Columbus is a city in and the county seat of Bartholomew County, United States. The population was 44,061 at the 2010 census. In its built environment, the small city has provided a unique place for noted Modern architecture and public art, commissioning numerous works since the mid-20th century. Located about 40 mi south of Indianapolis, on the east fork of the White River, it is the state's 20th-largest city, it is the principal city of the Columbus, Indiana metropolitan statistical area, which encompasses all of Bartholomew County. Columbus is the birthplace of former Indiana Governor and current Vice President of the United States, Mike Pence. National Geographic Traveler ranked Columbus 11th on its historic destinations list in late 2008, describing the city as "authentic and unspoiled." Columbus won the national contest "America in Bloom" in 2006, in 2004 it was named as one of "The Ten Most Playful Towns" by Nick Jr. Family Magazine; the July 2005 edition of GQ magazine, Columbus was named as one of the "62 Reasons to Love Your Country".
Columbus is the headquarters of the engine company Inc.. The land developed as Columbus was bought by General John Tipton and Luke Bonesteel in 1820. Tipton built a log cabin on Mount Tipton, a small hill overlooking White River and the surrounding flat forested and swampy valley, it held wetlands of the river. The town was first known as Tiptonia, named in honor of Tipton; the town's name was changed to Columbus on March 20, 1821. General Tipton was decided to leave the newly founded town, he was appointed as the highway commissioner for the State of Indiana and was assigned to building a highway from Indianapolis, Indiana to Louisville, Kentucky. When the road reached Columbus, Tipton constructed the first bypass road built. Joseph McKinney was the first to plot the town of Columbus. Local history books for years said that the land on which Columbus sits was donated by General Tipton, but in 2003, Historic Columbus Indiana acquired a deed showing. A ferry was established below the confluence of the Flatrock and Driftwood rivers, which form the White River.
A village of three or four log cabins developed around the ferry landing, a store was added in 1821. That year, Bartholomew County was organized by an act of the State Legislature and named to honor the famous Hoosier militiaman, General Joseph Bartholomew. Columbus was incorporated on June 28, 1864; the first railroad in Indiana was constructed to Columbus from Madison, Indiana in 1844. This became the Madison branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad; the railroad fostered the growth of the community into one of the largest in Indiana, three more railroads reached the city by 1850. Columbus is host to the oldest theater in Indiana, The Crump Theatre, built in 1889 by John Crump. Today the building is included within the Columbus Historic District. Before it closed permanently in 2010, it was an all-ages venue with occasional musical performances. Columbus was host to the oldest continually operated bookstore in Indiana, Cummins Bookstore, which began operations in 1892, it closed in late 2007. The Irwin Union Bank building was built in 1954.
It was designated as a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service in 2001 in recognition of its unique architecture. The building consists of a one-story bank structure adjacent to a three-story office annex. A portion of the office annex was built along with the banking hall in 1954; the remaining larger portion, designed by Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo and Associates, was built in 1973. Eero Saarinen designed the bank building with its glazed hall to be set off against the blank background of its three-story brick annex. Two steel and glass vestibule connectors lead from the north side of this structure to the annex; the building was designed to distance the Irwin Union Bank from traditional banking architecture, which echoed imposing, neoclassical style buildings of brick or stone. Tellers were behind iron bars and removed from their customers. Saarinen worked to develop a building. Columbus has been home to many manufacturing companies, including Noblitt-Sparks Industries and Arvin Industries, now Meritor, Inc.
After merging with Meritor Automotive on July 10, 2000, the headquarters of the newly created ArvinMeritor Industries was established in Troy, the home of parent company, Rockwell International. It was announced in February 2011 that the company name would revert to Inc.. Cummins, Inc. is by far the region's largest employer, the Infotech Park accounts for a sizable number of research jobs in Columbus proper. Just south of Columbus are the North American headquarters of Toyota Material Handling, U. S. A. Inc. the world's largest material handling manufacturer. Other notable industries include a discipline for which Columbus is famous worldwide; the late J. Irwin Miller launched the Cummins Foundation, a charitable program that helps subsidize a large number of architectural projects throughout the city by up-and-coming engineers and architects. Early in the 20th century, Columbus was home to a number of pioneering car manufacturers, including Reeves, which produced the unusual four-axle Octoauto and the twin rear-axle Sextoauto, both around 1911.
Nearly 19,000 workers commute into the city from villages. In recent years city officials have explored ways to revitalize the city, they recognize the value of J. Irwin Miller's supp
Indiana gas boom
The Indiana gas boom was a period of active drilling and production of natural gas in the Trenton Gas Field, in the US state of Indiana and the adjacent northwest part of Ohio. The boom lasted into the early 20th century; when the Indiana natural gas belt was discovered, the citizens were unaware of. Nearly a decade passed without action to recover the resource. Once its significance was realized, further exploration showed the Indiana gas belt was the largest deposit of natural gas discovered until then. In addition to the massive quantity of natural gas, in the 1890s developers discovered that the field contained the first giant oil reserve found in the US, with an estimated one billion barrels of oil; the resource was tapped for use. Because the gas was being wasted in use, the Indiana General Assembly attempted to regulate its use. In a series of cases, the Indiana Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the law; the poor understanding of oil and gas wells at the time led to the loss of an estimated 90% of the natural gas by venting into the atmosphere or by widespread misuse.
By 1902 the yield from the fields began to decline, leading to a switch to alternative forms of energy. With most of the gas removed from the field, there was no longer enough pressure to pump the oil out of the ground. An estimated 900 million barrels of oil remain in the field. Advancements in artificial lift technology have led to extraction of some of the oil, but at a slow rate and high cost compared to more productive fields. Natural gas was first discovered in Indiana in 1876. Coal miners in the town of Eaton were boring a hole in search of coal. After they reached a depth of about 600 feet, a loud noise came from the ground and a foul odor came from the hole; the event scared the miners. Some believed, they did not drill any more at that location. In 1884, natural gas was discovered in Ohio and the news of the discovery was published in the local Indiana newspapers. Residents of Eaton remembered the early incident near their town and realized the magnitude of the discovery. Returning to the site, a company reopened the hole and drilled down another 322 feet, releasing a large amount of gas.
When the escaping gas was ignited, the flame reached 120 feet into the air and was visible from Muncie. Gas fever swept. Explorers found that the gas field was the largest of natural gas fields found up to that date, covering an area of 5,120 square miles; the belt came to be called the Trenton Gas Field. Drillers found large quantities of oil in addition to the natural gas; the Trenton Gas Field was completely interconnected, so a well at any one location lowered pressure across the entire field. Whenever new holes were bored, a pipe was created off the main line, it was lit with a constant flame as proof. Although burning such a flame wasted massive amounts of the resource, the practice became common; the constant burning gas flare was called a "flambeau". The gas discovery stimulated the development of industry in northern Indiana; the Ball Corporation opened in Muncie. Other manufacturers moved into the area, including the Kokomo Rubber Company. Iron and other metal manufacturers, attracted by the cheap fuel, established factories.
The cheap fuel was a primary reason U. S. Steel chose northern Indiana for their operations. Other cities across northern Indiana grew, including Hartford City and Gas City. Gas City was in the center of the gas field and had access to the strongest pressures, with between 300 pounds per square inch and 350 pounds per square inch. In 1892 Gas City had a population of 150, but two years its population had increased to 25,000. Cities outside the field were piped gas, the fuel was exported across the Midwest; the Indiana Natural Gas and Oil was formed by a group of Chicago businessmen led by Charles Yerkes. The company hired Elwood Haynes as their superintendent and he oversaw the laying of the first long distance natural gas pipeline in the US, connecting Chicago with the Trenton Field over 150 miles away. One major use for the gas was to power lighting; the wealth and industry brought by the wells led to a rapid population shift into northern Indiana. Southern Indiana, by comparison, had never recovered from the embargo during the Civil War and was in economic decline.
The northern part of the state attracted new jobs. The boom led to rapid development of pumping and piping technology by the regions gas and oil companies. Inventors such as Elwood Haynes developed many different devices and methods that advanced the industry; as the use of the gas grew, many scientists warned that more gas was being wasted than was used by industry, that the supplies would soon run out. Every town in northern Indiana had one or more gas wells. Producers lit a flambeau atop each well to demonstrate; the Indiana General Assembly attempted to stop the practice by limiting open burning. The law met with tough opposition. Many town leaders, who had come to rely on the gas revenues dismissed claims that the wells would run dry; this practice wasted much gas. Despite their findings, the other companies did not follow their example. Although INGO implemented anti-waste measures, they were virulently opposed to the regulations that they viewed as hampering to productivity—primarily the regulations aimed
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Vincennes is a city in and the county seat of Knox County, United States. It is located on the lower Wabash River in the southwestern part of the state, nearly halfway between Evansville and Terre Haute. Founded in 1732 by French fur traders, François-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes for whom the Fort was named, Vincennes is the oldest continually-inhabited European settlement in Indiana and one of the oldest settlements west of the Appalachians. According to the 2010 census, its population was 18,423, a decrease of 1.5% from 18,701 in 2000. Vincennes is the principal city of the Vincennes, IN Micropolitan Statistical Area, which comprises all of Knox County and had an estimated 2017 population of 38,440; the vicinity of Vincennes was inhabited for thousands of years by different cultures of indigenous peoples. During the Late Woodland period, some of these peoples used local loess hills as burial sites. In historic times, prominent local Indian groups who drove these people out were the Shawnee and the Miami tribe.
The first European settlers were French, when Vincennes was founded as part of the French colony of New France. On, it would be transferred to the colony of Louisiana. Several years France lost the French and Indian War, as result ceded territory east of the Mississippi River, including Vincennes, to the victorious British. Once the area was under British rule, it was associated with the Province of Quebec, until after the American Revolution, it became part of the Illinois Country of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia. Next it became part of Knox County in the Northwest Territory, it was included in the Indiana Territory. Vincennes served as capital of the Indiana Territory from 1800 until 1813, when the government was moved to Corydon; the first trading post on the Wabash River was established by Sieur Juchereau, Lieutenant General of Montréal. With thirty-four Canadiens, he founded the company post on October 28, 1702 to trade for Buffalo hides with American Indians; the exact location of Juchereau's trading post is not known, but because the Buffalo Trace crosses the Wabash at Vincennes, many believe it was here.
The post was a success. When Juchereau died, the post was abandoned; the French-Canadian settlers left what they considered hostile territory for Mobile the capital of Louisiana. The oldest European town in Indiana, Vincennes was established in 1732 as a second French fur trading post in this area; the Compagnie des Indes commissioned a Canadian officer, François-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes, to build a post along the Wabash River to discourage local nations from trading with the British. De Vincennes founded the new trading post near the meeting points of the Wabash and White rivers, the overland Buffalo Trace. De Vincennes, who had lived with his father among the Miami tribe, persuaded the Piankeshaw to establish a village at his trading post, he encouraged Canadien settlers to move there, started his own family to increase the village population. Because the Wabash post was so remote, Vincennes had a hard time getting trade supplies from Louisiana for the native nations, who were being courted by British traders.
The boundary between the French colonies of Louisiana and Canada, although inexact in the first years of the settlement, was decreed in 1745 to run between Fort Ouiatenon and Vincennes. In 1736, during the French war with the Chickasaw nation, de Vincennes was captured and burned at the stake near the present-day town of Fulton, Mississippi, his settlement on the Wabash was renamed Poste Vincennes in his honor. Louisiana Governor Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville next appointed Louis Groston de Saint-Ange de Bellerive to command Poste Vincennes; as the French colonials pushed north from Louisiana and south from Canada, the British colonists to the east continued to push west. In addition, British traders lured away many of Indians; this competition escalated in the Ohio Country until 1754 and the eruption of the French and Indian War On February 10, 1763, when New France was ceded to the British Empire at the conclusion of the French and Indian War, Vincennes fell under the dominion of Great Britain.
British Lt. John Ramsey came to Vincennes in 1766, he took a census of the settlement, built up the fort, renamed it Fort Sackville. The population grew in the years that followed, resulting in a unique culture of interdependent Native Americans and British colonials and traders. Vincennes was far from centers of colonial power. In 1770 and 1772 General Thomas Gage, the commander in chief of Britain's North American forces, received warnings that the residents of Vincennes were not remaining loyal, were inciting native tribes along the river trade routes against the British; the British Colonial Secretary, the Earl of Hillsborough, ordered the residents to be removed from Vincennes. Gage delayed while the residents responded to the charges against them, claiming to be "peaceful settlers, cultivating the land which His Most Christian Majesty granted us." The issue was resolved by Hillsborough's successor, Lord Dartmouth, who insisted to Gage that the residents were not lawless vagabonds, but English subjects whose rights were protected by the King.
In 1778, residents at Poste Vincennes received word of the French alliance with the American Second Continental Congress from Father Pierre Gibault
Valparaiso is a city and the county seat of Porter County, United States. The population was 31,730 at the 2010 census; the site of present-day Valparaiso was included in the purchase of land from the Potawatomi people by the U. S. Government in October 1832. Chiqua's town or Chipuaw was located a mile east of the current Courthouse along the Sauk Trail. Chiqua's town existed from or before 1830 until after 1832; the location is just north of the railroad crossing on County Road 400 North. Located on the ancient Native American trail from Rock Island to Detroit, the town had its first log cabin in 1834. Established in 1836 as Portersville, county seat of Porter County, it was renamed to Valparaiso in 1837 after Valparaíso, near which the county's namesake David Porter battled in the Battle of Valparaiso during the War of 1812; the city was once called the "City of Churches" due to the large number of churches located there at the end of the 19th Century. Valparaiso Male and Female College, one of the earliest higher education institutions admitting both men and women in the country, was founded in Valparaiso in 1859, but closed its doors in 1871 before reopening in 1873 as the Northern Indiana Normal School and Business Institute.
In the early 20th century, it became Valparaiso College Valparaiso University. It was affiliated with the Methodist Church but after 1925 with the Lutheran University Association and expanded after World War II. Valparaiso has a long history of being a transportation hub for the region. In 1858, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad reached Valparaiso, connecting the city directly to Chicago. By 1910, an interurban railway connected the city to Indiana. Today, while the city no longer has a passenger train station, it is still much a part of the "Crossroads of America" due to its proximity to I-65, I-80, I-90, I-94. Additionally, the Canadian National railroad still runs freight on the tracks, including through the downtown area; until 1991, Valparaiso was the terminal of Amtrak's Calumet commuter service. The city is situated at the junctions of U. S. Route 30, State Road 2, State Road 49. According to the 2010 census, Valparaiso has a total area of 15.578 square miles, of which 15.53 square miles is land and 0.048 square miles is water.
The city is situated on the Valparaiso Moraine. Glaciation has left numerous features on the landscape here. Kettle lakes and knobs make up much of this hilly area of Northwest Indiana; the Pines Ski Area is the only remaining kame in the city. Many glacial erratics can be found throughout the city; the moraine has left the city with clay soil. As of the census of 2010, there were 31,730 people, 12,610 households, 7,117 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,043.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,506 housing units at an average density of 869.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.9% White, 3.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.2% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.1% of the population. There were 12,610 households of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.6% were non-families.
34.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.99. The median age in the city was 33.4 years. 21.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.6% male and 51.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 27,428 people, 10,867 households, 6,368 families residing in the city; the population density was 971.6/km². There were 11,559 housing units at an average density of 409.4/km². The racial makeup of the city was 94.35% White, 1.60% African American, 0.23% Native American, 1.49% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.79% from other races, 1.52% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.34% of the population. There were 10,867 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.9% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.4% were non-families.
33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.93. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.2% under the age of 18, 17.4% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,799, the median income for a family was $60,637. Males had a median income of $46,452 versus $26,544 for females; the per capita income for the city was $22,509. About 4.8% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.1% of those unde
U.S. Route 40
U. S. Route 40 known as the Main Street of America, is an east–west United States Highway; as with most routes whose numbers end in a zero, US 40 once traversed the entire United States. It is one of the first U. S. Highways created in 1926 and its original termini were in San Francisco and Atlantic City, New Jersey. In the western United States, US 40 was functionally replaced by Interstate 80, resulting in the route being truncated multiple times. US 40 ends at a junction with I-80 in Silver Summit, just outside Park City. Starting at its western terminus in Utah, US 40 crosses a total of 12 states, including Colorado, Missouri, Indiana, West Virginia, Maryland and New Jersey. Three former and four current state capitals lie along the route. For much of its route, US 40 runs parallel to or concurrently with several major Interstate Highways: Interstate 70 from Colorado to Washington, Pennsylvania; the route was built on top of several older highways, most notably the National Road and the Victory Highway.
The National Road was created in 1806 by an act of Congress to serve as the first federally funded highway construction project. When completed it connected Cumberland, with Vandalia, Illinois; the Victory Highway was designated as a memorial to World War I veterans and ran from Kansas City, Missouri to San Francisco, California. Other important roads that have become part of US 40 include Zane's Trace in Ohio, Braddock Road in Maryland and Pennsylvania, the Black Horse Pike in New Jersey, part of the Oregon Trail in Kansas, the Lincoln Highway throughout most of California; the western terminus of US 40 is in Silver Summit, Utah at an interchange with Interstate 80, several miles north of Park City, at Silver Creek Junction. The road is concurrent with US 189. US 40 is a limited access highway from the I-80 junction to its intersection with Utah State Route 32, about 13 miles south of Park City. From there, the road takes a southerly course to Heber City. In Heber City, there is an intersection with SR-113.
One mile US 189 splits off. There would be no more major intersections until US 40 has reached Fruitland, as it meets SR-208. About 18 miles the road enters Duchesne. In Duchesne, it meets US 191 and SR-87. US 40 starts a concurrency; the concurrency continues into Fort Duchesne and Vernal. In Roosevelt, it meets SR-87 again in a 5-point intersection. There are two intersections with SR-121, in Vernal. In Fort Duchesne, there is an intersection with SR-88. After US 40 passes Vernal, US 191 splits off and the concurrency ends. After that, there are no more major intersections until US 40 reaches Naples, as it meets SR-45. About nine miles US 40 enters Jensen. In Jensen, there is an intersection with SR-149. About 18 miles the road enters Colorado. US 40 enters Colorado, 2 miles west of Dinosaur. In Dinosaur, there is an intersection with Colorado State Highway 64. After passing Dinosaur, there are no more major intersections until US 40 reaches Maybell, as it meets with Colorado State Highway 318. 30 miles the road enters Craig.
In Craig, US 40 starts a short concurrency with State Highway 13. After Craig, SH 3 splits off; the road passes through Hayden without major intersections. It exits Hayden and enters Steamboat Springs. There is an intersection with SH 131 and SH 14. US 40 continues southeast into Kremmling. In Kremmling, there is an intersection with SH 134 and SH 9, it exits Kremmling and enters Granby. There is an intersection with US 34; the road passes Fraser and Winter Park without major intersections. About 26 miles US 40 starts a concurrency with I-70. About 15 miles I-70 splits off. Four miles s it is concurrent again. Three miles I-70 splits off again. After the second concurrency with I-70, US 40 enters Denver; the road passes through downtown Denver, has intersections with SH 391, SH 121, SH 95, SH 2 and an interchange with US 287. The route through Denver serves as the business loop for I-70. East of Denver, US 40 becomes concurrent with I-70 once again. Seventy miles it enters Limon. In Limon, I-70 splits off, however the road is still concurrent with US 287.
There is an intersection with SH 71. US 40 passes Hugo without major intersections. In Wild Horse, it meets SH 94. About 20 miles the road enters Kit Carson. There is an intersection with SH 59. After Kit Carson, US 287 splits off and the concurrency ends. After that, there are no more major intersections until US 40 reaches Cheyenne Wells, as it meets US 385 in an interchange; the road passes Arapahoe without major intersections. Seven miles US 40 enters Kansas. US 40 enters Kansas near the unincorporated community of Weskan; the first sizable town it enters is Sharon Springs, where it intersects K-27. From there it goes northeast to Oakley and follows Eagle Eye Road before merging with I-70 east of town; the two routes remain merged until Topeka, although the prior alignment of US 40, named Old Highway 40, parallels I-70 for most of the way. From Ellsworth to Salina, the old alignment of US 40 is signed as K-140. In Topeka, US 40 leaves I-70 at exit 366, follows the Oakland Expressway concurrent with K-4 north to 6th Avenue heads east along 6th Avenue out of town.
Through Topeka, US 40 follows the route of the Oregon Trail. At t
Kokomo is a city in and the county seat of Howard County, United States. Kokomo is Indiana's 13th-largest city, it is the principal city of the Kokomo, Indiana Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Howard County. Kokomo's population was 46,113 at the 2000 census, 45,468 at the 2010 census. On January 1, 2012, Kokomo annexed more than 7 square miles on the south and west sides of the city, including Alto and Indian Heights, increasing the city's population to nearly 57,000 people. Named for the Miami Ma-Ko-Ko-Mo, called "Chief Kokomo", Kokomo first benefited from the legal business associated with being the county seat. Before the Civil War, it was connected with Indianapolis and the Eastern cities by railroad, which resulted in sustained growth. Substantial growth came after the discovery of large natural gas reserves, which produced a boom in the mid-1880s. Among the businesses which the boom attracted was the fledgling automobile industry. A significant number of technical and engineering innovations were developed in Kokomo in automobile production, and, as a result, Kokomo became known as the "City of Firsts."
A substantial portion of Kokomo's employment still depends on the automobile industry. The following is a list of all the buildings in Kokomo, that are listed in the National Register of Historic Places: Elwood Haynes House Kokomo City Building Kokomo Country Club Golf Course Kokomo Courthouse Square Historic District Kokomo High School and Memorial Gymnasium Lake Erie and Western Depot Historic District Learner Building Old Silk Stocking Historic District Seiberling Mansion The settler tradition says Kokomo was named for Kokomoko or Ma-Ko-Ko-Mo, shortened to Kokomo, said to have been one of the four sons of Chief Richardville last of the chiefs of the Miami people. Folklore holds that he was 7 feet tall and falsely gives him the title of "chief." David Foster, known as the "Father of Kokomo," claimed that he named the town Kokomo after the "ornriest Indian on earth" because Kokomo was "the ornriest town on earth." Kokomo is thought to have been born in 1775 and died in 1838. The only documentary proof of his existence is a trading post record of a purchase of a barrel of flour for $12 for his "squaw."
His remains were discovered during the construction of a saw mill in 1848 and re-interred in the "north-east corner" of the Pioneer Cemetery. The tradition of the Peru Miami is that the town was named after a Thorntown Miami named Ko-kah-mah, whose name is rendered Co-come-wah in the Treaty at the Forks of the Wabash in 1834; that name was translated as "the diver". As a result of various removals, by 1840 the Miami population in Howard County was reduced to about 200; the principal settlement was the Village of Kokomo, on the south side of Wildcat Creek. Indian paths connected Kokomo with Frankfort and Thorntown and led to Peru by way of Cassville, to Meshingomesia by way of Greentown. At the time David Foster had a trading post in Howard County, near the intersection of the reservation boundary line and Wildcat pike, where he engaged in both legitimate trade and illegal sale of alcohol to the Miamis on government property. Shortly after Richardville County was organized in 1844 the commissioners appointed to establish the county seat approached Foster for a donation from his substantial holdings.
At the time of the request the only improvements in what is now Kokomo were Foster's log house and log barn and several Miami huts. The commissioners sought a donation of the more fertile lands south of Wildcat Creek, but Foster refused, donating instead 40 acres north of the creek—land, thickly forested and "swampy." The terms of the donation required that Foster build a courthouse on the land, but he was excused and Rufus L. Blowers was promised $28 to build it, he was penalized $2 for construction delays. The log courthouse was completed in 1845. In June 1855 Henry A. Brouse petitioned the board of Howard county commissioners to incorporate the town of Kokomo; the original election was not held, but another took place on October 1, 1855. After a vote of 62–3 in favor of incorporation, the board so ordered it. On March 31, 1865, an election was held for Kokomo to assume a city government; the resolution was passed, Nelson Purdum was elected the first mayor. In anticipation of business that the court would bring, Kokomo began a quick growth from the time that lots were first sold on October 18, 1844.
David Foster was granted the first license to sell merchandise in Kokomo at the December 1844 commissioners meeting. Two more merchants were licensed in March 1845. John Bohan, who would become a major shop owner, justice of the peace and investor, moved to Kokomo in December 1844, erected the first two story frame house, not only in Kokomo, but in all the county. After the enactment of the 1846 pre-emption law, settlers attempted to secure homesteads in the surrounding lands. In 1848 Stonebreaker's Mill, 10 miles west of Kokomo, began operations. By 1850 Kokomo had a newspaper, when James Beard purchased the printing equipment of the New London Pioneer and set up the Howard Tribune. By 1851 county business was so brisk that the county ordered the construction of two more court buildings, both one story brick affairs, 18 by 36 feet; the county auditor and treasurer occupied one building, the clerk and recorder occupied the other. On April 1, 1854, Kokomo's first bank, the Indian Reserve Bank, was organized