Lewes is the county town of East Sussex and by tradition of all of Sussex. Lewes remains the police and judicial centre for all of Sussex and is home to Sussex Police, East Sussex Fire & Rescue Service, Lewes Crown Court and HMP Lewes, it is a civil parish and is the centre of the Lewes local government district as well as the seat of East Sussex County Council at East Sussex County Hall. The population of Lewes is now around 17,000; the settlement is a traditional market town and centre of communications and, in 1264, it was the site of the Battle of Lewes. The town's landmarks include Lewes Castle, the remains of Lewes Priory, Bull House, Southover Grange and public gardens, a 16th century timber-framed Wealden hall house known as Anne of Cleves House. Other notable features of the area include the Glyndebourne festival, the Lewes Bonfire and the Lewes Pound. Archaeological evidence points to prehistoric dwellers in the area. Scholars think that the Roman settlement of Mutuantonis was here, as quantities of artefacts have been discovered in the area.
The Saxons built a castle. After the Norman invasion, William the Conqueror rewarded William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey, with the Rape of Lewes, a swathe of land along the River Ouse from the coast to the Surrey boundary, he built Lewes Castle on the Saxon site. Lewes was the site of a mint during the Late Anglo-Saxon period and thereafter a mint during the early years after the Norman invasion. In 1148 the town was granted a charter by King Stephen; the town became a port with docks along the River Ouse. The town was the site of the Battle of Lewes between the forces of Henry III and Simon de Montfort in the Second Barons' War in 1264, at the end of which de Montfort's forces were victorious; the battle took place in fields now just west of Landport. At the time of the Marian Persecutions of 1555–1557, Lewes was the site of the execution of seventeen Protestant martyrs, who were burned at the stake in front of the Star Inn; this structure is now the Town Hall. A memorial to the martyrs was unveiled on Cliffe Hill in 1901.
Through the 17th and 18th centuries, Lewes developed as the county town of Sussex, expanding beyond the line of the town wall. It was an active port and developed related iron and ship building industries. In 1846 the town became a railway junction, with lines constructed from the north and east to two railway stations; the development of Newhaven ended Lewes's period as a major port. During the Crimean War, some 300 Finns serving in the Russian army captured at Bomarsund were imprisoned at Lewes. Lewes became a borough in 1881; the name Lewes is the name of the parliamentary constituency and the local district council as well as Lewes Town Council. Lewes is where the East Sussex County Council has its main offices, located at County Hall in St Anne’s Crescent. Lewes District Council is administered from offices in Southover House on Southover Road. Lewes Town Council is based in the Town Hall on Lewes High Street. For many years, Lewes was dominated at local and national levels. In 1991, the Liberal Democrats won the District Council for the first time, the constituency returned a Liberal Democrat MP for the first time in 1997.
The Conservatives won control of the District Council in 2011, strengthened this position in 2015. They won back the parliamentary seat in the 2015 election with Maria Caulfield defeating the incumbent Liberal Democrat of 18 years, Norman Baker by 1,083 votes. In organisational terms, Lewes became one of the non-county boroughs within the Sussex, East county under the Local Government Act 1933. In 1974, Lewes District Council was formed on 1 April 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, was a merger of the former borough of Lewes along with Newhaven and Seaford urban districts and Chailey Rural District; the election in 2015 was the first time in which Green Councillors had been elected to the Lewes District Council, all from the wards in the town of Lewes. The Lewes Councillor elected to the District Council, Ruth O'Keeffe, was elected as Chairman of the Council; the town of Lewes became a civil parish with the title of town. Lewes Town Council is one of the 300 largest of the 9,800 parish councils in England and Wales, with expenditure budgeted at just over £1 million.
In the 2015 elections for Lewes Town Council, the Green Party were the largest party with 9 seats. But, they lost a seat to an Independent in a by-election and split. There are now 6 Liberal Democrats, 5 Greens, 4 Independents and 3 Independent Green members of Council; the Mayor for 2017/18 is Councillor Michael Chartier and the Deputy Mayor is Janet Baah, both Liberal Democrats. The representation from Lewes wards at local government levels, as at the latest elections, is as follows. On 31 March 2009 Hilary Benn, Secretary of State for Environment and Rural Affairs, announced his decision to confirm the designation of the South Downs National Park, which came into being one year and includes the town of Lewes within its boundaries. You can see Lewes lying like a box of toys under a great amphitheatre of chalk hills... on the whole it is set down better than any town I have seen in England. Lewes is situated on the Greenwich Meridian, in a gap in the Sout
Mountfield, East Sussex
Mountfield is a village and civil parish in the Rother district of East Sussex and three miles north-west of Battle. It is mentioned in the Domesday Book; the parish church is dedicated to All Saints. The lowest level of government is the Mountfield parish council; the parish council is responsible for local amenities including two playing fields and a children's play area. Elections are held every four years; the May 2011 election was uncontested. Rother District council provides the next level of government with services such as refuse collection, planning consent, leisure amenities and council tax collection. Mountfield is part of the Darwell Ward. East Sussex county council is the third tier of government, providing education and highway maintenance. Mountfield falls within the Crowhurst ward; the UK Parliament constituency for Mountfield is Battle. At European level, Mountfield is represented by the South-East region, which holds ten seats in the European Parliament. There are two Sites of Special Scientific Interest within the parish.
River Line is a section of river noted for its geological features as it cuts through many layers from the late Jurassic and early Cretaceous periods. Darwell Wood is a broadleaved woodland of biological interest, it has a number of streams flowing through it on the way to Darwell Reservoir. Two miles north-west of the village are the overgrown vestigial remains of Glottenham Castle, a twelfth-century fortified manor house, surrounded by a moat now dry. Mountfield community web site All Saints church Media related to Mountfield at Wikimedia Commons
Hastings is a town and borough in East Sussex on the south coast of England, 24 mi east of the county town of Lewes and 53 mi south east of London. It has an estimated population of 90,254. Hastings gives its name to the Battle of Hastings, which took place 8 mi to the north at Senlac Hill in 1066; the town became one of the medieval Cinque Ports, a popular seaside resort in the 19th century with the coming of the railway. Today, Hastings is a fishing port with a beach-based fishing fleet; the first mention of Hastings is found in the late 8th century in the form Hastingas. This is derived from the Old English tribal name Hæstingas, meaning `the constituency/followers of Hæsta'. Symeon of Durham records the victory of Offa in 771 over the Hestingorum gens, that is, "the people of the Hastings tribe.", Hastingleigh in Kent was named after that tribe. The place name Hæstingaceaster is found in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for 1050, may be an alternative name for Hastings. However, the absence of any archaeological remains of or documentary evidence for a Roman fort at Hastings suggest that Hæstingaceaster may refer to a different settlement, most that based on the Roman remains at Pevensey.
Evidence of prehistoric settlements have been found at the town site: flint arrowheads and Bronze Age artefacts have been found. This suggests; the settlement was based on the port when the Romans arrived in Britain for the first time in 55 BC. At this time, they began to exploit the iron, shipped it out by boat. Iron was worked locally at Beauport Park, to the north of the town, which employed up to one thousand men and is considered to have been the third largest mine in the Roman Empire. With the departure of the Romans, the town suffered setbacks; the Beauport site had been abandoned, natural and man-made attacks began. The Sussex coast has always suffered from occasional violent storms; the original Roman port could well now be under the sea. Bulverhythe was a harbour used by Danish invaders, which suggests that -hythe or hithe means a port or small haven. From the 6th century AD until 771, the people of the area around modern-day Hastings, identified the territory as that of the Haestingas tribe and a kingdom separate from the surrounding kingdoms of Suth Saxe and Kent.
It worked to retain its separate cultural identity until the 11th century. The kingdom was a sub-kingdom, the object of a disputed overlordship by the two powerful neighbouring kingdoms: when King Wihtred of Kent settled a dispute with King Ine of Sussex & Wessex in 694, it is probable that he seceded the overlordship of Haestingas to Ine as part of the treaty. In 771 King Offa of Mercia invaded Southern England, over the next decade seized control of Sussex and Kent. Symeon of Durham records a battle fought at an unidentified location near Hastings in 771, at which Offa defeated the Haestingas tribe ending its existence as a separate kingdom. By 790, Offa controlled Hastings enough to confirm grants of land in Hastings to the Abbey of St Denis, in Paris. But, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 1011 relates that Vikings overran "all Kent, Sussex and Haestingas", indicating the town was still considered a separate'county' or province to its neighbours 240 years after Offa's conquest. During the reign of Athelstan, he established a royal mint in Hastings in AD 928.
The start of the Norman Conquest was the Battle of Hastings, fought on 14 October 1066, although the battle itself took place 8 mi to the north at Senlac Hill, William had landed on the coast between Hastings and Eastbourne at Pevensey. It is thought; that "New Burgh" is mentioned in the Domesday Book as such. William defeated and killed Harold Godwinson, the last Saxon King of England, destroyed his army, thus opening England to the Norman conquest. William caused a castle to be built at Hastings using the earthworks of the existing Saxon castle. Hastings was shown as a borough by the time of the Domesday Book; as a borough, Hastings had a corporation consisting of a "bailiff and commonalty". By a Charter of Elizabeth I in 1589, the bailiff was replaced by a mayor. Muslim scholar Muhammad al-Idrisi, writing c.1153, described Hastings as "a town of large extent and many inhabitants and handsome, having markets and rich merchants". By the end of the Saxon period, the port of Hastings had moved eastward near the present town centre in the Priory Stream valley, whose entrance was protected by the White Rock headland.
It was to be a short stay: Danish attacks and huge floods in 1011 and 1014 motivated the townspeople to relocate to the New Burgh. In the Middle Ages Hastings became one of the Cinque Ports. In the 13th century, much of the town and half of Hastings Castle was washed away in the South England flood of February 1287. During a naval campaign of 1339, again in 1377, the town was raided and burnt by the French, seems then
Piddinghoe is a village and civil parish in the Lewes District of East Sussex, England. It is located in the valley of the River Ouse between Lewes and Newhaven, five miles south of the former, downstream of Southease; the village was once a central player in Sussex smuggling. It is notable for having the only remaining bottle-shaped brick kiln in the country. St John's Church is one of three in the Ouse Valley with a round Norman tower, the others being at nearby Southease and Lewes. Piddinghoe is visited by sailing enthusiasts as the body of water by the village is a fine location for dinghy sailing in particular but windsurfing. An old saying of unknown origin says that "Piddinghoe people shoe their magpies". One theory is that this refers to the habit of shoeing oxen, which if black and white, were called magpies. Piddinghoe does not appear in the Domesday Book, but by 1220 a manor of that name was in the hands of William de Warenne. In the 13th century the village name appears as Peddinghowe or Pidingeho and in the 14th century as Pydynghowe.
The village was part of the Holmstrow hundred until the abolition of hundreds in the 19th century. In 1929 part of the parish on the coast was made into the parish of Peacehaven. At a local level Piddinghoe is governed by Piddinghoe Parish Council, their responsibilities include footpaths, street lighting and minor planning applications. The parish council has five seats available although only four were filled in the uncontested May 2007 election; the next level of government is the district council. The parish of Piddinghoe lies within the Kingston ward of Lewes District Council, which returns a single seat to the council; the election on 12 May 2015 returned a Liberal DemocratEast Sussex County Council is the next tier of government, for which Piddinghoe is within the Newhaven and Ouse Valley West division, with responsibility for education, social services, civil registration, trading standards and transport. Elections for the county council are held every four years; the Liberal Democrat Carla Butler was elected in the 2013 election.
The UK Parliament constituency for Piddinghoe is Lewes. The Liberal Democrat Norman Baker served as the constituency MP from 1997 until 2015, when Conservative Maria Caulfield was elected. At European level, Piddinghoe is represented by the South East region, which holds ten seats in the European Parliament; the June 2014 election returned 3 Conservatives, 1 Liberal Democrats, 4 UK Independence, 1 Labour and 1 Green, none of whom live in East Sussex. St John's Church Piddinghoe weather Visit South East England, sailing
Hove is a town in East Sussex, England west of its larger neighbour Brighton, with which it forms the unitary authority Brighton and Hove. It forms a single conurbation with Brighton and some smaller towns and villages running along the coast; as part of local government reform and Hove were merged, to form the borough of Brighton and Hove in 1997. In 2001, the new borough attained city status. Hove is bordered by Brighton to the east and Portslade-by-Sea in the west, the distance between the boundaries being some 2.25 mi. During mid 19th-century building work near Palmeira Square, workmen levelled a substantial burial mound. A prominent feature of the landscape since 1200 BC, the 20 feet -high tumulus yielded, among other treasures, the Hove amber cup. Made of translucent red Baltic Amber and the same size as a regular china tea cup, the artefact can be seen in the Hove Museum and Art Gallery. There are entries for Brighton and Portslade and small downland settlements like Hangleton, but nothing for the location of Hove itself.
The first known settlement in Hove was around the 12th century when St Andrew's Church was established. Hove remained insignificant for centuries, consisting of just a single street running north-south some 250m from the church, which by the 16th century was recorded as being in ruins. Hangleton Manor is a well-preserved 16th-century flint manor building, it is believed to have been built c. 1540 for Richard Belingham, twice High Sheriff of Sussex, whose initials are carved into a fireplace, whose coat of arms adorns a period plaster ceiling. The Manor is serving as a pub-restaurant and whilst it was once on open downland, it is now surrounded by the 20th-century Hangleton housing estate. In 1723 a traveller, the antiquary John Warburton, wrote,'I passed through a ruinous village called Hove which the sea is daily eating up and is in a fair way of being quite deserted. However, The Ship Inn had been built at the seaward end of the street in around 1702. In 1724, Daniel Defoe wrote in reference to the south coast,'I do not find they have any foreign commerce, except it be what we call smuggling and roguing.
The census of 1801 recorded only 101 residents. By 1821, the year the Prince Regent was crowned George IV, Hove was still a small village but the population had risen to 312; the dwellings were still clustered on either side of Hove Street, surrounded by an otherwise empty landscape of open farmland. This isolated location was ideal for smuggling and there was considerable illicit activity. Hove smugglers became notorious, with contraband being stored in the now repaired St. Andrew's Church. Tradition has it that The Ship Inn was a favourite rendezvous for the smugglers, in 1794 soldiers were billeted there. In 1818 there was a pitched battle on Hove beach between revenue men and smugglers, from which the latter emerged as the victors; as part of the concerted drive by Parliament to combat smuggling, a coastguard station was opened at the southern end of Hove Street in 1831, next to The Ship Inn. At the bottom of Hove Street was the bull-ring. At a bull-bait in 1810 the bull escaped, scattering spectators before being recaptured and dragged back to the ring.
This was the last bull-bait to take place in Hove. The fertile coastal plain west of the Brighton boundary had significant deposits of brickearth and by c.1770 a brickfield had been established on the site of what would become Brunswick Square. Other brickfields were established further west, remaining until displaced by housing development. In the years following the Coronation of 1821 the Brunswick estate of large Regency houses boasting a theatre, riding schools and their own police was developed on the seafront near the boundary with Brighton. Although within Hove parish the residents of these elegant houses studiously avoided the name of the impoverished village a mile to the west as an address. Straggling development along the coast loosely connected the estate to fashionable Brighton, so that name was used instead. Dating from 1822, the Brighton to Shoreham turnpike crossed the north of Hove parish along the route of the present Old Shoreham Road; the Brighton General Gas Light Company was formed in 1825.
Although production of coal gas was notorious for the smell it produced, the company acquired land in the fields between Hove Street and St. Andrew's Church, in 1832 built a gasworks on a two-acre site; the process required substantial tonnage of coal, delivered by horse-drawn cart on the unmade tracks in the vicinity, removal of by-products including coke, coal tar and ammonia. An industrial site such as this, with a tall chimney and two gasometers next to the churchyard was a considerable intrusion on the populace of Hove, but not for still-distant and growing Brighton, the main centre of consumption. Being situated in Hove it avoided the duty of £1 per 8 tons levied on coal by the Brighton Town Act of 1773. A gasworks built east of Brighton in 1819, therefore exempt, was supplied by sailing brigs grounding at high tide, the crew tipping the coal down chutes into horse-drawn carts re-floating on the next tide; this method, inherently dirty and disruptive, would have been used at Hove until the arrival of the railway in 1840.
By 1861 the site had doubled in size and there were now five gasometers, ranging in size from small to large. Due to spiralling demand a large new works was opened in Shoreham Harbour at Portslade-by-Sea in 1871, by 1885 all gas manufacture in
Glynde is a village and civil parish in the Lewes District of East Sussex, United Kingdom. It is located two miles east of Lewes; the estate at Glynde has belonged to four interlinked families: the Waleys, Morleys and Brands. The Trevors were from north Wales, descended from Tudor Trevor, a chieftain who in 915 married the daughter of Hywel the Good of Gwynedd and all Wales; the Glynde manor was not named in the Domesday Book, but it is the unnamed peculier of the Archbishop of Canterbury held by one Godfrey of Malling, who held the manor of South Malling. By the late 12th century, Richard Waleys held four knight fees of the Archbishop, including Glynde; the Waleys added further estates near Mayfield, which in the 16th century became the centre of the Wealden ironmaking industry and a major source of wealth. William Morley added the manors of Beddingham, on the other side of Glynde Reach. Harbert Morley added the manor of Preston Beckhelwyn; these remain part of the Glynde Estate. Glynde Place was erected by William Morley.
The house was built of Sussex stone from Caen. It was square, with an inner courtyard; the house was altered by Richard Trevor, Bishop of Durham, who turned it back to front, so that the house looked east. He added an imposing coach house and stable block to the south. On the walls of knapped flint he erected the heraldic dragons of the Trevors. In addition, he created a new front hall, embellished the gallery panelling, installed a marble fireplace, added a set of bronzes. Glynde lay within the 1530-acre Glynde parish, united with West Firle and Beddingham after the Second World War, to form Glynde and Beddingham. However, it is still a separate civil parish; the rectory of Glynde was held by the Abbots of Bec in Normandy from the Norman Conquest to Agincourt. Henry V's brother, the Duke of Bedford, confiscated it and transferred it to the Dean and Chapter of Windsor, they remain patrons to the living to this day. The present parish church of St Mary the Virgin, built by Richard Trevor to a design by Sir Thomas Robinson, was dedicated in 1765.
The old parish church which it replaced appears to have been similar to many churches in the district, having nave, north aisle, chancel, with south porch. The new church, in Palladian style, was faced in Sussex flints and lightened with windows of coloured lozenges of Flemish glass; the war memorial, with the names of seventeen men of Glynde who fell in the two world wars, is of Portland stone and stands at the bottom of the churchyard, close to the road. Glynde was once on the turnpike between Eastbourne; the turnpike road was constituted by the Glynde Bridge Turnpike Act. It is now Ranscombe Lane, it was not a financial success. In 1817, with its act due to expire in 1821 and the works incomplete, a new turnpike was sponsored to cut across the marshes of Beddingham; this cut 7 miles from the journey from Lewes to Eastbourne. The new turnpike road is – broadly – the modern A27. Glynde lies to the north of that road. Glynde railway station is located on west of Berwick; the railway arrived in 1846.
The station was built on the parish boundary between Glynde and Beddingham. The railway was electrified in 1935. There were three industrial lines connected to Glynde station: Balcombe Pit was connected to the railway at the eastern end of Glynde station. A tramway to Brigden Pit was connected to the western end of Glynde station. A clay pit was connected to the eastern end of the station, first by a telpherage line by a tramway; the Glynde telpherage line was built by the Telpherage Company and was opened on Saturday 17 October 1885. Reports of the new system were published as far afield as the New York Times, it was said to cost £1,200, including the equipment to generate electricity, the trains, the locomotives. The electricity was generated by a dynamo, powered by a steam engine; the water for the engine was raised by a windmill at the station end of the line. The line extended for a mile, it was a double line of steel rods 66 feet long and with a 0.75-inch diameter. The rods were elevated 18 feet above the ground on posts.
The locomotive and skips were suspended from pulleys. A train of ten skips could carry a ton of clay." The Southdown breed of sheep were first bred here by John Ellman. Frances founded the influential Glynde College for Lady Gardeners at Trevor House, Glynde in 1899, it continued to offer two-year courses at Ragged Lands from 1902 until about 1933. Chalk pits are long standing features in the area, used for liming the fields, mending the roads, making mortar for building. Transportation by road was prohibitively expensive, so the pits had minimal commercial value. In 1846 the railway came and Henry Otway Trevor leased all the chalk pits in Glynde and Beddingham to a Lewes limeburning partnership. Three pits were named: Glyndebourne and Balcombe; the procedure was to excavate the chalk, turn it into lime in large kilns, transport it away by rail to be used as cement. The kilns were coal-fired; the work in the chalk pits was labour-intensive, with over a hundred men employed in the pits at their peak.
A clay pit was opened to the east of Decoy Wood. The pit was to supply Gault clay to the new Sussex Portland Cement works at South Heighton. Both were on
Crowhurst, East Sussex
Crowhurst is an isolated village situated five miles north-west of Hastings in East Sussex. It is located within the Rother District Council; the earliest mention of the settlement is in 771, when King Offa of Mercia gave the Bishop of Selsey a piece of land here. Crowhurst itself remained the king's land until 1412, although various landowners were given possession of it over that time: Robert Count of Eu, after the Norman Conquest of England the Fitz-Lambert family, until the 12th century Walter de Scotney, given by Richard I after the Third Crusade, although Walter forfeited it in 1259, having been found guilty of a crime Sir John Pelham, given to him by Henry IV in 1412, it provides a local voice to the county councils. The parish council consists of seven councillors; the May 2007 election had ten candidates standing. Rother District council provides the next level of government with services such as refuse collection, planning consent, leisure amenities and council tax collection. Crowhurst is within the Crowhurst ward, along with the parishes of Ashburnham and Penhurst and part of Battle.
In the May 2007 election Crowhurst ward was won by the Conservative candidate. The population of this ward at the 2011 census was 2,686. East Sussex county council is the third tier of government, providing education and highway maintenance. Crowhurst falls within the Crowhurst ward. Kathryn Margaret Field, Liberal Democrat, was elected in the May 2005 election with 48.8% of the vote. The UK Parliament constituency for Crowhurst is Battle. Huw Merriman was elected in the May 2015 election. At European level, Crowhurst is represented by the South-East region, which holds ten seats in the European Parliament; the May 2014 election returned four UK Independence, three Conservatives, one Liberal Democrat, one Labour and one Green. The parish church is dedicated to St George; the ruins of the manor house lie to the south of it. Although small, the village does have a railway station, it was built in 1902 as a junction station for a branch line to Bexhill. The line crossed nearby marshes on a 17-arch viaduct.
The village has a primary school. The village post office closed in March 2008: until it served as a convenience store also. There is The Plough; the village is home to the Fore Wood RSPB reserve, part of, a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The interest is due to its ghyll habitat; the site is a rich breeding area for birds. Like the village of the same name in Surrey, this East Sussex Crowhurst has an ancient yew tree in the church grounds cordoned off by iron railings and reinforced with steel wires to prevent collapse. Age uncertain. Another SSSI within the parish is Combe Haven; this site is of biological importance due to its diversity of habitat supporting many species of flora and fauna. Alluvial meadows and reed beds cover a large section of the area. Crowhurst is located within the heart of the Sussex Weald in the designated High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. A fictionalised version of medieval Crowhurst was presented in the 2009 docudrama 1066 The Battle for Middle Earth, produced by Channel 4.
Media related to Crowhurst at Wikimedia Commons