County Durham is a county in North East England. The county town is a cathedral city; the largest settlement is Darlington followed by Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees. It borders Tyne and Wear to the north east, Northumberland to the north, Cumbria to the west and North Yorkshire to the south; the county's historic boundaries stretch between the rivers Tyne and Tees, thus including places such as Gateshead, South Shields and Sunderland. During the Middle Ages, the county was an ecclesiastical centre, due to the presence of St Cuthbert's shrine in Durham Cathedral, the extensive powers granted to the Bishop of Durham as ruler of the County Palatine of Durham; the county has a mixture of mining and heavy railway heritage, with the latter noteworthy in the southeast of the county, in Darlington and Stockton It is an area of regeneration and promoted as a tourist destination. Many counties are named after their principal town, the expected form here would be Durhamshire, but this form has never been in common use.
The ceremonial county is named Durham, but the county has long been known as County Durham and is the only English county name prefixed with "County" in common usage. Its unusual naming is explained to some extent by the relationship with the Bishops of Durham, who for centuries governed Durham as a county palatine, outside the usual structure of county administration in England; the situation regarding the formal name in modern local government is less clear. The structural change legislation which in 2009 created the present unitary council refers to "the county of County Durham" and names the new unitary district "County Durham" too. However, a amendment to that legislation, refers to the "county of Durham" and the amendment allows for the unitary council to name itself "The Durham Council". In the event the council retained the name of Durham County Council. With either option, the name does not include County Durham; the former postal county was named "County Durham" to distinguish it from the post town of Durham.
The ceremonial county of Durham is administered by four unitary authorities. The ceremonial county has no administrative function, but remains the area to which the Lord Lieutenant of Durham and the High Sheriff of Durham are appointed. County Durham: the unitary district was formed on 1 April 2009 replacing the previous two-tier system of a county council providing strategic services and seven district councils providing more local facilities, it has 126 councillors. The seven districts abolished were:Chester-le-Street, including the Lumley and Sacriston areas Derwentside, including Consett and Stanley City of Durham, including Durham city and the surrounding areas Easington, including Seaham and the new town of Peterlee Borough of Sedgefield, including Spennymoor and Newton Aycliffe Teesdale, including Barnard Castle and the villages of Teesdale Wear Valley, including Bishop Auckland, Willington and the villages along Weardale The Borough of Darlington: before 1 April 1997, Darlington was a district in a two-tier arrangement with Durham County Council.
The Borough of Hartlepool: until 1 April 1996 the borough was one of four districts in the short-lived county of Cleveland, abolished. The part of the Borough of Stockton-on-Tees, north of the centre of the River Tees. Stockton was part of Cleveland until that county's abolition in 1996; the remainder of the borough is part of the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. The county is parished. Durham Constabulary operate in the area of the two unitary districts of County Durham and Darlington. Ron Hogg was first elected the Durham Police and Crime Commissioner for the force on 15 November 2012; the other areas in the ceremonial county fall within the police area of the Cleveland Police. Fire service areas follow the same areas as the police with County Durham and Darlington Fire and Rescue Service serving the two unitary districts of County Durham and Darlington and Cleveland Fire Brigade covering the rest. County Durham and Darlington Fire and Rescue Service is under the supervision of a combined fire authority consisting of 25 local councillors: 21 from Durham County Council and 4 from Darlington Borough Council.
The North East Ambulance Service NHS Trust are responsible for providing NHS ambulance services throughout the ceremonial county, plus the boroughs of Middlesbrough and Redcar and Cleveland, which are south of the River Tees and therefore in North Yorkshire, but are part of the North East England region. Air Ambulance services are provided by the Great North Air Ambulance; the charity operates 3 helicopters including one at Durham Tees Valley Airport covering the County Durham area. Teesdale and Weardale Search and Mountain Rescue Team, are based at Sniperly Farm in Durham City and respond to search and rescue incidents in the county. Around AD 547, an Angle named Ida founded the kingdom of Bernicia after spotting the defensive potential of a large rock at Bamburgh, upon which many a fortification was thenceforth built. Ida was able to forge and consolidate the kingdom. In AD 604, Ida's grandson Æthelfrith forcibly merged Bernicia and Deira to create the Kingdom of Northumbria. In time, the realm was expanded through warfare
Bournmoor is a village in County Durham, is situated a short distance from Chester-le-Street. It contains St Barnabas' Church. Part of the Lambton Castle estate, the village developed from 1783 onwards with the sinking of the first of seven local coal mines that were to make up Lambton Colliery. For much of the 20th Century, "Bournmoor" was known as "Burnmoor", taking its name from the Moorsburn The local primary school is called Bournmoor Primary School, although the local scout group, formed early in the 20th century, still carries the name "Burnmoor" in its title; the local community feel that the local authority has gone against the wishes of local people in renaming "Burnmoor" as "Bournmoor". The mid-19th century Ordnance Survey map shows the old core of the village as "Wapping", with the open country to the south of the Sunderland road and north west of Herrington Burn shown as "Bourn Moor" and the colliery complex, known as Lambton is shown as Bourn Moor Colliery; the end-19th century map shows the settlement as "Bournmoor".
Maps produced after the development of the'Flowers' estate, dated between 1920 and 1960 show both as "Burnmoor" but they reverted to "Bournmoor" in maps. In 1913, the Parish Councils of "Bourn Moor" and "Morton Grange" complained to the Board of Trade about the poor facilities available to passengers at Fencehouses railway station. Sporting facilities in the village include cricket and tennis clubs situated near to the church. Media related to Bournmoor at Wikimedia Commons
Gainford, County Durham
Gainford on Tees is a village on the north bank of the River Tees in County Durham, England. It is half-way between Barnard Castle and Darlington, near Winston, at OS map reference NZ 1716. Legend has it that residents on the two sides of the river disputed ownership of a ford across the Tees. In the eventual battle, residents of the Durham side of the river gained the ford, their village became known as Gainford. On the Yorkshire side of the river lies the site of the deserted village of Barforth or Barford, said to be named in memory of its residents' attempt to barricade the ford during the dispute. In Anglo-Saxon times, Gainford was the centre of an estate, part of the Northumbrian Congregation of Cuthbert of Lindisfarne; this area was occupied by Vikings. Archaeologists have found Viking sculptures at Gainford and several examples of these have been put on display in the Open Treasure exhibition at Durham Cathedral. Many sculptures found at Gainford show Viking influence. Despite the Viking settlement, Northumbrian Angles remained major landowners along the banks of the Tees in Viking times.
In the nineteenth century Gainford village had its own spa. Today its main features are an unspoilt village green, a Jacobean hall and a Georgian street called High Row; the village church of St Mary's, stands on the site of an Anglo-Saxon monastery built by Bishop Ecgred of Lindisfarne in the early 9th century. In 1904 the family of a deceased Joseph Edleston owned a plot of land next to the churchyard of St. Mary's in Gainford; the children asked to erect a monument in the churchyard in memory of Joseph's 41-year tenure at the church. The church refused permission, asserting that the churchyard was full, but that the family could donate their land to the church and build a monument on part of it. Feeling slighted, the family set about building themselves a house on their land with a 40-foot column erected next to the churchyard so it towered over the trees and pointed a huge V-sign in stone towards the church authorities; the Edleston Spite House occupied and has MCMIV over the front door. While the 40-foot column is still standing, the'V' sign is now gone.
The houses around the green are Georgian with some rubble-built houses on the north and south sides of the green. When they were built, the rubble-built houses would have been rendered, but the present fashion is to reveal the stonework with the rendering removed. Roofs are red pantiles, tend to be finished with a line of split-stone along the eaves; some of the larger buildings have blue slate roofs, the slate brought by the railway. The older cottages in the village have steep pitched roofs in a style that suggests earlier heather thatching. Torwards the western end of the village green, there is a stone cross on a square base; the base is thought to be medieval in origin. It commemorates Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee; the Cross was made of Gainford. The cross has a battered shaft and Saxon-type head. There is an inscription on the west face of the shaft which states: In thankful commemoration of the sixtieth anniversary of the accession of Queen Victoria on June 20th 1897; this cross was re-erected and trees planted on the green by the inhabitants of Gainford.
The geographer Charles Bungay Fawcett, regarded as "one of the founders of modern British academic geography" and an early promoter of the idea of regional planning. Was educated at the school in Gainford. Gainford Spa A Sword-Dance Play performed at Gainford c.1860 The History of Gainford
Archdeacon Newton is a hamlet and rural parish of several farms in the borough of Darlington and the ceremonial county of County Durham, in England. The population taken at the 2011 Census was less than 100. Details are maintained in the parish of Walworth, it is associated with an abandoned village site under pasture and farm buildings, situated a short distance to the north-west of Darlington. The lost settlement was in existence by the early 15th century, remained inhabited at least until the 1890s. There was a moated manor house at the southern end, part of which remains as the Old Hall, now a barn. At the north end of the site was the chapel, in the middle were tofts and enclosures, with a ridge and furrow field and a trackway leading to the south-east; the site of the abandoned village is now a scheduled monument and the Old Hall is a listed building. The underlying composition here is of glacial clay with pockets of gravel, sand and alluvium, patches of magnesian and carboniferous limestone.
This is a small hamlet incorporating Hall Farm, Garthorne Farm and Townend Farm on an approach road south of Newton Lane. It is the focus of the parish of Archdeacon Newton rural ward, its councillor is Rosalind Tweddle, it is situated on flat land 0.62 miles to the north-west of the Branksome suburb of Darlington, 0.31 miles to the north-west of the A1 road. At Cockerton near the southern end of Newton Lane and 1.2 miles to the south-east of the hamlet is its namesake, the Archdeacon pub. The hamlet once contained a chapel; the area enclosed by Townend Farm and Archdeacon Newton's approach road to the west, Newton Lane to the north, Hall Farm to the south contains the site of a medieval abandoned village, with visible earthworks in pasture at the northern end and farm buildings at the southern end of the site: this is a scheduled monument. The hamlet's name derives from the fact that in the Middle Ages the Archdeacon of Durham founded and built what is now the abandoned village. An alternative theory says.
Around 1800, Hilton "High Price" Middleton of Archdeacon Newton bred a great Durham Ox, the now-defunct Newton Kyloe pub at Cockerton Green was named after it. In 1894 the land was owned by the Church Commissioners and the population was 52; this was before the nearer church of Holy Trinity, was built in 1836. The 1851 census shows residents with surnames of Geldart or Geldert; the manor of this village survives at Hall Farm as a farm building with some medieval features, an adjacent farm building was once an early 16th-century house. Apart from these buildings, the abandoned village is indicated by earthworks of a medieval moated site and enclosures. There are indications of three fish ponds, of which one is still a duck pond, two contain rubbish. One of the supposed fish ponds is overgrown. Prehistoric and Roman remains have not yet been found here, as there have been no excavations as of April 2010; the area to the east of the Archdeacon Newton approach road, to the south of Newton Lane, is the location of the medieval abandoned village and scheduled monument.
The manor and house were at the southern end of a settlement which had three farms and a row of cottages, indicated in the existing pasture by house platforms. It is now thought that the buildings were tenant tofts attached to the manor, not a nucleated village. Cobbled banks and ditches running east to west and situated towards the north end of the site identify the original enclosures of these tofts; the banks are 13 feet wide and 2 feet high, the ditches are 10 feet wide and 1 foot deep. There is an associated ridge and furrow field, a 13 feet wide trackway runs from halfway along the east side of the site, in a south-easterly direction, for 790 feet as far as a modern fence. An undated trench for electricity supply was dug at Hall Farm at the southern end of the hamlet's approach road, surveyed by an archaeological watching brief, but nothing of historical interest was found; the Old Hall, one of the farm buildings at the centre of Hall Farm, is a surviving medieval domestic building or manor house dating from the 14th century and remodelled in the 16th and 17th century.
It was burned and re-roofed in the early 21st century, no internal partitions survive. This is a two-storey listed building, converted to a barn in the 19th century, has a Welsh slate roof and seven internal bays, it is built of rubble masonry with ashlar dressing. The structure includes Tudor carved stone, including mullions and fireplaces. Buttresses, broken arches and fireplaces of the manor are still standing and are incorporated in the Old Hall, it is 59 feet by 30 feet, containing two Tudor fireplaces, with the remains of archways on the outside walls at each end. The moated manor house stood at the southern end of the abandoned village site, where there are now farm buildings. In the 16th and 17th centuries the manor had a hall with parlour and chamber over the hall, a new chamber, a little chamber, a "lofte beneath the doors", a buttery, a kitchen and a stable. Depressions in the ground at the southern end of the site indicate the position of the original moat. It
Brancepeth is a village and civil parish in County Durham, in England. It is situated about 8 km from Durham on the A690 road between Weardale; the population of the civil parish taken at the 2011 census was 414. Brancepeth Castle was until 1570 the fortress of the Neville Earls of Westmorland; the castle was extensively rebuilt in the 19th century by Viscount Boyne. It was a military hospital. St Brandon's Church was famed for its exceptional 17th-century woodwork, until it was destroyed in a major fire in 1998. In 1924, Harry Colt laid out a golf course on the deer park which formed part of the estate surrounding the castle. A club house was created from the old coach house and stables and remains in use by Brancepeth Castle Golf Club; the 6400-yard, par 70 course is regarded as one of the finest in the north-east of England. According to one story, the village's name is said to derive from "Brawn's Path". There is a legend that Brancepeth was once terrorized by an enormous brawn, killed by a knight named Sir Roger de Ferie in 1208.
A commemorative stone marks the traditional location of the brawn's death. A more explanation is that it derives from "Brandon's Path", after St Brandon, the patron saint of the parish church. Frederick William Sanderson Margot Johnson. "Brancepeth" in Durham: Historic and University City and surrounding area. Sixth Edition. Turnstone Ventures. 1992. ISBN 094610509X. Pages 34 to 37. Media related to Brancepeth at Wikimedia Commons
Easington Colliery is a town in County Durham, known for a history of coal mining. It is situated to the north of Horden, a short distance to the east of Easington Village; the town suffered a significant mining accident on 29 May 1951, when an explosion in the mine resulted in the deaths of 83 men. Easington had a population of 4,959 in 2001, 5,022 at the 2011 Census. Easington Colliery began when the pit was sunk near the coast. Thousands of workers came to the area from all parts of Britain and with the new community came new shops, pubs and many rows of terraced "colliery houses" for the mine workers and their families. On 7 May 1993, the mine was closed, with the loss of 1,400 jobs, causing a decline in the local economy; the pit shaft headgear was demolished the following year. The town's former infant and junior schools were built in 1911, they lie derelict. A development company bought the buildings in 2003 and applied for planning permission to build 39 residential units, but a public inquiry gave a ruling that protected the buildings from demolition.
They have since been listed. It was decided in 2009 to create a new unitary authority — Durham County Council — to cover the whole of the county, most of Easington's staff moved into new offices in Seaham. Easington District Council's office building, the department's home for over eighty years, was demolished in April 2013; the fixtures and fittings, including oak desks, from the council chamber were placed in storage at Beamish Museum. The youngest soldier to be awarded a Victoria Cross during World War II was Dennis Donnini from Easington, his father, an Italian named Alfred Donnini, had married an Englishwoman named Catherine Brown, ran an ice cream shop in Easington. Dennis was born on 17 November 1925, he attended Sunderland. In an action on 18 January 1945, Fusilier Donnini was wounded twice yet still led an assault on the enemy before being killed, his gallantry had enabled his comrades to overcome twice their own number of the enemy. He is buried at the Commonwealth Cemetery in The Netherlands.
Although the shafts for the colliery had started to be sunk in 1899, the first coals were not drawn until 1910 due to passing through water-bearing strata. Two main pits were sunk: the North Shaft and the South Shaft. Both of these reached down at 1,430 feet and 1,500 feet respectively; the seams worked were Seven Quarter, Main Coal, Low Main and the Hutton at the bottom. Underground the colliery was split into a number of distinct districts; the explosion occurred in the West or "Duckbill" district, which lies to the northwest of the shafts and to the north of the village. The village is built over the seams, to safeguard it from subsidence there is a reserved area under it. One district extends for four miles under the North Sea. Too much air in the closer workings would starve the distant ones. Supplementary fans and traps needed to be employed; the Duckbill district was being developed and it appears that the effect of this on the ventilation was overlooked, as admitted by the Assistant Agent in cross-examination.
From the pit bottoms the main roadways extended 380 yards to the north, where the West Level branched off and ran for 640 yards west to the junction with the Straight North Headings, which head north via drifts into the Five Quarter seam. The West Level continued into a training area. Around 300 yards along the Straight North Headings was a further junction where the First West Roads headed west; some distance further on the third roads branched off. Along the First West roads were a number of headings both south; the seat of the explosion was down the 3rd south heading. At the end of the 3rd south heading a cross passage was driven and "long wall" excavation commenced on the retreating wall principle; the cutting machine travels from one end of the long wall to the other, back. The cuts are made towards the roads, thus the face retreats from the where it started back towards the start of the headings. Behind the cut is a void into which spoil was placed and the roof is allowed to collapse upon this spoil as props are withdrawn.
In the case of the 3rd south workings this collapse did not occur properly and a void developed above the spoil. The area above the goaf acted as a reservoir for firedamp; the origin of the firedamp is debatable: either the fractured roof allowed a sudden outburst from the seams above, or else the firedamp was emitted from the waste into the void. Roberts comes down in favour of the latter. All collieries are susceptible to the build up of coal dust, not just at the face but along the roadways and conveyors. Coal dust when dispersed in air forms an explosive mixture. Mines therefore adopt three principal means of combating this risk: removal of the dust, spraying with water and diluting the coal dust with stone dust. All three were practised at Easington, but not in a satisfactory manner. Firedamp detection was by means of a flame safety lamp. Flame safety lamps need to be monitored to be effective, in consequence the regulations req
Barmpton is a small village in the borough of Darlington and the ceremonial county of County Durham, England. The population taken at the 2011 Census was less than 100. Details are maintained in the parish of Great Burdon, it is situated a short distance to the north-east of Darlington, on the River Skerne, a tributary of the Tees. Media related to Barmpton at Wikimedia Commons