Požarevac is a city and the administrative center of the Braničevo District in eastern Serbia. It is located between three rivers: Great Morava and Mlava; as of 2011, the city has a population of 44,183 inhabitants, while the city administrative area has 75,334 inhabitants. In Serbian, the city is known as Požarevac, in Romanian as Pojarevaţ, in Turkish as Pasarofça, in German as Passarowitz, in Hungarian as Pozsarevác; the name means "fire-town" in Serbian. In ancient times, the area was inhabited by Thracians and Celts. There was a city at this locality known as Margus in Latin after the Roman conquest in the first century BC. In 435, the city of Margus, under the Eastern Roman Empire, was the site of a treaty between the Byzantine Empire and the Hun leaders Attila and Bleda. One pretext for the Hun invasion of the Eastern Roman Empire in 442 was that the Bishop of Margus had crossed the Danube to ransack and desecrate the royal Hun graves on the north bank of the Danube; when the Romans discussed handing over the Bishop, he slipped away and betrayed the city to the Huns, who sacked the city and went on to invade as far as the gates of Constantinople itself.
After the fall of the Hunnic Empire, the area was again controlled by the Eastern Roman Empire. In the 6th century, it was controlled by the Kingdom of the Gepids. Since the 6th century, the area was populated by Slavs, but the Eastern Roman Empire held a nominal control over the region until the 8th century when Balkan Slavs achieved de facto independence from the Eastern Empire, it was ruled by Avar Khaganate before their demolition by Charlemagne. The area was subsequently included into the Bulgarian Empire and was alternately ruled by the Bulgarian Empire, the Byzantine Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary until the 13th century. In the 13th century, the area was ruled by independent local Slavic-Bulgarian rulers and Kudelin, it was subsequently included into the Kingdom of Syrmia, ruled by Serbian king Stefan Dragutin and into the Kingdom of Serbia and Serbian Empire ruled by Stefan Dušan. A Bronze Age figurine, it was destroyed during World War I. The National Museum in Belgrade and Požarevac has some 40,000 items found in Viminacium, of which over 700 are of gold and silver.
Among them are many invaluable rarities. In June 2008, a Triballian grave was found with ceramics; these date from the first millennium BC. The modern town of Požarevac was first mentioned in the 14th century under the name Puporače; the town became part of Moravian Serbia and Serbian Despotate, until the Ottoman conquest in 1459. During Ottoman administration, it was part of the Sanjak of Smederevo, it was occupied by Austrian Empire between 1688 and 1690. In 1718, Požarevac was the site of the signing of the Treaty of Požarevac, with the town falling under Habsburg control and becoming part of the Habsburg Kingdom of Serbia. After 1739, the town reverted to Ottoman control except final Austrian occpation between 1789 and 1791. During the First Serbian Uprising, the town was part of the Karađorđe's Serbia. At the end of the uprising in 1813, the town came once more under direct Ottoman control. However, following the Second Serbian Uprising from 1815, the town became part of the autonomous Ottoman Principality of Serbia.
Požarevac was the second capital of the Serbian prince, Miloš Obrenović with the first regular state court in Serbia being established here in 1821. Since 1878, Požarevac became part of the independent Principality of Serbia and since 1882 as part of the Kingdom of Serbia. Following the end of the First World War in 1918, the town was part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. From 1929 to 1941, Požarevac was part of the Danube Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. During the Axis occupation of Yugoslavia, from 1941 to 1944, it was part of the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia. From 1944, Požarevac became part of the new socialist Serbia within socialist Yugoslavia, and from 1992, the town became part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Since 2006 it has been part of the Republic of Serbia; the City of Požarevac includes two city municipalities: Požarevac KostolacThese include the following settlements: In the 2008 reform of Serbian local government, Požarevac received the status of a city and the town of Kostolac became the seat of the second city municipality.
Požarevac is the smallest Serbian city consisting of two municipalities. As of 2011, the city of Požarevac has a total population of 75,334 inhabitants; the ethnic composition of the municipal area of the city of Požarevac: The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity: Seats in the municipality parliament won in the 2016 local elections: Serbian Progressive Party Socialist Party of Serbia Democratic Party Civil Group "Iskorak" Minority Lists Požarevac Gymnasium, a college-preparatory high school Technical College Dimitrije, Patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox Church Dragana Mirković, singer Novica Urošević, singer and composer Milena Pavlović-Barili and poet Saša Ilić, footballer Velibor Vasović, footballer and manager Milivoje Živanović, film and stage actor Bata Paskaljević, stage and television actor Slaviša Žungul, footballer Prvoslav Vujčić, writer Đorđe Jovanović, sculptor Petar Dobrnjac, army commander Milenko Stojković, army commander Radmi
Bor is a city and the administrative center of the Bor District in eastern Serbia. According to the 2011 census, the city administrative area has a population of 48,615 inhabitants, it has one of the largest copper mines in Europe – RTB Bor. It has been a mining center since 1904. With 760 residential buildings it presents the most urban area due to number of citizens in country, one of top-five cities in Serbia by number of buildings; the name is derived from the Serbian word Bor, meaning "pine". Bor is surrounded by many beautiful locations such as Banjsko Polje, Brestovačka Banja spa, Borsko Jezero lake, Stol mountain, is close to Mount Crni Vrh. Bor has a humid continental climate with pleasantly warm summers, cold winters and uniformly distributed precipitation throughout the year; the Lazar's Canyon is now home to rare plants – Crimean pine, relict species of Taxus and Serbian rhammondies – and animals like: Chamois, Golden eagles, True owl, Peregrine falcon endemic arthropods and bats. Neolithic Bubanj-Salkuca culture ceramics and anthropomorphic-zoomorphic figurines were found in Krivelj.
In 1903 the mine of Bor was opened, important moment for the development of Bor. On 27 March 1941, Nazi Germany leader Hitler ordered the attack on Yugoslavia; the Führer’s directive No. 25 mentioned that the possession of Bor's copper mines is important for military purposes. In 1943, Hungarian-Jewish forced laborers were imprisoned nearby the mines which should be covered 50 percent of the copper requirement of the German war industry. In the period from July 1943 to September 1944, at least 6,000 people were imprisoned. In September 1944, the evacuation of the forced labor camp started. On 17 September, a column of about 3,600 prisoners left the camp under supreme command by guards of the Hungarian military which were about 100 strong and supported by Kapos; the prisoners were pushed to a pontoon bridge close to Smederovo and via Pančevo to Baja. From Pančevo to Titel, the Hungarian guards were supported by paramilitary operation echelon Hermann Göring of regional Danube Swabians. In Titel, the authority was returned to Hungarian military.
A part of the column had to march to Baja, where they were transported by train to concentration camps in Flossenbürg, Sachsenhausen and Oranienburg. The other part was used to build the south-east wall. During the forced march on the way to Smederovo there were several attacks by Yugoslav partisans on the guards. Meanwhile, some prisoners were able to thus find life-saving protection. Throughout the route, prisoners were fed food from a majority of Serbian people on every possible occasion. According to surviving eyewitnesses, the responsible Hungarian captain decided that settlements of settlements populated by Germans are to be covered during the night after crossing the Danube. On 19 September, a second column of about 2,500 prisoners with Kapo guards left the camp under the command of units of SS-Polizei-Gebirgsjäger-Regiment Nr. 18. The prisoners were pushed via Belgrade to Pančevo and across territory of Autonomous Banat and Hungarian territory to the west. From Pančevo to Titel, the column was under supreme command of paramilitary operation echelon of regional Danube Swabians.
In Titel, the authority was returned to Hungarian military. A part of the column had to march to Baja, where they were transported by train to concentration camps in Bergen-Belsen and Buchenwald; the other part was used to build the south-east wall. Among the surviving inmates were people like László Lindner, Gyula Trebitsch and the father of Ákos Kertész. Among the killed prisoners is Miklós Radnóti. In 1947, Bor received the town status by charta of political authorities. At the time its population was 11,000. In June 2018, Bor gained the status of a city, along with Prokuplje. Aside from the city proper area, the city includes the following settlements: According to the 1910, 1931 and 1971 censuses, the inhabitants of urban area of Bor numbered 2,613 in 1910, 4,749 in 1931 and 29,118 residents in 1971. According to the 2011 census, the population of the Bor numbered 48,615 residents, while the urban area of Bor had 34,160 residents. With the total of 32 different ethnics being represented among the population, Bor is one of the most ethnically mixed cities in Serbia.
According to the 2011 census, the settlements in the city of Bor with Serb ethnic majority were: Bor, Donja Bela Reka, Oštrelj. The settlements with Vlach ethnic majority were: Bučje, Krivelj, Metovnica, Topla, Šarbanovac. Ethnically mixed settlements were: Slatina; the ethnic composition of the city: Ethnic groups in Bor: Serbs, Roma, Romanians, Bosniaks, Gorani, Yugoslavs, Croatians, Hungarians, Germans, Slovaks, Rusyns, Ukrainians, Turks, Czechs, Jews, Belarusians. Copper mining of the biggest employer Zijin Bor Copper, is the key basis of the Bor's economy. On 31 August 2018, Chinese mining company Zijin Mining took over 63% of shares of the company RTB Bor, in a $1.26 billion deal with the Government of Serbia.. Few Canadian companies operated in Bor, like Nevsun Resources, Dundee and Avala resources, while the new smelter and sulfuric acid plant for RTB Bor were built by Canada's SNC Lavalin. Many companies from Canada, caused that Canadians settle to the city and become a new ethnic group in Bor..
Beside mining, some other companies that operate in Bor are Messer Tehnogas AD, Wolong ATB FOD, IT Center Bor, Keramika Bor etc. In 2018
Kraljevo is a city in central Serbia and the administrative center of the Raška District in central Serbia. It is situated on the confluence of West Morava and Ibar, in the geographical region of Šumadija, between the mountains of Kotlenik in the north, Stolovi in the south. In 2011 the city urban area has a population of 68,749 inhabitants, while the city administrative area has 125,488 inhabitants. With an area of 1530 km², it is the largest municipality in Serbia by area. Known as Rudo Polje and Rankovićevo, Kraljevo received its present name, meaning "the King's Town", from King Milan I of Serbia in honor of his own coronation and six Serbian kings, crowned in that area; the modern coat of arms of the city features seven crowns symbolizing the seven kings. The "lower" Ibar region is thought to be the first area where Serbs began to develop cultural and economic life; the Serbian state of Raška was formed in the 11th century, centered around the old city of Ras in the area of today's Novi Pazar.
There are numerous monasteries in the Kraljevo area, Studenica and Stara Pavlica. There is a medieval fortress known as Maglič. Monastery of Žiča was the original seat of Serbian Archbishop was used for the crowning of Serbian kings; the village of Rudo Polje, from which Kraljevo arose, was settled during the 14th century. This area was occupied by the Turks between 1458 and 1459. During the Turkish rule Rudo Polje became known as Karanovac. Karanovac became an important settlement during the war between Austria and Turkey in the period between 1718 and 1739. After 1718, a border between Austria and Turkey was established along right bank of river Morava, which led to Karanovac becoming a place of refuge for Turks who were fleeing from the Austrians. During the first uprising of the Serbs in 1805, Karanovac was damaged and most of the Turkish population left, leaving the Serbs to continue development of the city during the period following the uprising. After the Second Serbian uprising, liberated Karanovac became the country capital in 1819 under the rule of Prince Miloš Obrenović.
In that period the Orthodox Cathedral of the Holy Trinity was built. Kraljevo received the first urban plan, became an important economic city. In 1882 King Milan Obrenović, establishing the Kingdom of Serbia, in honor of his coronation, changed Karanovac name to Kraljevo, gave the order for restoration of rather dilapidated monastery Žiča. In 1919, Nikolaj was consecrated Bishop of Žiča and spent a brief period in the city, he returned again in 1935, stayed until 1941. He enlarged the monastery. During World War II Kraljevo was occupied by the German army. In 1941, local resistance fighters attacked a German garrison stationed near Kraljevo and killed 10 soldiers. In retaliation for the attack the Wehrmacht carried out the Kraljevo massacre, killing 2,000 residents of the city. A memorial complex constructed in the 1970s today commemorates the site of the massacre. In November 1944, heavy battles were fought in Kraljevo and its surrounding areas culminating in the city's liberation on 29 November 1944.
During the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 the Lađevci Airport located near Kraljevo was bombed. One prominent feature of the area is the Coronation church. Seven Serbian kings are said to have been crowned in the church; the church is Byzantine in style, has been restored, with only the main tower remaining from the original building dating to 1210, when it was founded by Saint Sava, the patron saint of Serbia. The famous monastery of Studenica, 39 km south west of Kraljevo, stands high among the south-western mountains, overlooking the Studenica, a tributary of the Ibar, it consists of a group of old-fashioned timber and plaster buildings, a tall belfry, a diminutive church of white marble, founded in 1190 by King Stefan Nemanja, who became a monk and was canonized as Saint Simeon. The carvings around the north and west doors have been defaced by the Turks; the inner walls are decorated with Byzantine frescoes, among which only a painting of the Last Supper, the portraits of five saints remain from the original artwork.
The dome and narthex are modern additions. The silver shrine of Saint Simeon sits within the church, along with many gold and silver ornaments, church vessels and old manuscripts, a set of vestments and a reliquary, believed by the monks to have been the property of Saint Sava who founded the first hospital in Studenica in the 13th century. In various historical periods, Kraljevo was part of various administrative formats within Serbia, for example in the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, as part of Northern Serbia, during the time of Kingdom of Yugoslavia as part of the Moravian Banovina, etc. and today it is part of Sumadija & Western Serbia Region Kraljevo was shaken by a Mw 5.4 earthquake on 3 November 2010. Two people over 100 suffered light injuries. A number of buildings suffered damage, several hundreds, chiefly older buildings, were rendered unusable. There were several weaker aftershocks including a 4.3 Mw earthquake on November 4. According to the 2011 census results, a total of 125,488 inhabitants live in the city administrative area of Kraljevo.
The city of Kraljevo has 41,358 households with 3,03 members on average, while the number of homes is 53,367. Religion structure in the city of Kraljevo is predominantly Serbian Orthodox, with minorities like Muslims (5
New Belgrade is a municipality of the city of Belgrade. It is one of the major ones in Southeast Europe, it was a planned municipality, built since 1948 in a uninhabited area on the left bank of the Sava river, opposite old Belgrade. In recent years, it has become the central business district of Belgrade and its fastest developing area, with many businesses moving to the new part of the city, due to more modern infrastructure and larger available space. With 212,104 inhabitants, it is the second most populous municipality of Serbia after Novi Sad. New Belgrade is located on the left bank of the Sava River, in the easternmost part of the Srem region. Administratively, its northeastern section touches the right bank of the Danube, right before the Sava's confluence, it is located west of the'Old' Belgrade to which it is connected by six bridges. European route E75, with five grade separations, including a new double-looped one at the Belgrade Arena, goes right through the middle of the settlement.
The municipality of New Belgrade covers an area of 40.74 square kilometres. Its terrain is flat. Except for its western section, Bežanija, New Belgrade is built on a terrain, a swamp when construction of the new city began in 1948. For years, kilometers-long conveyor belts were transporting sand from the Danube's island of Malo Ratno Ostrvo completely destroying it in the process, only a small, narrow strip of wooded land remains today. Thus, it is romantically said that New Belgrade is built on an island. Other geographic features are the peninsula of Mala Ciganlija and the island of Ada Međica, both on the Sava and the bay of Zimovnik, engulfed by Mala Ciganlija, with the facilities of the Beograd shipyard; the loess slope of Bežanijska Kosa is located in the western part of the municipality, while in the southern, the Galovica river canal flows into the Sava. Though it has no forests in the real sense, of all municipalities of Belgrade, Novi Beograd has the largest green areas, with a total of 3.47 square kilometres, or 8.5% of the territory.
Majority of these are made up of the large Ušće park. The latest addition to Belgrade parks, Park Republika Srpska from 2008, is located in the municipality. There are no separate settlements within the municipality, as the entire area administratively belongs to the Belgrade City proper and is statistically classified as part of Belgrade; the area located around the municipal assembly building and the nearby roundabout is considered to be New Belgrade's center. As it was planned and constructed, New Belgrade was divided into blocks. There are 72 blocks. Old core of the village of Bežanija, Ada Međica, Mala Ciganlija, as well as the area along the highway west of Bežanijska Kosa are not divided into blocks, while due to the administrative borders changes, some of the blocks belong to the municipality of Zemun, extending north of New Belgrade as one continuous built-up area. In September 2018, Belgrade's mayor Zoran Radojičić announced that the construction of a dam on the Danube, in the Zemun-New Belgrade area, will start soon.
The dam should protect the city during the high water levels. Such project was never mentioned before, nor it was clear how and where it will be constructed, or if it's feasible at all. Radojičić clarified after a while that he was referring to the mobile flood wall; the wall will be 50 cm high and 5 km long, stretching from the Branko's Bridge across the Sava and the neighborhood of Ušće, to the Radecki restaurant on the Danube's bank in the Zemun's Gardoš neighborhood. In case of emergency, the panels will be placed on the existing construction; the construction is scheduled to start in 2019 and to finish in 2020. Bežanija is the oldest part of today's New Belgrade, where a settlement existed from the neolithic to the Roman period. In the book Kruševski pomenik from 1713, kept in the Dobrun monastery near Višegrad, settlement of Bežanija was mentioned for the first time under its present name as far as 1512, as a small village with 32 houses, populated by Serbs. In this time, the village was under the administration of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary, was part of the Syrmia County.
The inhabitants of the village crossed the Sava river and settled in Syrmia after fleeing the fall of the medieval Serbian Despotate under the hands of the Ottoman Empire. In 1521, the village became part of the Ottoman Empire. From 1527 to 1530, Bežanija was part of Radoslav Čelnik's Duchy of Syrmia, an Ottoman vassal, until its subsequent organization into the Ottoman Sanjak of Syrmia; the Habsburg Monarchy conquered it temporarily during the Great Turkish War, but it remained under Ottoman administration until 1718. In 1718, the village became part of the Habsburg Monarchy and was placed under military administration, it was part of the Habsburg Military Frontier. During the 17th and 18th century and constant Turkish intrusions devastated the village, but it was being repopulated by the refugees from central Serbia. In 1810, population census counted 115 Serbian households. By the 1850s, Austrians colonized a large number of Germans in Bežanija. In 1848-1849 it was part of the Serbian Vojvodina, an ethnic Serb autonomous region within the Austrian Empire, but in 1849 was again placed under admi
Zrenjanin is a city and the administrative center of the Central Banat District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. The city urban area has a population of 76,511 inhabitants, while the city administrative area has 123,362 inhabitants. Zrenjanin is the largest city in the Serbian part of the Banat geographical region, the third largest city in Vojvodina; the city was named after Žarko Zrenjanin in 1946 in remembrance of his name. One of the leaders of the Vojvodina communist Partisans during World War II, he was imprisoned and released after being tortured by the Nazis for months, killed while trying to avoid recapture; the former Serbian name of the city was Veliki Bečkerek. In 1935 the city was renamed to Petrovgrad in honor of king Peter I of Serbia, it was called Petrovgrad from 1935 to 1946. In Hungarian, the city is known as Nagybecskerek, in German as Großbetschkerek or Betschkerek, in Romanian as Becicherecul Mare or Zrenianin, in Slovak as Zreňanin, in Rusin as Зрењанин, in Croatian as Zrenjanin, in Turkish as Beşkelek or Beçkerek.
It is assumed that Zrenjanin's original name, Bečkerek/Becskerek, comes from Hungarian word kerek and the surname of the 14th-century nobleman, Imre Becsei, who had large estates in the area. Therefore, the name would be translated into English as "Becsei's Forest"; the original name received an adjective meaning "great/big/major" in the languages of the Banat, to distinguish it from a village of the same name in the Romanian Banat, referred to as small Bečkerek. Prehistory can be divided into the Palaeolithic – Old Stone Age and the Neolithic – New Stone Age. In Zrenjanin's regions no archaeological sites of the Palaeolithic have been found; the only exception makes the discovery of mammoth’s head and other bones found on the banks of Tisa River near Novi Bečej in the year 1952. The discovered archaeological sites, indicate that these regions had been inhabited in the early Neolithic period about 5000 years BC; the most important archaeological site from this period is so-called Krstić tumulus, near Mužlja, about 10 km away from Zrenjanin.
Here were found the ceramics, with interesting ornaments. Beside the brewery ground have been found rough, with ornaments; the middle Neolithic appeared in our area as Vinča and Potisje culture, in the down course of the Tisa River. What makes this area important is the fact that the influence of two parallel cultures flew through it at the same time; the Iron Age has not been enough explored yet. A few regions with some archaeological materials from the Iron Age have been found: in the residential area Šumica a tip of a spear was found and near the oil factory, pieces of ceramics from the Bronze Age were discovered. At the beginning of the common era, this area was settled by many native tribes, but by many newcomer tribes: the Illyrians, the Celts, the Goths, the Geths, the Sarmatian and Jazghs. In the end of the 3rd century and in the middle of the 4th century, in the area of Zrenjanin and its surroundings, the Sarmatian tribe Roxolani appeared. From this period a Sarmatian’s graveyard has been found in a city residential district, near the railroad bridge.
In the necropolis, not far from Aradac, “Mečka”, more than 120 graves, which date from the end of the 6th and the beginning of the 7th century, have been excavated in 1952. The first historical records mentioning Zrenjanin date from the 14th century, the time when Charles I, King of Hungary and Croatia, used to visit Banat and spend time in his capital Timișoara. Many noblemen came including the powerful Imre Becsei; the areas where Becsei settled down were named for him, “Bechereki” and “Beche”. The oldest written records of Bečkerek date from Budim Capitulum’s document of collecting the Pope’s tens taxes in 1326, 1331 and 1332. Judging by the size of the taxes, Bečkerek of 1330’s was an average village; the first settlers were the landless Hungarian peasants. There were the Serbs in Banat, too. During the reign of Louis I of Hungary, more Serbs migrated to the area from the south, with them many Orthodox priests. In the 15th century Bečkerek was populated by Serbias, but after the Kosovo battle, Turks migrated here too.
After the Turkish victory at the battle of Nicopolis the Hungarian King Sigismund was considering defending the territory settled by the Serbs, he is known to have visited Bečkerek on September 30, 1398. The town was granted to Stefan Lazarević at the end of the 1403; the despot became the vassal of the Hungarian King. The Hungarian King Ferdinand appointed friar Djordje Martinović, a commander of his forces, to defend the town from the Ottomans. Hungary was attacked by 80,000 Ottoman soldiers under the command of Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha. On September 15, 1551, the siege of the town Bečej was raised and the town was taken after four days. On September 24 the Bečkerek fortress was sieged. Many people left town earlier and with few defenders the town couldn't be defended and those eighty, who left surrendered the next day. Malković was appointed the lord of Bečkerek. After the Ottomans had take
Smederevo is a city and the administrative center of the Podunavlje District in eastern Serbia. It is situated on the right bank of the Danube, about 45 kilometres downstream of the Serbian capital, Belgrade. According to the 2011 census, the city has a population of 64,105, with 108,209 people living in its administrative area, its history starts in the 1st century BC, after the conquest of the Roman Empire, when there existed a settlement by the name of Vinceia. The modern city traces its roots back to the late Middle Ages when it was the capital of the last independent Serbian state before Ottoman conquest. Smederevo is said to be the city of iron and grapes. In Serbian, the city is known as Smederevo, in Latin, Italian and Greek as Semendria, in Hungarian as Szendrő or Vég-Szendrő, in Turkish as Semendire; the name of Smederevo was first recorded in the Charter of the Byzantine Emperor Basil II from 1019, in the part related to the Eparchy of Braničevo (a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Ochrid.
Another written record is found in the Charter of Duke Lazar of Serbia from 1381, by which he bestowed the Monastery of Ravanica and villages and properties ’to the Great Bogosav with the commune and heritage’’. The Latin-Italian name occurs in Belogradum et Semendria and Belgrado e Semendria, two of the short-lived 20th-century synonyms of the Latin titular bishopric of Belgrade, suppressed in 1948 in favor of the residential Latin Archdiocese of Belgrade and'newly' established titular bishopric of Alba marittima. Smederevo Coat of Arms uses two shades of blue; the bar with the year 1430 is placed over the shield. Emblem elements are six white discs arranged 3 + 2 + 1, which represents grapes, Smederevo fortress, dark blue and white horizontal lines. In the 7th millennium BC, the Starčevo culture existed for a millennia, succeeded by the 6th millennium BC Vinča culture that prospered in the region; the Paleo-Balkan tribes of Dacians and Thracians emerged in the area in the 2nd millennia BC, with the Celtic Scordisci raiding the Balkans in the 3rd century B.
C. The Roman Empire conquered Vinceia in the 1st century BC, it was organized into Moesia Moesia Superior, in the administrative reforms of Diocletian it was part of the Diocese of Moesia the Diocese of Dacia. It was a principal town of Moesia Superior, near the confluence of Brongus rivers; the modern founder of the city was the Serbian Despot Đurađ Branković in the 15th century, who built Smederevo Fortress in 1430 as the new Serbian capital. Smederevo was the residence of the Branković house and the capital of the Serbian Despotate from 1430 until 1439, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire after a siege lasting two months. In 1444, in accordance with the terms of the Peace of Szeged between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottoman Empire the Sultan returned Smederevo to Đurađ Branković, allied to John Hunyadi. On 22 August 1444 the Serb prince peacefully took possession of the evacuated town; when Hunyadi broke the peace treaty, Đurađ Branković remained neutral. Serbia became a battleground between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottomans, the angry Branković captured Hunyadi after his defeat at the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448.
Hunyadi was imprisoned in Smederevo fortress for a short time. In 1454 Sultan Mehmed II besieged devastated Serbia; the town was liberated by Hunyadi. In 1459 Smederevo was again captured by the Ottomans after the death of Branković; the town became a Turkish border-fortress, played an important part in Ottoman–Hungarian Wars until 1526. Due to its strategic location, Smederevo was rebuilt and enlarged. For a long period, the town was the capital of the Sanjak of Smederevo. In autumn 1476, a joint army of Hungarians and Serbs tried to capture the fortress from the Ottomans, they built three wooden counter-fortresses, but after months of siege Sultan Mehmed II himself came to drive them away. After fierce fighting the Hungarians agreed to withdraw. In 1494 Pál Kinizsi tried to capture Smederevo from the Ottomans but he was stricken with palsy and died. In 1512 John Zápolya unsuccessfully laid siege to the town. During the First Serbian Uprising in 1806, the city became the temporary capital of Serbia, as well as the seat of the Praviteljstvujušči sovjet, a government headed by Dositej Obradović.
The first basic school was founded in 1806. During World War II, the city was occupied by German forces. On 5 June 1941, a catastrophic explosion damaged the fortress, killing nearly 2,000 residents. After World War II, Smederevo became an cultural center of Podunavlje district. Under the overall industrial development of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the city received a boost in infrastructure. Due to the ideal geographical position of Smederevo, socialist government supported building of roads, apartment buildings and tens of factories; some of the most notable factories built and renewed in period between 1950s until the end of 1980s were Zelvoz, renewed in 1966. and a new steel plant built on outskirts of Smederevo at that time, Sartid, operational in 1971. Aside the city of Smederevo, the administrative area includes the following 27 settlements: Smederevo has a recent history of heavy industry and manufacturing, a result of active and aggressive industrialization of the region conducted by Tito's reg
Kruševac is a city and the administrative center of the Rasina District in central Serbia. It is located on Rasina river. According to the 2011 census, the city administrative area has a population of 128,752, while the urban area has 58,745 inhabitants; the city was founded by Prince Lazar of Serbia, who used it as his seat. The etymology is derived from the Serbian word for "river stone", krušac, used for a building at that time. Kruševac was founded in 1371, as a fortified town in the possession of Lord Lazar Hrebeljanović; the Lazarica Church was built by Lazar between 1375–78, in the Morava architectural style. It is mentioned in one of Lazar's edicts in 1387, as his seat, when he affirmed the rights of Venetian merchants on Serbian territory. In preparation for the Battle of Kosovo against the Ottoman Empire, the Serbian army assembled in the city; the site of Lazar's palace is marked by a ruined enclosure containing a fragment of the tower of his spouse Princess Milica, according to legend, tidings of the defeat were brought to her by crows from the battlefield.
After the battle, the city was held by Princess Milica as her seat. The little that remains of Lazar's city is the Kruševac Fortress, declared a Cultural Monument of Exceptional Importance in 1979. Several old Ottoman houses were left at the beginning of the 20th century, besides an old Turkish fountain and bath, known as Alacahisar during Ottoman rule between 1427–1833 when Kruševac was the seat of the Sanjak of Kruševac; the Ottoman rule was interrupted during Austrian occupations between 1688–1690 and 1717–1739. A large monument dedicated to the fallen Serbs at the Battle of Kosovo was sculpted by Petar Ubaković. A part of the monument is a statue of the famous blind Serbian poet Filip Višnjić. During World War II there was a mass executions of antifascists on hill Bagdala. Largest execution was in summer of 1943. At place of executions now is a monument named Slobodište. Kruševac was liberated on 14. October when chetnik Germans together left the city. Kruševac had a large progress during period of SFRY.
That period, large number of factories were built and Kruševac become one of strongest industrial centrals in Serbia and Yugoslavia. Machine factory IMK 14. Oktobar Kruševac employed around 7,000 workers, but large Kruševac industry have not survived the NATO post-Milošević transition. In 2002 alone 5 factories went bankrupt. From 2002 to 2014 27 factories around 11,000 workers lost their jobs; the unemployment rate in Kruševac is 39%. Aside from the urban area of Kruševac, the city administrative area includes the following 100 settlements: According to the 2011 census results, the city of Kruševac has a total population of 128,752 inhabitants; the ethnic composition of the city administrative area: The most notable large companies based in the city of Kruševac are: Trayal Corporation, 14. Oktobar and Cooper Tire & Rubber Company Serbia; as of September 2017, Kruševac has one of 14 free economic zones established in Serbia. The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity: Seats in the city parliament won in the 2016 local elections: The city's main football club is FK Napredak Kruševac, who play in the Serbian SuperLiga.
Stefan Lazarević, medieval ruler of Serbia Stojan Protić, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes 1918–1919, 1920 Stanislav Binički, Serbian composer Dobrica Ćosić, Serbian writer, first President of FR Yugoslavia Taško Načić, Serbian actor Miodrag Petrović Čkalja, One of the most popular Serbian comedians Bata Paskaljević, Serbian actor Radmila Savićević, Serbian actress Ljiljana Jovanović, Serbian actress Vojin Ćetković, Serbian actor Nataša Tapušković, Serbian actress Branislav Trifunović, Serbian actor Miroslav Mišković, Serbian businessman Dragiša Binić, Serbian footballer, 1990–91 European Cup winner Milić Jovanović, Serbian footballer, 1990–91 European Cup winner Ognjen Petrović, Serbian footballer Bojan Zajić, Serbian footballer Predrag Pavlović, Serbian footballer Milan Gajić, Serbian footballer Nikola Milošević, Serbian footballer Predrag Jovanović, Serbian musician Nebojša Bradić, Serbian theatre director, former Minister of Culture Goran Grbović, Serbian basketball player, bronze medalist at the EuroBasket 1987 Dragan Milosavljević, Serbian basketball player, silver medalist at the EuroBasket 2017 Ognjen Jaramaz, Serbian basketball player Aleksandar Mitrović, Serbian volleyball player Tijana Bogdanović, Serbian taekwondo practitioner, European champion and silver medalist at the 2016 Summer Olympics Sanja Vučić, Serbian singer who represented Serbia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2016 Kruševac is twinned with: Other forms of co-operation and city friendship similar to the twin/sister city programmes: List of cities in Serbia Rubin City of Kruševac Website krusevac.link – Independent Website Internet portal Kruševac – Independent Website KruševacPRESS – the first private owned registered Kruševac-based Internet media Kruševčki internet portal 37000.info Kruševac Online Politički portal Rasinskog okruga Kruševac Info portal grada Swimming club Napredak Kruševac