain of the airplane was a well known Portuguese celebrity; the municipality was formed on 11 September 1979, when it ceased being a parish of the municipality of Oeiras.
Few days on 17 September, Amadora was granted city status. The former Sorefame railway rolling stock factory was located in Amadora, but was closed in 2004. Most of the carriages for Portuguese Railways built during the second half of the 20th century were constructed here. One of the largest urban communities in Portugal, Amadora forms a conurbation with Lisbon, sharing the same subway and train networks, it is dominated by large apartment blocks, commercial parks, industrial areas and some headquarters of international companies. Administratively, the municipality is divided into 6 civil parishes: Águas Livres Alfragide Encosta do Sol Falagueira-Venda Nova Mina de Água Venteira Despite being a residential city, Amadora has commercial zones and headquarters of international companies operating in Portugal; as commercial zones, it has IKEA, Alegro and Dolce Vita Tejo. Siemens and Roche are examples of international companies based in Amadora. Amadora's public transport network is far-reaching and reliable, being integrated with the transportation network of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area.
It has 2 metro stations, the commuter Sintra train line with 3 stations, 2 bus services and 4 motorways around the city. Every year, Amadora city organizes the Amadora International Comics Festival. Roads in Portugal Amadora International Comics Festival - official festival Web site Photos from AMADORA - media information
Aveiro is a city and a municipality in Portugal. In 2011, the population was 78,450, in an area of 197.58 square kilometres: it is the second most populous city in the Centro Region of Portugal. Along with the neighbouring city of Ílhavo, Aveiro is part of an urban agglomeration that includes 120,000 inhabitants, making it one of the most important populated regions by density in the Centro Region, primary centre of the Intermunicipal Community of Aveiro and Baixo Vouga. Administratively, the president of the municipal government is José Ribau Esteves, elected by coalition between the Social Democratic Party and the Democratic Social Centre, who governs the ten civil parishes; the presence of human settlement in the territory of Aveiro extends to the period associated with the great dolmens of pre-history, which exist in most of the region. For a long period Aveiro was an important economic link in the production of salt and commercial shipping, it was a centre of salt exploration by the Romans and trade since 26 January 959.
During this testament, Mumadona Dias highlighted the ancient name for Aveiro, referring to the monastery's lands in Alauario et Salinas "a gathering place or preserve of birds and of great salt". The Moors invaded and held it until the 11th century, after which it became popular with Portuguese royalty. King João I, on the advice of his son Pedro, the donatary of Aveiro, requested the construction of fortification walls. King D. Duarte conceded in 1435 the privilege of providing an annual duty-free fair referred to as the Feira de Março, today still an annual tradition; the Princess St. Joana, daughter of Afonso V lived in Aveiro, entering the convent of Jesus, lived there until her death on 12 May 1490. During her life her presence brought attention to the town, favoured it with an elevated level of development for the time; the first charter was conceded by Manuel I of Portugal on 4 August 1515, as indicated in the Livro de Leituras Novas de Forais da Estremadura. Its geographic position along the Aveiro River had always helped it to subsist and grow, supported by salt market and maritime commercial development.
By the beginning of the 15th century, there existed a great wall around the historical centre, intonating the significance of the community and growth of the population. This included the founding of many religious institutions and their supports, which assisted during the 17th and 18th century crises associated with silt in the waterway. In the winter of 1575, a terrible storm closed the entrance to its port, ending a thriving trade in metals and tiles, creating a reef barrier at the Atlantic Ocean; the walls were subsequently used to create the docks around the new sand bar. Between the 16th and 17th centuries, the river's instability at the mouth resulted in the closure of the canal, impeding the use of the port of Aveiro, creating stagnation in the waters of the lagoon; this blow to the economy created a social and economic crisis, resulted in the decrease in the population and emigration. It was at this time that the Church of the Miserícordia was constructed, during the Philippine Dynastic union.
In 1759, King José I elevated the town to the status of city, a few months after condemning the Duke of Aveiro, José Mascarenhas, to death. As a result, Aveiro became known as Nova Bragança: it was abandoned much and returned to Aveiro. In 1774, by request of King José, Pope Clement XIV instituted the Diocese of Aveiro. In the 19th century, the Aveirense were active during the Liberal Wars, it was José Estêvão Coelho de Magalhães, a parliamentary member, determinant in resolving the problem of access along the Ria, development of transport the railway line between Lisbon and Porto, it was the opening of the artificial canals, completed in 1808, that allowed Aveiro to expand economically, marking the beginning in the town's growth. The municipality was elevated to the status of town, centered on the its principal church, consecrated to the Archangel Michael, today the location of the Praça da República. Located on the shore of the Atlantic Ocean, Aveiro is an industrial city with an important seaport.
The seat of the municipality is the city of Aveiro, comprising the five urban parishes with about 73,003 inhabitants. The city of Aveiro is the capital of the District of Aveiro, the largest city in the Baixo Vouga intermunicipal community subregion. Aveiro is known as "the Portuguese Venice", due to its system of canals and boats similar to the Italian city of Venice. Aveiro has a warm-summer mediterranean climate influenced by its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean; the maritime influence causes a narrow temperature range resulting in summers averaging around 24 °C in daytime temperatures lower than inland areas on the same parallel on the Iberian Peninsula. As typical of mediterranean climates, summers are dry and winters are wet. A coastal feature is that frosts are never severe; the hottest temperature recorded was 39.3 °C set in July. Temperatures above 32 °C are occasional, averages only a couple of times per annum. Administratively, the municipality is divided into 10 civil parishes: Aradas Cacia Eixo e Eirol Esgueira Glória e Vera Cruz Oliveirinha Requeixo, Nossa Senhora de Fátima e Nariz Santa Joana São Bernardo São JacintoSão Jacinto is loca
Faro is a municipality and bishopric, the southernmost city and seat of the district of the same name, in the Algarve region of southern Portugal. With a population of 64,560 inhabitants in 2011, the municipality covers an area of about 202.57 km2.. The Ria Formosa lagoon attracted humans from the Palaeolithic age until the end of prehistory; the first settlements date from the fourth century BC, during the period of Phoenician colonization of the western Mediterranean. At the time, the area was known as Ossonoba, was the most important urban centre of southern Portugal and commercial port for agricultural products and minerals. Between the second and eighth centuries, the city was under the domain of the Romans the Byzantines, Visigoths, before being conquered by the Moors in 713. From the third century onwards and during the Visigothic period, it was the site of an Episcopal see, the Ancient Diocese of Ossonoba; the Byzantine presence has endured in the city walls' towers that were built during the Byzantine period.
With the advent of Moorish rule in the eighth century, Ossonoba retained its status as the most important town in the southwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula. In the 9th century, it became the capital of a short-lived princedom and was fortified with a ring of defensive walls. At this time, in the 10th century, the name Santa Maria began to be used instead of Ossonoba. By the 11th century, the town was known as Santa Maria Ibn Harun. During the 500 years of Moorish rule, some Jewish residents of Faro made written copies of the Old Testament. One of Faro's historical names in Arabic is; the Moors were defeated and expelled in 1249 by the forces of the Portuguese King Afonso III. With the decline of the importance of the city of Silves, Faro took over the role of administration of the Algarve area. After Portuguese independence in 1143, Afonso Henriques and his successors began an expansion into the southern Iberian territory occupied by the Moors. Following the conquest by D. Afonso III, in 1249, the Portuguese referred to the town as Santa Maria de Faaron or Santa Maria de Faaram.
In the following years, the town became prosperous, due to its secure exploitation of salt. By the beginning of the Portuguese Age of Discovery, the town was well positioned to become a leading commercial centre. In the 14th century, the Jewish community began to grow in importance. In 1487, Samuel Gacon began printing the Pentateuco in the first book printed in Portugal; the Jewish community of Faro had long been a dominant force in the region, with many artisans and merchants contributing to the economy and city development, but this level of prosperity was interrupted in December 1496 by an edict of Manuel I of Portugal, expelling those who did not convert to Christianity. As a result Jews no longer remained in Portugal. In the place of the Jewish village of Vila Adentro, the convent of Nossa Senhora da Assunção was founded and patronised by Queen Leonor, wife of the king. Manuel I promoted the expansion of the city. By 1540, John III of Portugal had elevated Faro to the status of city in 1577, the bishopric of the Algarve was transferred from Silves, which retains a co-cathedral, to the present Diocese of Faro.
In 1596, the city was sacked by English privateers led by 2nd Earl of Essex. The resultant fires damaged the walls and other buildings. At the same time, English troops seized the library of the Bishop of Faro Fernando Martins de Mascarenhas, which became part of the collection of the University of Oxford's Bodleian Library. Among the looted books was the first printed book in Portugal: a Torah in local Hebrew, printed by Samuel Gacon at his workshop in Faro. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, the city was expanded, with a series of walls during the period of the Restoration Wars, encompassing the semicircular front to the Ria Formosa; the western city of Lagos had become the capital of the historical province of Algarve in 1577, but this all changed with the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. It affected many settlements across the Algarve, including Faro, which suffered damage to churches and the episcopal palace, in addition to the walls, castle towers and bulwarks, guardhouses, warehouses and prison.
Much of the greater devastation across the coastal and lowland regions was caused by a tsunami, which dismantled fortresses and razed homes. All the coastal towns and villages of the Algarve were damaged by the tsunami, except Faro, protected by the sandy banks of the Ria Formosa lagoon. With the capital Lagos devastated, Faro become the administrative seat of the region the following year, 1756; the municipality of Faro is divided into two distinct areas, the coastline, part of the Parque Natural da Ria Formosa and the barrocal, characterized by hills and valleys, populated with typical Algarvan vegetation. The nature park was created by Decree-Law 373/87, on 8 December 1987, is considered one of the seven natural wonders of Portugal, with a beach, around 7 km from the downtown, it includes the river and a lagoon system, interspersed with dunes, forming a small islands and peninsulas, that
Braga is a city and a municipality in the northwestern Portuguese district of Braga, in the historical and cultural Minho Province. The city has a resident population of 192,494 inhabitants, representing the seventh largest municipality in Portugal, its area is 183.40 km². Its agglomerated urban area extends from the Cávado River to the Este River, it is the third-largest urban centre in Portugal The city was the European Youth Capital in 2012. It is host to the oldest Portuguese archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church and it is the seat of the Primate Archbishop of Portugal and of the Hispanias. Under the Roman Empire known as Bracara Augusta, the settlement was the capital of the province of Gallaecia. Inside of the city there is a castle tower that can be visited. Nowadays, Braga is a major hub for inland Northern Portugal. Human occupation of the region of Braga dates back thousands of years, documented by vestiges of monumental structures starting in the Megalithic era. During the Iron Age, the Castro culture extended into the northwest, characterized by Bracari peoples who occupied the high ground in strategically located fortified settlements.
The region became the domain of the Callaici Bracarii, or Bracarenses, a Celtic tribe who occupied what is now northern Portugal and Asturias in the northwest of Iberia. The Romans began their conquest of the region around 136 BC, finished it, by pacifying the northern regions, during the reign of Emperor Augustus; the civitas of Bracara Augusta was founded in 20 BC. The city of Bracara Augusta developed during the 1st century and reached its maximum extension around the 2nd century. Towards the end of the 3rd century, the Emperor Diocletian promoted the city to the status of capital of the administrative area Conventus bracarensis, the southwestern area of the newly founded Roman province of Gallaecia. During the Germanic Invasions of the Iberian Peninsula, the area was conquered by the Suebi, a Germanic people from Central Europe. In 410, the Suebi established a Kingdom in northwest Iberia covering what is present-day's Northern half of Portugal and Asturias, which they maintained as Gallaecia, had Bracara as their capital.
This kingdom was lasted for over 150 years. By about 584, the Visigoths took over control of Gallaecia from the Suebi, they renounced the Priscillianist heresies during two synods held here in the 6th century. As a consequence, the archbishops of Braga claimed the title of Primate of Portugal a county, for a long period, claimed supremacy over the entire Hispanic church. Yet, their authority was never accepted throughout Hispania. Braga had an important role in the Christianization of the Iberian Peninsula; the first known bishop of Braga, lived at the end of the 4th century, although Saint Ovidius is sometimes considered one of the first bishops of this city. In the early 5th century, Paulus Orosius wrote several theological works that expounded the Christian faith, while in the 6th century Bishop Martin of Braga converted the pagan Suebi and Visigoths from Arianism to Catholicism. At the time, Martin founded an important monastery in Dumio, it was in Braga that Archbishopric of Braga held their councils.
The transition from Visigothic reigns to the Muslim conquest of Iberia was obscure, representing a period of decline for the city. The Moors captured Braga early in the 8th century, but were repelled by Christian forces under Alfonso III of Asturias in 868 with intermittent attacks until 1040 when they were ousted by Ferdinand I of León and Castile; as a consequence, the bishopric was restored in 1070: the first new bishop, started rebuilding the Cathedral. Between 1093 and 1147, Braga became the residential seat of the Portuguese court. In the early 12th century, Count Henry of Portugal and bishop Geraldo de Moissac reclaimed the archbishopric seat for Braga, with power over a large area in Iberia; the medieval city developed around the cathedral, with the maximum authority in the city retained by the archbishop. Braga as the main center of Christianity in Iberia, during the Reconquista, held a prominent stage in medieval politics, being a major factor/contributor to the Independence of Portugal with the intervenience of the Archbishop D. Paio Mendes in the Vatican and the Pope Alexander III, which lead to the promulgation of the Bula Manifestis Probatum in 1179 recognizing Portugal as an independent Kingdom under D. Afonso I Henriques.
The following centuries marked a slow decline in its prestige and influence marked by the infamous theft of Holy Relics by the Archbishop of Santiago of Compostela Gelmirez. The relics only returned to Braga in the 1960s. In the 16th century, due to its distance from the coast and provincial status, Braga did not profit from the adventures associated with the Age of Portuguese Discoveries. Yet, Archbishop Diogo de Sousa, who sponsored several urban improvements in the city, including the enlargement of streets, the creation of public squares and the foundation of hospitals
Portimão is a town and a municipality in the district of Faro, in the Algarve region of southern Portugal. The population in 2011 was 55,614, in an area of 182.06 km². It was known as Vila Nova de Portimão. In 1924, it was incorporated as a cidade and became known as Portimão. A fishing and shipbuilding centre, it has nonetheless developed into a strong tourist centre oriented along its beaches and southern coast; the two most populous towns in the Algarve are Faro. The area was settled during the prehistoric epoch: the Cynetes, influenced by the Celts and Tartessos lived during the Algarve for many centuries. In the area of Alcalar there are several remnants of Neolithic funerary sites of which only one, Alcalar monument number seven, comprising a circular chamber composed of schist stone and long corridor, remains. Comparable to western European and Irish monuments, the funeral crypt, with two lateral ritual niches, was protected by a tumulus: a similar site exists in Monte Canelas; the mouth of the Arade River proved an important natural shelter that soon became a small commercial port for the Phoenicians and Carthaginians.
The Carthaginians founded two settlements nearby in the mid-6th century BC, known by their Roman names Portus Magonis and Portus Hannibalis. The former was the nucleus of present-day Portimão. Obvious vestiges of the Roman occupation are situated near Figueira, at Quinta da Abicada, in the confluence of two rivers, where the remains of various rooms were unearthed. In the area of Coca Maravilhas was discovered a well-preserved period cistern, while along the Arade River there have been identified gold coins. In the 5th century, the Algarve was inhabited by the Visigoths until the invasion of the Moors, it was during the Moorish occupation. The river and its ocean access to the ancient city of Shilb capital of the Arabian Algarve. Along with Silves and Alvor, the small fishing centre in Portimão was reconquered in 1249 from the Arabs by Knights of the Order of Santiago and forcibly integrated into the fledgling kingdom, during the reign of Afonso III of Portugal, its geographic location created strong economic conditions to allow the region to prosper allowing Portimão to obtain the status of town in 1435.
The inhabitants understood the necessity of constructing walls, in order to protect themselves from constant invasions. The construction of two forts, the Castle of São João and the Castle of Santa Catarin, protected the centre from attacks from pirates and privateers during this period. In Portimão, a major part of the commerce was accomplished across the sea; the transport across the Arade River was done across a boat. Until bridge and road was constructed, 400 years it was the only form of crossing the river. In 1463, King Afonso V of Portugal, under petition from several inhabitants in Portimão, authorized the founding of new settlement, which became the urbanized centre of Portimão. In 1476, Vila Nova de Portimão is donated by Afonso V of Portugal to his financial inspector, D. Gonçalo Vaz de Castelo Branco, remaining in the family until the 17th century; the shipbuilding industry took on an important place in the city's development. These activities were registered in the royal documents that included authorization of Sebastian of Portugal.
The king visited in 1573, passing the night and assisting a solemn mass in the Convent of São Francisco. In the port of Portimão local products, such as figs, oil and fish were exported, while other products from the African and Brazilian colonies, such as slaves and sugar, were introduced into the Portuguese territory. But, by the 17th and 18th century, the rhythm of growth slowed considerably; as commerce decreased the inhabitants emigrated, a fact that accelerated after the 1755 earthquake, causing the destruction within the city. The main church was destroyed; the city walls were damaged, not just by the earthquake but the resulting tsunami. The Fort of Santa Catarina suffered damage, but was reconstructed in 1792 and 1794, by the Count of Val de Reys. Twenty years after the earthquake, the Marquess of Pombal, wanted to make Portimão a bishopric, in this evolution, he elevated the town to the status of city. Queen Maria I of Portugal vetoed these intentions; the civil statute was only issued in 1924, by the Marquess' illustrious son Manuel Teixeira Gomes, as Republican President.
In the 19th century, a fishing conserving industry reinvigorated the old city. Now renamed Portimão, the city turned into one of the more important fishing and packing centres in the Algarve, until the 20th century, when the 1980s recession caused these businesses to fold. At the end of the 20th century, visitors to the region began travelling to the beaches of Praia da Rocha or Praia da Santa Catarina. On 1 August 1910, the Praia da Rocha Casino was opened, symptom of the growing influx of tourists to the region, many aristocrats from the southern part of the country and Andalusia; the place became populated by chalets built for, or rented to, the numerous tourists. The first hotel constructed, the Hotel Viola, dated to the first part of the 20th century, was expanded after 1932, when the space became too small to support the influx of travellers. In 1936, the Hotel Bela Vista was constructed as total tourists began to exceed a thousand people annually, it turned into a popular destination for sport fishing, among popular nautical sports, jet skiing, sai
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe