Caversfield is a village and civil parish about 1 1⁄2 miles north of the centre of Bicester. In 1844 Caversfield became part of Oxfordshire, but until it was always an exclave of Buckinghamshire; the 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 1,788. The ancient Roman road between Alchester and Towcester, now the A4421, forms the eastern boundary of the parish. Caversfield's toponym has evolved from Cavrefelle in the 11th century through Kaueresfuld, Caffresfeld and Kaveresfeld, by the 18th century it was Catesfield. Before the Norman Conquest of England the manor was held by one Edward, a man of Tostig Godwinson, Earl of Northumbria; the Domesday Book records that in 1086 Caversfield was one of the manors owned by William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey. William's descendants retained Caversfield until the beginning of the 14th century. By 1317 Caversfield was held by Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, when the Earl died in 1324 it passed to his niece Joan, she was the wife of David II Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl, who although Scottish had become a peer of England after King Robert the Bruce deposed and exiled him for rebellion.
Caversfield remained with the Earl of Atholl's descendants until 1375, when it passed to the heirs of a different branch of the de Warenne family. By the 12th century the Gargate family held the feudal tenancy of Caversfield. In 1236 Muriel de Ros and Isabel de Munbury, the daughters of Hugh Gargate, endowed the tenancy of half of the manor to the Augustinian Priory at Bicester; the priory retained this holding until the Dissolution of the Monasteries after 1536. In the 13th century the Gargate family owned a watermill, a windmill and a house where the manorial court was held; the watermill was on the small River Bure which rises at Bainton, flows south through Caversfield and Bicester and around Graven Hill, joins the River Ray at Merton. No trace of either mill is known to survive, the original manor house has gone; the oldest part of the small Church of England parish church of Saint Laurence is the Saxon ground stage of the bell tower from the 10th century. The nave and chancel were rebuilt late in the 12th century.
Early in the 13th century the chancel was remodelled again in the Early English Gothic style with two lancet windows at its east end, the bell-stage of the tower was either added or rebuilt. The small north and south aisles were added around the same time; each aisle is linked to the nave by an arcade of two bays, in which the style of the piers is of about AD 1180 but the Early English Gothic style of the arches is of about 1230. The south walls of the church include a lancet window, a Decorated Gothic window from early in the 14th century and a Perpendicular Gothic window from late in the 15th century. In the 18th century the north and south aisles of St Laurence church were demolished and the two arcades blocked up. In 1874 the Gothic Revival architect Henry Woodyer restored the chancel, rebuilt the aisles and added a vestry to the east of the north aisle. St Laurence's parish is now part of the benefice of Bicester with Caversfield; until the 20th century the tower had three bells, including a treble bell, cast in about 1218 for Hugh and Sibilla Gargate and is believed to be the oldest inscribed bell in England.
In the 20th century this bell was removed from the tower and mounted as an historic exhibit inside the church. The tower now has a ring of five bells. John Taylor & Co of Loughborough cast the tenor bell in 1874 and the fourth bell in 1876. Mears & Stainbank of the Whitechapel Bell Foundry cast the third bell in 1928 and added new treble and second bells in 1949. St Lawrence's parish churchyard includes 25 Commonwealth War Graves connected with RAF Bicester, dating from before and during the Second World War; this was a training station for Bomber Command and a number of the burials are of airmen killed in training accidents. 19 are RAF airmen, including one Australian and one Canadian serving in the RAF. Four are RCAF airmen, one is from the RNZAF and one is a soldier from the Royal Artillery. An open field system of farming prevailed in the parish until 1780, when an inclosure act enabled the enclosure of the common land of the parish. Caversfield is on the old main road between Banbury via Aynho.
In 1791 an Act of Parliament made both the Bicester–Aynho road and the Bicester–Finmere stretch of the old Roman road into turnpikes. The two roads ceased to be turnpikes in 1877. In the 1920s the Bicester–Banbury road was classified as part of the A41 and the Bicester–Finmere road was part of the A421. After the M40 motorway was completed in 1990, the Bicester–Banbury road was downgraded to B4100 and the Bicester–Finmere road was reclassified A4421. In the 19th century Caversfield's status as an exclave of Buckinghamshire was brought to an end; the Reform Act 1832 removed the parish from the Buckingham parliamentary constituency, in 1839 two further Acts placed exclaves such as Caversfield under their surrounding counties' magistrates and county constabularies. The Counties Act 1844 transferred Caversfield to Oxfordshire for all remaining purposes; the architect C. R. Cockerell designed Caversfield House, built in 1842–45 on the site of the former manor house; the architect William Wilkinson designed the neo-Tudor style Brashfield House, built in 1872–75 in the east of the parish by the Roman Road.
Until the 20th century Caversfield was a manor and parish with no village and a small population. However, in 1911 Bicester Airfield was created just east of the Roman road in Launton parish. At the end of the First World War the airfield became RAF Bicester and subsequently housing for RAF personnel was built in Skimmingdish Lane in the eastern part of Caversfi
Kirtlington is a village and civil parish in Oxfordshire about 6 1⁄2 miles west of Bicester. The parish includes the hamlet of Northbrook; the 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 988. The parish measures nearly 3 miles north–south and about 2 1⁄2 miles east–west, it is bounded by the River Cherwell to the west, elsewhere by field boundaries. In 1959 its area was 3,582 acres; the Portway is a pre-Roman road running parallel with the Cherwell on high ground about 1 mile east of the river. It passes through the village. A short stretch of it is now part of the A4095 road through the village. Longer stretches form minor roads to Upper Heyford. Akeman Street Roman road bisects the parish east–west passing just north of Kirtlington village. A 4-mile minor road linking Kirtlington with Chesterton uses its course. Aves ditch is pre-Saxon. One end of the ditch is in Kirtlington parish about 1 mile north of the village. Just east of the parish school is a moated site, a Scheduled Ancient Monument.
Just east of the moated site are the remains of fish ponds. The toponym "Kirtlington" is derived from the Old English for "the enclosure of Cyrtla's people"; the earliest known record of it is as Cyrtlinctune in a Saxon charter of AD 944–6, now included in the Cartularium Saxonicum. In the Anglo-Saxon era Kirtlington was a king's vill; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in AD 977 King Edward the Martyr held a witenagemot at Kyrtlingtun attended by Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury. The Domesday Book of 1086 records that Certelintone, Cortelintone or Cherielintone had been a royal manor of Edward the Confessor and was now held by the conquering Norman monarchy; the Domesday Book records the manor being a large and valuable estate of 11½ hides yielding an income of £52 a year. The Pipe rolls of 1190 record it as Kertlinton, it remained a royal manor until 1604. The manor house is recorded to have had a date-stone of 1563; the house is L-shaped, has a polygonal stair-turret on the south side and a corbelled chimney-stack in the west side.
The earliest known record of a parish church at Kirtington is in the Domesday Book of 1086. The oldest visible parts of the present Church of England parish church of St Mary the Virgin include the early 12th-century Norman arches supporting the central bell tower, a tympanum of the same date, now over the vestry door. Beneath the floor of the chancel are the foundations of a former apse, built early in the 12th century. About 1250 the nave was rebuilt and north and south aisles were added, each linked with the nave by arcades of three bays; the transeptal chapel of Our Lady on the south side of the tower may be of the same date, the apse was replaced with a rectangular chancel late in the 13th century. The west window of the nave dates from the 14th century, as do two windows flanking a blocked 13th-century doorway in the north aisle; the east window of the chancel, west doorway of the nave and south doorway of the south aisle are 14th century. In the 15th century a clerestory was added to the nave and a porch was added to the south door.
The Lady Chapel was rebuilt in the 15th century, other late Mediæval additions include the Perpendicular Gothic windows of the south aisle and another Perpendicular Gothic window in the north aisle. By 1716 the Lady chapel was ruinous and Sir Robert Dashwood, 1st Baronet had it converted into a family chapel and burial vault. In 1770 the tower was demolished, leaving its arches between the nave and chancel. In about 1853 Sir Henry William Dashwood, 5th Baronet had the bell tower rebuilt by the Gothic Revival architect Benjamin Ferrey in a Norman Revival style. In 1877 Sir Henry and Lady Dashwood had the chancel restored by Sir George Gilbert Scott. At the same time the organ was installed in the Dashwood Chapel, obscuring a 1724 memorial to the first three Dashwood baronets and other members of the family. St Mary's is a Grade I listed building; the rebuilt bell tower has a ring of eight bells. Henry III Bagley of Chacombe, Northamptonshire cast three of the bells in 1718 at his bellfoundry in Witney.
Abel Rudhall of Gloucester cast the tenor bell in 1753. Two bells came from the Whitechapel Bell Foundry: one cast by Charles and George Mears in 1853 and the other by Mears and Stainbank in 1870; the current ring of eight was completed when John Taylor & Co of Loughborough cast the treble in 1938. St Mary's has a Sanctus bell cast by Henry III Bagley in 1718. St Mary the Virgin is now part of the Akeman Church of England Benefice, which includes the parishes of Bletchingdon, Hampton Gay, Middleton Stoney and Weston-on-the-Green. Kirtlington's first nonconformist meeting house was licensed in 1821 and was a member of the Oxford Methodist Circuit by 1824. A Wesleyan chapel was built in 1830 and replaced by a stone-built chapel in 1854. In 1867 it belonged to the United Methodist Free Churches, which in 1907 became part of the United Methodist Church. By 1954 the chapel had only about six members, it is now a private house. Kirtlington had two water mills on the River Cherwell, they are recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086, in subsequent documents in about 1240, 1538 and 1689.
All documents thereafter refer to only one mill in the parish. There was once a horse mill in the village. There were small enclosures of farmland in the parish in the 13th century and 99 acres had been enclosed by 1476, but at that stage most of the parish was still farmed under an open field system. By 1750 the enclosed land totalled about of which 900 acres, the remaining
Broughton is a small village and civil parish in northern Oxfordshire, about 2.5 miles southwest of Banbury. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 286. Prior to the Norman Conquest in 1066, Broughton was held by Thorgautr Lagr. By 1086, the parish of Broughton was within the ancient hundred of Bloxham, held by tenant-in-chief Berengarii de Todeni, first-born son of Robert de Todeni. Berengar's sister Albreda inherited Broughton, so her husband Robert de Insula was next to manage the profitable manor. Broughton's Church of England Parish Church of St Mary the Virgin was built in about 1300 in a style, transitional from Early English to Decorated Gothic; the church is in the grounds of Broughton Castle, the 14th- to 16th-century country house the seat of the ancestral line of the Lords Saye and Sele restored using the consultancy of architect George Gilbert Scott. Broughton Rectory was rebuilt in 1694, it was altered three times in the 19th century: firstly by Richard Pace of Lechlade in 1808, with extensions by S.
P. Cockerell in 1820 and H. J. Underwood in 1842; the Domesday Book records. By 1444 there were at least three, one of, a fulling mill.> By 1685 there was a second fulling mill, both mills supplied the local woollen industry. Fulling and cloth-dyeing remained local industries until early in the 20th century. In the 17th century Broughton's agriculture was predominantly pasture for cattle and sheep, which has given to the parish such field names as Dairy Ground, Grazing Ground and New Close Pasture. Improved crop rotation in the agricultural revolution increased arable farming in the parish, with crops being diversified in the 18th century to include clover, hops and woad; some of these crops have given place names to the parish such as Sandfine Wood, Sandfine Road and Woadmill Farm. Woad was still grown in 1827. Broughton has a pair of Gothic Revival almshouses that were built in 1859. Broughton has the Saye and Sele Arms. Lobel, Mary D. A History of the County of Oxford. Victoria County History. 9: Bloxham Hundred.
London: Oxford University Press for the Institute of Historical Research. Pp. 85–102. ISBN 978-0-19722-726-8. Sherwood, Jennifer. Oxfordshire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Pp. 490–492, 498. ISBN 0-14-071045-0. 360° Panorama of Church interiors Media related to Broughton, Oxfordshire at Wikimedia Commons
Middleton Stoney is a village and civil parish about 2 1⁄2 miles west of Bicester, Oxfordshire. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 331; the parish measures about 2 miles north–south and about 1 1⁄2 miles east–west, in 1959 its area was 1,853 acres. Its eastern boundary is Gagle Brook, a tributary of the River Ray, its western boundary is Aves ditch, it is bounded to the south by field boundaries. The remains of a Roman building from the second century AD a barn, have been found southeast of the former castle. Aves ditch may have been dug as a boundary ditch. "Middleton" is a common toponym derived from Old English. It means the middle tūn of a group; the Domesday Book of 1086 records this particular Middleton as Middeltone. Episcopal registers record it as Mudelingtona in 1209–19 and Middellington in 1251. A document from 1242 included in the Book of Fees records it as Mudelinton; the earliest known record of the affix "Stoney" is from 1552. It may refer to stone pits in the parish, from which Jurassic Cornbrash limestone was quarried to build dry stone walls.
It differentiates the village and parish from Middleton Cheney in Northamptonshire, about 12 miles to the north. Middleton Stoney existed by the time of King Edward the Confessor, it was valued at 10 hides. Middleton Stoney Castle was a motte-and-bailey, first recorded in 1215, its remains are a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Middleton Park is a neo-Georgian country house designed by Edwin Lutyens and his son Robert and built in 1938 for the 9th Earl of Jersey, it is a Grade I listed building. The earliest parts of the Church of England parish church of All Saints are Norman, built in the middle of the 12th century. In about 1190 the chancel arch was inserted and the north aisle and three-bay arcade were added in a transitional style between Norman and Early English Gothic. In the 14th century the south aisle and its two-bay arcade were built; the nave has a clerestory, added in the 15th century. In 1805 a transeptal mausoleum was added to the north side of the chancel for the Child-Villiers family.
In 1858 the church was restored under the direction of the architect Samuel Sanders Teulon, under whom the west tower was rebuilt and the Jersey mausoleum was Normanised. In 1860 a 14th-century Gothic baptismal font was presented to the church. On its base a 17th-century inscription says This fonte came/from the Kings/chapel in Islipp... and claims that Edward the Confessor was baptised in it. If true, it would be a Saxon font, re-cut and Gothicised in the 14th century, it may have been salvaged from the Saxon chapel of the Royal House of Wessex at Islip, damaged in the English Civil War in 1645 and demolished in the 1780s. In 1868 the church was refitted to designs by the Oxford Diocesan architect GE Street, who added a vestry, choir stalls and new pulpit; the church is a Grade II* listed building. The west tower has a ring of six bells, all cast in 1717 by Henry III Bagley of Chacombe. Mears and Stainbank of the Whitechapel Bell Foundry recast the tenor and treble bells in 1883 and the fifth bell in 1885.
The parish churchyard has a Commonwealth War Graves Commission section with 27 Second World War burials. All but one are airmen from RAF Upper Heyford in the next parish, including 10 from the Royal Canadian Air Force and two from the Royal New Zealand Air Force; the exception is a Royal Navy officer, Lieut Conroy Ancil, who served on the escort carrier HMS Stalker and died in 1943. All Saints' is now part of the Akeman Church of England Benefice, which includes the parishes of Bletchingdon, Hampton Gay, Kirtlington and Weston-on-the-Green; the parish's common lands were inclosed at the end of the 17th century. In 1824–25 George Child Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey had the original village and manor house demolished to make way for him to expand Middleton Park eastwards; the castle mound and All Saints' church remain isolated within the extended park. His wife Sarah Villiers, Countess of Jersey directed the building of new cottages on the edge of the park, each with a rustic porch and a flower garden.
These form the nucleus of the current village. The current village is at the crossroads of two main roads; the north-south road used to be the main road between Brackley. In the 1920s it was classified as the A43. In the 1990s the M40 motorway was completed and the stretch of the A43 through Middleton Stoney was reclassified B430; the east-west road is the main road between Enstone. In 1797 an Act of Parliament made this road into a turnpike, it was disturnpiked in the 19th century and in the 20th it was classified B4030. The village has a pub that used to be called Child, it is now the Jersey Arms, an hotel owned by Shepherd Cox Hotels as a Best Western Sure Collection 2018. The village has the Rigoletto. Middleton Stoney used to have a parish school; the building is now the village hall. Thames Travel bus route 250 serves Upper Heyford, linking the village with Bicester in one direction and Oxford via Upper Heyford and Oxford Parkway in the other. Buses run from Mondays to Saturdays at hourly intervals.
There is no late evening service, no service on Sundays or bank holidays. Blomfield, James Charles. History of Middleton and Somerton. London. Ekwall, Eilert. Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Middleton. ISBN 0198691033. Lobel, Mary D, ed.. "Middleton Stoney". A History of the County of Oxford. Victoria County History. 6: Ploughley Hundred. London: Oxford University Press for the Institute of Historical Research. Pp. 243–251. Rahtz, S
Chesterton is a village and civil parish on Gagle Brook, a tributary of the Langford Brook in north Oxfordshire. The village is about 1 1⁄2 miles southwest of the market town of Bicester; the village has sometimes been called Great Chesterton to distinguish it from the hamlet of Little Chesterton, about 3⁄4 mile to the south in the same parish. The 2011 Census recorded the parish population as 850. About 1 3⁄4 miles west of the village, by the crossroads of Akeman Street and the former Oxford – Brackley main road is a prehistoric tumulus. Chesterton village is on the course of Akeman Street, the Roman road between Watling Street and Cirencester, about 1 mile northwest of Alchester Roman Town; the road forms part of the southwest boundary of the parish. When the M40 motorway was extended from Wheatley to Birmingham in 1988–91, the motorway cut through Akeman Street about 3⁄4 mile west of the village; the Roman layers of the road were exposed about 2.6 feet below Akeman Street's modern surface. The Romans had metalled the road with brashy subsoil quarried from roadside ditches, had subsequently patched the surface, resurfaced the road over a layer of 8 inches of soil and detritus.
Just before the Norman conquest the manor of Chesterton was held by Wigod, a Saxon thegn, a kinsman of King Edward the Confessor. The Domesday Book records that by 1086 it was held by Miles Crispin, the son-in-law of Robert D'Oyly. Crispin had connections with Wallingford Castle, Chesterton remained part of the feudal Honour of Wallingford until the 13th century. In 1272 it was sold to Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall who founded Ashridge Priory in Hertfordshire in 1283 and granted the manor of Chesterton to the priory in 1285. Ashridge Priory was suppressed in the Dissolution of the Monasteries and in 1540 Sir Thomas Pope bought the manor of Chesterton. A few years the manor passed to John Williams, 1st Baron Williams de Thame, who in turn left it to his daughter Margery and son-in-law Henry Norris, 1st Baron Norreys, their grandson Francis Norris, 1st Earl of Berkshire left it to his daughter Elizabeth. She left it to her daughter Bridget Wray, through whose marriage in about 1653 Chesterton passed to Montagu Bertie, 2nd Earl of Lindsey.
Their son James Bertie, 5th Baron Norreys was created Earl of Abingdon, it remained in their family until the death of Willoughby Bertie, 3rd Earl of Abingdon in 1760. In 1764 his trustees sold Chesterton to George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough who in turn sold it to George Child Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey in 1808; the manor remained with the Earls of Jersey until 1920-21 when the Jersey estates in Chesterton were divided and sold. The oldest part of the Anglican parish church of Saint Mary is a 12th-century arcade of three arches between the nave and the north aisle; the arcade is in the Transitional style between Early English Gothic. The church was rebuilt in the 13th century and reconsecrated in 1238; the chancel arch and arcade of the south aisle, both of which are Early English Gothic, date from this period. The Decorated Gothic bell tower was added early in the 14th century; the present Perpendicular Gothic windows in the south aisle were added in the 15th century. In the 15th century a clerestory was added to the nave and a five-light east window was inserted in the chancel.
In 1852 the east window was replaced with a Gothic Revival Decorated Gothic four-light one, in 1854 the chancel arch was restored. In 1866 the architect F. C. Penrose restored much of the building, including the windows in the south aisle and some of those in the north aisle, he added a turret staircase to the tower. By 1552 St. Mary's Sanctus bell. William Watts of Bedford cast the present tenor bell in about 1590. Henry Farmer of Evesham in Worcestershire and James Keene of Woodstock jointly cast the present treble and second bells in 1623. Richard III Chandler of Drayton Parslow in Buckinghamshire cast the present Sanctus bell in 1715; the clock was added in 1884. The priest and historian Gerald of Wales held the living of St. Mary's from about 1193 until his death in about 1223. St. Mary's parish is now a member of the Church of England Benefice of Akeman, which includes the parishes of Bletchingdon, Hampton Gay, Middleton Stoney and Weston-on-the-Green. Lieutenant-General Sir Edwin Alderson, son-in-law of a former Vicar, is buried in the churchyard.
Chesterton had a watermill since before the Norman Conquest, by the time of the Hundred Rolls in 1279 a second had been built. The mills were on Gagle Brook. One mill survived until early in the 19th century, for a time had been converted into a hemp mill. Chesterton's vicar of that time complained that despite the Duke of Marlborough having spent much money trying to improve the mill it was not working well; the vicar may have been correct. The village has a public house, the Red Cow, built around the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries, it is now controlled by Greene King Brewery. An open field system prevailed in the parish until 1768, when an Act of Parliament enabled the enclosure of its common lands. 1,975 acres were enclosed, of which 1,173 acres were awarded to George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough. The main road between Bicester and Enstone passes through the north of the parish. In 1797 an Act of Parliament made this road into a turnpike, it was disturnpiked in the 19th century and is now the B4030.
There was a mansion at the south-east end of Chesterton village by the early part of the 18th century. It was improved in the middle of the 18th century, its grounds were extended for George Clarke, Sheriff of Oxfordshire by diverting part of Akeman Street. By 1823 it was the
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Bloxham is a village and civil parish in northern Oxfordshire on the edge of the Cotswolds, about 3 miles southwest of Banbury. It is on the edge of a valley and overlooked by Hobb Hill; the village is on the A361 road. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 3,374. Under Roman rule between the 1st and 5th centuries AD there were several farms and a burial site in the Bloxham area. A poor farming community lived at a site 1⁄2 mile west of the present village; the toponym is derived from the Old English Blocc's Ham from the 6th century, when a Saxon settlement was built on the present site of the village, on the banks of a tributary of the Sor Brook. In 1086 the Domesday Book called the village Blochesham, its name was subsequently recorded as Blocchesham in 1142, Blokesham in 1216, Bloxham in 1316. In the late Anglo-Saxon era Bloxham was part of a large estate, belonging to the Earl of Mercia, stretching from the boundary with Tadmarton and Wigginton in the west to the River Cherwell.
As the caput of a hundred it had been important since at least the time of Edward the Elder. Around the time of the Norman Conquest of England a group called; the name, of Anglo-Norman origin, denotes someone invested with a fief, heritable land or property but could be rights or revenue. Comprising between 8 and 16 local yeomen, the Feoffees were responsible for the well-being of the village community. In return for helping the poor and services such as repairing the bridges, they were bequeathed money and land by the Crown; until the 20th century they continued their village maintenance despite being replaced by a parish council after the Local Government Act 1894. Today they give financial help to Bloxham residents; the Feoffees own land in Grove Road, the former allotment field in South Newington Road and the Old Court House. The Domesday Book of 1086 recorded Blochesham as trading in wool and corn. In the Middle Ages it was a large parish with 403 contributors to the poll tax of 1377, of whom 78 lived in neighbouring Milcombe.
At this time, the village's north and south parts, separated by the brook, were distinct communities called in Anglo-Norman le Crowehead Ville and le Downe End. The Crown held Bloxham manor by 1067. King Stephen granted it to Waleran de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Worcester, but it returned to being a royal manor in the reign of Henry II. In 1155 Bloxham was divided in two manors. In 1269 the half called Bloxham Beauchamp was given to Queen Eleanor, bestowed upon Edward III's chamberlain Roger de Beauchamp and sold in 1545 to Richard Fiennes, 6th Baron Saye and Sele; the other half, called Bloxham Fiennes, was passed to Amaury de St Amand, came to be called Saint Amand's, was subsequently sold to Thomas Wykeham and reunited with Bloxham Beauchamp when Baron Saye and Sele inherited it. Beauchamp Manor stood on the site of Park Close and the Manor of St Amand was on the area now occupied by Godswell House. Although neither manor remains, the dovecote of St Amands is still visible next to Dovecote House.
By the 15th century St Mary's Church, Bloxham had become one of the grandest parish churches in southern England, showing Bloxham's medieval wealth. The medieval street plan survives in the narrow winding alleys where some houses retain a medieval core hidden by exteriors and alterations. Many of the present street names derive from families living in Bloxham in the early 16th century, e.g. Humber and Budd Lane. Bloxham has a large number of well-built yeomen's houses dating from this time, including Bennetts, Seal Cottage and the Joiners Arms. Many have been comparatively little altered, retaining their original plans. Bloxham took part in the Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Rising of 1549 against the Edwardine Reformation. John Wade, Bloxham's vicar, was identified as a ringleader and threatened with being hanged from his own church tower, but was pardoned. From the 17th century Nonconformism flourished and was linked with the dissenting movement in Banbury. In the English Civil War the Fiennes family of Bloxham was Parliamentarian and the area had a reputation as a Puritan stronghold.
There are suggestions that houses in Sycamore Terrace were used as barracks during this time, but this is unsubstantiated. It is believed that Parliamentarian troops caused the damage to the lavishly-decorated interior of St Mary's church as they passed through Bloxham. In the 17th century many houses such as those in Sycamore Terrace were used as weavers' cottages. From the Middle Ages the area around Banbury was known for weaving a fabric called plush, it is made of wool or worsted and linen, the finer types incorporating silk or mohair. It was used in a wide variety of ways from horse girths to furnishing fabrics. In 1770 the main road between Banbury and Chipping Norton, which passes through Bloxham, was made into a turnpike. In 1815 the turnpike's trustees straightened the main road to follow its current course, they demolished them to make the High Street bridge. The main road ceased to be a turnpike in 1871. In 1922 it was classified as the A361 road; the agricultural depression of the late 18th and early 19th centuries led to a decline in population and some emigration.
This period saw a marked increase in poor relief as a result of successive poor laws including the Speenhamland system, which exacerbated the effects of the Enclosure of land and the decline in the wool market. However the industrial boom in Banbury brought prosperity back to Bloxham; the 19th century saw the demolition of institutions for the poor such as the Alms