Changwon is the capital city of Gyeongsangnam-do, on the southeast coast of South Korea. With a population of 1.07 million as of 2015, Changwon is South Korea's 9th most populous city. A port city, Changwon is bordered by Masan Bay to the south, the cities of Busan and Gimhae to the east; the city of Miryang lies to the northeast, Jinju to the west. The region has been inhabited since the Bronze Age, its urban areas have been renamed and re-organized many times throughout history. In 1974, with the creation of the Changwon National Industrial Complex, the three interdependent cities of Masan and Changwon began to undergo significant economic development, growing into an important industrial centre. On July 1, 2010, the cities of Changwon and Masan merged to form the current city of Changwon; as Korea's first planned city, modeled after Canberra, Changwon uses accessible urban planning including a large number of parks and separate residential and industrial areas. The city has branded itself an "environmental capital" with the municipal government participating in climate change conferences and committing to the development of sustainable policies like the globally recognized bike-sharing program, Nubija.
Populated since the early Bronze Age, the area surrounding Masan Bay would have been a wide open region between the ocean and the hilly lands of the coastal plain. Today ruins can be found in the area dating from the Iron Age. Typical Iron Age landmarks include Bangyedong monuments, holy mounds, lower molar sites, dolmens from Bronze Age settlements. In 209 AD, during the Three Kingdoms period, the area was named Gulja-gun, a province of the Silla kingdom. During the Unified Silla Period, this region was renamed to Uian-gun in 739 AD, during the reorganization of all Silla provinces in the Goryeo Period, to Uichang-hyeon; the name Changwon was first used in 1408 during the Joseon period, when King Taejong established the city as Changwon-bu. In 1415, he renamed Changwon-bu to Changwon-dohobu. During the King Sunjo Period, it became Changwondae-do hobu. In 1895, the country was reorganized into 23 divisions by King Gojong, Changwondae-do hobu was split into Changwon-gun and Ungcheon-gun. In 1908 Ungcheon-gun merged with nearby Jinhae-gun.
During the Japanese colonial period, the city became known as Masan-bu, Masan Port was opened. Changwon was separated from Masan-bu. In 1970, the Masan Free Export Zone was opened to encourage foreign business to move to the area. In 1974, Changwon was selected to be an industrial and residential centre, as well as the provincial capital; the Changwon Industrial Complex was built in the south of the city, while Changwon began urban planning modelling itself after Canberra, Australia. The country's longest straight road was constructed in Changwon, with a length of 15.27 kilometres, with the industrial park to the south and residential complexes constructed to the north. This road, Changwon Daero, is meant to serve as an airplane runway in a state of emergency as Changwon was designed to be South Korea's emergency backup capital city. Underground walkways are able to serve as bomb shelters and roads and buildings in the planned city are numbered for efficient use in evacuation. In 1985, the Korean War Monument in Changwon's Uichang gu was constructed.
The 47.1 metres monument is "dedicated to the 1,142 soldiers from Gyeongsangnam province that died in the Korean War."On July 1, 2010, the three neighboring cities of Masan and Jinhae unified to create Unified Changwon City, with a population of 1.08 million. Changwon is located on the southeastern coast of the Korean Peninsula, on the Nakdong River delta looking out onto Masan Bay; the city is surrounded by mountains, the highest of which are Mt. Bulmo, Mt. Jeongbyeong, Mt. Jangbok; the city comprises several small islands in Masan Bay and along the coast including Dot island, Sokuri island, several uninhabited islands. The city has four distinct seasons; the average temperature ranged between 2.8 °C in January to 26.5 °C in August. The average annual precipitation is 1,527 millimetres. Between 1980 and 1990 there was an annual average of around 116 sunny days a year, between 1990 and 2000 an average of 135. Changwon has 5 administrative districts which are divided into 54 neighbourhoods, 5 in Uichang-gu, 7 in Seongsan-gu, 12 in Masanhoewon-gu, 15 each in Masanhappo-gu and Jinhae-gu.
The development of Changwon into an industrial city during the 1960s and 70s has led to a city structure, bisected by one main avenue called Changwon Daero, meaning Changwon big road. To the south are the factories, to the north are all of the residential areas. Changwon Daero serves as emergency runway for military purposes; the Financial district is located in the southern part of Jungang-dong and Sangnam-dong, while the government district located northern part of Youngho-dong and Shinwol-dong. The Changdong Art Village has many murals and artwork on display throughout the streets. Masan's old town, when businesses began to disperse, "ateliers, cafés, galleries took over the vacant stores" transforming the area into a thriving art district; the Sangnam neighborhood is the central part of greater Changwon. The main part of this neighborhood, the Sangnam Commercial District, is the main nightlife area, with many bars, business bars and restaurants. On every day of the month with a date that ends in 4 or 9 the market "Sangnam-sijang" is open and bustling for business.
This is the largest farmer's market within the city, with vendors s
Seoul the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. With surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, Seoul forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area. Seoul is ranked as the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world and is larger than London and Paris. Strategically situated on the Han River, Seoul's history stretches back over two thousand years, when it was founded in 18 BCE by the people of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea; the city was designated the capital of Korea under the Joseon dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by a mountainous and hilly landscape, with Bukhan Mountain located on the northern edge of the city; as with its long history, the Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty. More Seoul has been a major site of modern architectural construction – major modern landmarks include the N Seoul Tower, the 63 Building, the Lotte World Tower, the Dongdaemun Design Plaza, Lotte World, Trade Tower, COEX, the IFC Seoul.
Seoul was named the 2010 World Design Capital. As the birthplace of K-pop and the Korean Wave, Seoul received over 10 million international visitors in 2014, making it the world's 9th most visited city and 4th largest earner in tourism. Today, Seoul is considered a leading and rising global city, resulting from the South Korean economic boom - referred to as the Miracle on the Han River - which transformed it into the world's 7th largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$635.4 billion in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles. International visitors reach Seoul via AREX from the Incheon International Airport, notable for having been rated the best airport for nine consecutive years by the Airports Council International. In 2015, it was rated Asia's most livable city with the second highest quality of life globally by Arcadis, with the GDP per capita in Seoul being $39,786. Inhabitants of Seoul are faced with a high cost of living, for which the city was ranked 6th globally in 2017.
Seoul is an expensive real estate market, ranked 5th in the world for the price of apartments in the downtown center. With major technology hubs centered in Gangnam and Digital Media City, the Seoul Capital Area is home to the headquarters of 15 Fortune Global 500 companies, including Samsung, LG, Hyundai. Ranked sixth in the Global Power City Index and Global Financial Centres Index, the metropolis exerts a major influence in global affairs as one of the five leading hosts of global conferences. Seoul has hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup, more the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit; the city has been known in the past by the names Wiryeseong, Hanseong, Keijō. During Japan's annexation of Korea, "Hanseong" was renamed "Keijō" by the Imperial authorities to prevent confusion with the hanja'漢', which refers to Han people or the Han dynasty and in Japanese is a term for "China", its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city", believed to have descended from an ancient word, which referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.
Ancient Gyeongju was known in documents by the Chinese-style name Geumseong, but it is unclear whether the native Korean-style name Seorabeol had the same meaning as Geumseong. Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja. On January 18, 2005, the Seoul government changed its official Chinese name from the historic Hancheng, still in common use, to Shou'er. Settlement of the Han River area, where present-day Seoul is located, began around 4000 BCE. Seoul is first recorded as the capital of Baekje in the northeastern Seoul area. There are several city walls remaining in the area. Pungnaptoseong, an earthen wall located southeast Seoul, is believed to have been at the main Wiryeseong site; as the Three Kingdoms competed for this strategic region, control passed from Baekje to Goguryeo in the 5th century, from Goguryeo to Silla in the 6th century. In the 11th century Goryeo, which succeeded Unified Silla, built a summer palace in Seoul, referred to as the "Southern Capital".
It was only from this period. When Joseon replaced Goryeo, the capital was moved to Seoul, where it remained until the fall of the dynasty; the Gyeongbok Palace, built in the 14th century, served as the royal residence until 1592. The other large palace, constructed in 1405, served as the main royal palace from 1611 to 1872. After Joseon changed her name to the Korean Empire in 1897, Hwangseong designated Seoul; the city was surrounded by a massive circular stone wall to provide its citizens security from wild animals and attacks. The city has grown beyond those walls and although the wall no longer stands, the gates remain near the downtown district of Seoul, including most notably Sungnyemun and Heunginjimun (commonly known as Dong
Namyangju is a city in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. To the east is Gapyeong County, to the west is Guri City, to the north is Pocheon City. Namyangju historical character: Jeong Yak-yong Jeong Yag-yong or Dasan, was a leading Korean philosopher during the Joseon Dynasty, he is regarded as the greatest of the Silhak thinkers, who advocated that the formalist Neo-Confucian philosophy of Joseon return to practical concerns. Jeong Yag-yong and his brothers were among the earliest Korean converts to Roman Catholicism. Jeong was born, ended his days, in modern-day Namyangju, Gyeonggi province 1950 October to early 1951 Namyangju Massacre. 1980 April 1 Namyangju County was made with Guri-eup, Migeum-eup, Jinjeob-myeon, Jingeon-myeon, Hwado-myeon, Sudong-myeon, Wabu-myeon, Byeolnae-myeon 1980 December 1 Wabu-myeon became Wabu-eup 1983 February 15 Jingeon-myeon Yangji-ri, Onam-ri, Palheon-ri were absorbed by Jinjeob-myeon 1986 January 1 Guri-eup became Guri City 1986 April 1 Wabu-eup Joan branch office became Joan-myeon 1989 January 1 Migeum-eup became Miguem City 1989 April 1 Jinjeob-myeon became Jinjeob-eup 1989 April 1 Toegyewon branch office became Toegyewon-myeon 1991 December 1 Hwado-myeon became Hwado-eup 1992 April 1 In Jinjeob-eup, Onam branch office opened.
1995 January 1 Migeum City and Namyangju County were merged. 1995 May 6 Onam branch office became Onam-myeon 2001 September 12 Jingeon-myeon became Jingeon-eup 2001 September 12 Onam-myeon became Onam-eup 2005 June 1 In Byeolnae-mueon, Cheonghak branch office opened. 2006 January 20 Pungyang branch office opened. 2008 October 7 The population reached 500,000. 2009 December 14 Cheonghak branch office closed. 2011 September Namyangju Organic Museum opened, world's first museum of organic agriculture. 5 Eup-Hwado -Jinjeob -Jingeon -Onam -Wabu 4 Myeon-Byeolnae -Joan -Sudong -Toegyewon 7 Dong-Byeolnae -Donong -Geumgok -Hopyeong -Jigeum - Gaun, Suseok -Pyeongnae -Yangjeong - Ilpae, Sampae Namyangju is a northeastern city, part of the ring around Seoul. Seoul Ring Expressway passes through. Jungang Line passes through Namyangju. - Donong station, Yangjeong station, Dukso station, Dosim station, Paldang station, Ungilsan station A refurbished Gyeongchun Line reopened in late 2010 - Byeollae, Sareung, Pyeongnae-hopyeong, Maseok stations are in Namyangju.
The Transportation and Construction Committee of the National Assembly has approved that Line 4 will be extended from Danggogae to Jinjeop, Namyangju. The 2012 Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation drama Arang and the Magistrate, starring Lee Joon-gi, Shin Min-ah and Yeon Woo-jin, were filmed on location in Namyangju. There are 2 campuses of Gyeong Hee graduate school and Gyeong bok college, 15 high schools, 29 middle schools, 55 elementary schools; the royal tomb of Princess Hwahyeop, a Joseon dynasty princess, was discovered in Sampae-dong in 2015. Excavations in 2016 unearthed stone tablets detailing eulogies to her written by King Yeongjo, Crown Prince Sado, King Jeongjo. Namyangju is developing a reputation as a regional centre of excellence for organic farming; the Namyangju Organic Museum, the world's first museum dedicated to the history and development of organic agriculture, opened in September 2011. It is located west on the shores of the River Han; the museum caters for young and old, it includes a timeline of organic farming developments, there are exhibits of traditional Korean farming practices tied to the 24 seasonal divisions of the year.
The museum's opening coincided with Namyangju hosting the 17th IFOAM Organic World Congress. The sweet pears are exported to the USA, Canada. Organic vegetables are cultivated with ecofriendly methods. Gorosoei is a special product made in the Namyangju area, it is medicinal water. The term "Gorosoei" comes from "Gollisu" meaning "water for bones." The sap is extracted at Sudong-Myeon, Mountain Jugeum in Mount Chungnyeong Natural Recreation Forest, Mount Cheonma in Palhyeon and Onam township. Dartford, United Kingdom Changzhou, China Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Gangjin County, South Jeolla Yeongwol, Gangwon Vinh, Vietnam List of cities in South Korea City government website City Council website
National Assembly (South Korea)
The National Assembly of the Republic of Korea shortened to the National Assembly in domestic English-language media, is the 300-member unicameral national legislature of South Korea. Elections to the National Assembly are held every four years; the latest legislative elections were held on 13 April 2016. Single-member constituencies comprise 253 of the assembly's seats, while the remaining 47 are allocated by proportional representation. Members serve four-year terms; the unicameral assembly consists of at least 200 members according to the South Korean constitution. In 1990 the assembly had 299 seats, 224 of which were directly elected from single-member districts in the general elections of April 1988. Under applicable laws, the remaining seventy-five representatives were elected from party lists. By law, candidates for election to the assembly must be at least thirty years of age; as part of a political compromise in 1987, an earlier requirement that candidates have at least five years' continuous residency in the country was dropped to allow Kim Dae-Jung, who had spent several years in exile in Japan and the United States during the 1980s, to return to political life.
The National Assembly's term is four years. In a change from the more authoritarian Fourth Republic and Fifth Republic, under the Sixth Republic, the assembly cannot be dissolved by the president; the constitution stipulates that the assembly is presided over by a Speaker and two Deputy Speakers, who are responsible for expediting the legislative process. The Speaker and Deputy Speakers are elected in a secret ballot by the members of the Assembly, their term in office is restricted to two years; the Speaker is independent of party affiliation, the Speaker and Deputy Speakers may not be government ministers. Parties that hold at least 20 seats in the assembly form floor negotiation groups, which are entitled to a variety of rights that are denied to smaller parties; these include a greater amount of state funding and participation in the leaders' summits that determine the assembly's legislative agenda. To introduce a bill, a legislator must present the initiative to the Speaker with the signatures of at least ten other members of the assembly.
The bill must be edited by a committee to ensure that the bill contains correct and systematic language. It can be approved or rejected by the Assembly. There are 16 standing committees which examine bills and petitions falling under their respective jurisdictions, perform other duties as prescribed by relevant laws. House Steering Committee Legislation and Judiciary Committee National Policy Committee Strategy and Finance Committee Science, ICT, Future Planning and Communications Committee Education, Culture and Tourism Committee Foreign Affairs and Unification Committee National Defense Committee Security and Public Administration Committee Agriculture, Rural Affairs and Fisheries Committee Trade and Energy Committee Health and Welfare Committee Environment and Labor Committee Land and Transport Committee Intelligence Committee Gender Equality and Family Committee Since the promulgation of the March 1988 electoral law, the assembly has been elected every four years through a Supplementary Member system, meaning that some of the members are elected from constituencies according to the system of first past the post, while others are elected at a national level through proportional representation.
As of 2016, 253 members represent constituencies. In contrast to elections to the Assembly, presidential elections occur once every five years, this has led to frequent situations of minority government and legislative deadlock. A proposal to lower the number of seats required to form a negotiation group to 15 was passed on 24 July 2000, but was overturned by the Constitutional Court that month. In order to meet the quorum, the United Liberal Democrats, who held 17 seats, arranged to "rent" three legislators from the Millennium Democratic Party; the legislators returned to the MDP after the collapse of the ULD–MDP coalition in September 2001. From 2004 to 2009, the assembly gained notoriety as a frequent site for legislative violence; the Assembly first came to the world's attention during a violent dispute on impeachment proceedings for President Roh Moo-hyun, when open physical combat took place in the assembly. Since it has been interrupted by periodic conflagrations, piquing the world's curiosity once again in 2009 when members battled each other with sledgehammers and fire extinguishers.
Images of the melee were broadcast around the world. Elections for the assembly were held under UN supervision on 10 May 1948; the First Republic of South Korea was established on 17 July 1948 when the constitution of the First Republic was established by the Assembly. The Assembly had the job of electing the President, elected anti-communist Syngman Rhee as President on 10 May 1948. Under the first constitution, the National Assembly was unicameral. Under the second and third constitutions, the National Assembly became bicameral and consisted of the House of Commons and the Senate, but unicameral with the House of Commons because the House of Commons could not pass a bill to establish the Senate. Conservative Liberal Progressive majority plurality only largest minority Since the reopening of the National Assembly in 1963 until today, it has been unicameral. List of political parties in South Korea Supreme People's Assembly, the North Korean legislature Politics of South Korea List of Korea-related topics Senate of South Korea House of Commons U.
S. Library of Congress Country Studies
Sejong Sejong Special Autonomous City, is a special autonomous city in South Korea. Sejong was founded in 2007 as the new national capital of South Korea from territory of South Chungcheong and North Chungcheong provinces to ease congestion in South Korea's current capital and largest city and encourage investment in the country's central region. Since 2012, the Government of South Korea has relocated numerous ministries and agencies to Sejong, but the National Assembly and many important government bodies remain in Seoul. Sejong has a population of 281,120 and covers a geographic area of 465.23 km2, making it the least-populous and smallest first-level administrative division in South Korea. Sejong is located in the west-central Hoseo region, bordering South Chungcheong to the west, Daejeon Metropolitan City to the south, North Chungcheong to the east. Sejong was named in honor of King Sejong the Great, the fourth king of the Joseon Dynasty and creator of the Korean national alphabet, Hangul.
Sejong was called Yeongi, derived from Yeongi County, the former county of South Chungcheong from which the majority of the city's territory was ceded. In 2003, former President Roh Moo-hyun of the Democratic Party sought to relocate the national capital of South Korea from the metropolitan city of Seoul to a new multifunctional administrative city in the centre of the country; the goal was to reduce the influence and dominance of Seoul on national governance and economics, whilst promoting the regional development of other areas of the country. According to former Home Administration Minister Maeng Hyung-gyu in 2012, “Sejong is a symbol of the country’s efforts toward more balanced regional development,” helping to decongest Seoul and spur investment in the country’s central region. In October 2004, the Constitutional Court dealt a setback to President Roh's plans, ruling that the capital must remain in Seoul in response to a complaint filed by the main opposition Grand National Party; as such, the Roh administration was forced to modify the project to relocate the majority of ministries and government institutes to Sejong, which would become a special administrative city instead of a new capital.
The revised plan was approved by the parliament in March 2005. Challenges to the new plan were rejected by the Constitutional Court in November 2005; when the Conservative Grand National Party retook the presidential office in 2008, President Lee Myung-bak opposed the idea of moving government agencies, claiming that it would hurt the capital’s global competitiveness and result in inefficiency. Plans were made to make Sejong an industrial and education hub instead; this plan was opposed by many, including Roh’s allies and some members of the ruling Grand National Party, including Lee’s archrival and eventual successor Park Geun-hye. Defeat in the mid-2010 local elections forced Lee to present the proposal to the National Assembly, which voted them down; as of 2014, 36 central government offices, including nine ministries, 16 state-run organisations have moved into the city. However, the national assembly and many important government bodies are still in Seoul. In July 2012 Sejong was created incorporating all of Yeongi County, three townships of Gongju and one township of Cheongwon County.
In April 2013 the government of Putrajaya, Malaysia signed a letter of intent with the government of Sejong City to mark cooperation between the two cities. Sejong is located between three other major Korean cities: Daejeon and Cheongju, it is about 121 kilometres from Seoul, is notably further from the DMZ in the event of a North Korean attack. As of 2012 much of the city was under construction; the residential area, by 2012, had several high-rises built for transferees. At that time the residential area was cordoned off from much of the under-development governmental area and had some restaurants, six schools, one grocery store; the 9 haengjeong-dong and Jochiwon-eup is the city main urban center. Sejong is divided into 1 eup and 9 myeon. Notes There are no Hanja for Hansol, Areum, Boram, Serom, or Sodam; the city aimed to have a population of 200,000 in 2012, 300,000 by 2020 and 500,000 by 2030. As of 2017, Sejong had a population of 281,120; as of 2018, Sejong had a higher proportion of children compared to the South Korean average.
The South Korean government plans to move agencies to Sejong City. Government Complex Sejong is located in Sejong City; the complex, on a 213,000-square-metre plot of land, has one basement. Construction began in November 2011 in what was South Chungcheong Province, the complex was completed on November 16, 2013; the ceremony to mark the movement of several government agencies to the complex occurred on December 23, 2013. Government Complex Sejong includes the head offices of: Prime Minister's Office Ministry of Economy and Finance Ministry of Education Ministry of Culture and Tourism Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Ministry of Trade and Energy Ministry of Health and Welfare Ministry of Environment Ministry of Employment and Labor Ministry of Land and Transport Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs Ministry of Personnel Management Ministry of Government Legislation Fair Trade Commission Anti-Corruption and Civil Rights CommissionSeveral MOLIT agencies, the Korea Office of Civil Aviation, the Korean Maritime Safety Tribunal, the Aviation and Railway
Suwon is the capital and largest metropolis of Gyeonggi-do, South Korea's most populous province which surrounds Seoul, the national capital. Suwon lies about 30 kilometres south of Seoul, it is traditionally known as "The City of Filial Piety". With a population close to 1.2 million, it is larger than Ulsan, although it is not governed as a metropolitan city. Suwon has existed in various forms throughout Korea's history, growing from a small settlement to become a major industrial and cultural center, it is the only remaining walled city in South Korea. The city walls are one of the more popular tourist destinations in Gyeonggi Province. Samsung Electronics R&D center and headquarters are in Suwon; the city is served by two motorways, the national railway network, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway. Suwon is a major educational center, home to 11 universities. Suwon is home to football club Suwon Samsung Bluewings, which have won the K League on four occasions and AFC Champions League twice; the KT Wiz of the Korea Baseball Organization plays in Suwon.
In ancient tribal times, Suwon was known as Mosu-guk. During the Three Kingdoms era, the area comprising modern Suwon and Hwaseong City was called Maehol-gun. In 757, under King Gyeongdeok of the Unified Silla, the name was changed to Suseong-gun. In 940 during the Goryeo dynasty changed again in to Suju. King Taejong of the Joseon dynasty renamed the city to Suwon in 1413. In 1592, during the Imjin wars, Commander Yi Kwang attempted to launch his army toward the capital city, Seoul; the army was withdrawn, after news that the city had been sacked reached the commander. As the army grew in size to 50,000 men with the accumulation of several volunteer forces, Yi Kwang and the irregular commanders reconsidered their aim to reclaim the capital, led the combined forces north to Suwon. During the Joseon Dynasty, King Jeongjo made an unsuccessful attempt to make Suwon the nation's capital in 1796. Part of this project was the construction of Hwaseong Fortress, a fortified wall running around the entire city intended to guard the tomb of his father, Prince Sado, which he had located there.
The walls were one of Korea's first examples of paid labour. The walls still exist today, though they were damaged during the Korean War. Hwaseong was constructed under the guidance of philosopher Jeong Yag-yong. Shortly after the death of King Jeongjo, a white paper detailing the construction of the fortress was published; this proved invaluable during its reconstruction in the 1970s. The fortress walls once encircled the entire city, but modern urban growth has seen the city spread out far beyond the fortress; the walls are now a designated UNESCO World Heritage site, are used in materials promoting the city. The Korean War affected Suwon, as the city changed hands four times. Shortly after the outbreak of war, the 49th Fighter Wing of the United States Air Force was dispatched to Korea from Japan, its first task was to evacuate civilians from Suwon and Gimpo, but Suwon soon fell to the advancing North Koreans. Shortly before the Battle of Osan, the first conflict between United States and North Korean forces, on July 4, 1950, defenses were erected on the road between Suwon and nearby Osan.
The next day, Northern troops advanced south. In the 3½-hour battle which followed, 150 American and 42 North Korean soldiers were killed and the United States troops were forced to retreat; the North Korean advance southwards to take. On December 16, 1950, the Greek Expeditionary Force relocated to Suwon, attached to the US 1st Cavalry Division. From November 6, 1951, the United States Air Force's top fighter pilot Gabby Gabreski was in charge of K-13 Air Base in Suwon. By the end of the war, Suwon was in South Korea. A memorial to the French military stands in Jangan-gu, near the Yeongdong Expressway's North Suwon exit. Suwon became the capital of Gyeonggi-do on June 23, 1967. On July 1, 1988, Jangan-gu and Gwonseon-gu was installed. On February 1, 1993, part of Jangan-gu and Gwonseon-gu was separated and these parts became a new district, Paldal-gu. On November 24, 2003, Yeongtong-gu was installed newly to separate part of Paldal-gu Suwon lies in the north of the Gyeonggi plain, just south of South Korea's capital, Seoul.
It is bordered by Uiwang to the north-west, Yongin to the east, the city of Hwaseong to the south-west, shares a short border with Ansan to the west. There are a few hills around Suwon; the highest of these is Gwanggyosan to the north, on the border with Yongin, though those to the east are more numerous. Gwanggyosan is 582 metres above sea level. Most of the streams passing through Suwon originate on other nearby peaks. Since Suwon is bounded to the east by other hills, the streams, chiefly the Suwoncheon, flow southwards through the city emptying into the Yellow Sea at Asan Bay; the entirety of Suwon is drained in this manner. As is true of all the South Korean mainland, there are no natural lakes in Suwon. There are, many small reservoirs, namely Seoho near Hwaseo Station, Ilwon Reservoir near Sungkyunkwan University, Bambat Reservoir near Sungkyunkwan University Station, Ilwang Reservoir in Manseok Park, Pajang Reservoir near the North Suwon exit of the Yeongdong Expressway, Gwanggyo Reservoir at the foot of Gwanggyosan and Sindae Reservoirs near Ajou University, Geu
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n