Minneapolis–Saint Paul is a major metropolitan area built around the Mississippi, Minnesota and St. Croix rivers in east central Minnesota; the area is known as the Twin Cities after its two largest cities, the most populous city in the state, Saint Paul, the state capital. It is an example of twin cities in the sense of geographical proximity. Minnesotans living outside of Minneapolis and Saint Paul refer to the two together as "The Cities". There are several different definitions of the region. Many refer to the Twin Cities as the seven-county region, governed under the Metropolitan Council regional governmental agency and planning organization; the Office of Management and Budget designates 16 counties as the "Minneapolis–St. Paul–Bloomington MN–WI Metropolitan Statistical Area", the 16th largest in the United States; the entire region known as the "Minneapolis–St. Paul MN–WI Combined Statistical Area", has a population of 3,946,533, the 14th largest, according to 2017 Census estimates. Despite the Twin moniker, both cities are independent municipalities with defined borders.
Minneapolis is somewhat younger with more modern skyscrapers downtown, while Saint Paul has been likened to an East Coast city, with quaint neighborhoods and a vast collection of well-preserved late-Victorian architecture. Minneapolis was influenced by its early Lutheran heritage. Saint Paul was influenced by its early French and German Catholic roots; the first European settlement in the region was near what is now known as the town of Stillwater, Minnesota. The city is 20 miles from downtown Saint Paul and lies on the western bank of the St. Croix River, which forms the border of central Minnesota and Wisconsin. Another settlement that began fueling early interest in the area was the outpost at Fort Snelling, constructed from 1820 to 1825 at the confluence of the Minnesota River and the Mississippi River. Fort Snelling held jurisdiction over the land south of Saint Anthony Falls, thus a town known as Saint Anthony grew just north of the river. For several years, the only European resident to live on the south bank of the river was Colonel John H. Stevens, who operated a ferry service across the river.
As soon as the land area controlled by Fort Snelling was reduced, new settlers began flocking across to the new village of Minneapolis. The town grew and Minneapolis and Saint Anthony merged. On the eastern side of the Mississippi, a few villages such as Pig's Eye and Lambert's Landing developed and would soon grow to become Saint Paul. Natural geography played a role in the development of the two cities; the Mississippi River Valley in this area is defined by a series of stone bluffs that line both sides of the river. Saint Paul grew up around Lambert's Landing, the last place to unload boats coming upriver at an accessible point, some seven miles downstream from Saint Anthony Falls, the geographic feature that, due to the value of its immense water power for industry, defined the location of Minneapolis and its prominence as the Mill City; the falls can be seen today from the Mill City Museum, housed in the former Washburn "A" Mill, among the world's largest mills in its time. The oldest farms in the state are located in Washington County, the eastern most county on the Minnesota side of the metropolitan area.
Joseph Haskell was Minnesota's first farmer, harvesting the first crops in the state in 1840 on what is now part of Afton Township on Trading Post Trail. The Grand Excursion, a trip into the Upper Midwest sponsored by the Rock Island Railroad, brought more than a thousand curious travelers into the area by rail and steamboat in 1854; the next year, in 1855, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow published The Song of Hiawatha, an epic poem based on the Ojibwe legends of Hiawatha. A number of natural area landmarks were included in the story, such as Lake Minnetonka and Minnehaha Falls. Tourists inspired by the coverage of the Grand Excursion in eastern newspapers and those who read Longfellow's story flocked to the area in the following decades. At one time, the region had numerous passenger rail services, including both interurban streetcar systems and interstate rail. Due to the width of the river at points further south, the Minneapolis–Saint Paul area was one of the few places where the Mississippi could be crossed by railroad.
A great amount of commercial rail traffic ran through the area carrying grain to be processed at mills in Minneapolis or delivering other goods to Saint Paul to be transported along the Mississippi. Saint Paul had long been at the head of navigation on the river, prior to a new lock and dam facility being added upriver in Minneapolis. Passenger travel hit its peak in 1888 with nearly eight million traversing to and from the Saint Paul Union Depot; this amounted to 150 trains daily. Before long, other rail crossings were built farther south and travel through the region began to decline. In an effort by the rail companies to combat the rise of the automobile, some of the earliest streamliners ran from Chicago to Minneapolis/Saint Paul and served distant points in the Pacific Northwest. Today, the only vestige of this interstate service comes by Amtrak's Seattle/Portland to Chicago Empire Builder route, running once daily in each direction, it is named after James J. Hill, a railroad tycoon who settled on Summit Avenue in Saint Paul at what is now known as the James J. Hill House.
Like many Northern cities that grew up with the Industrial Revolution, Minneapolis and St. Paul experienced shifts in their economic base as heavy industry declined in the 1960s and 1970s. Along with the economic decline of the 60s and 70s came pop
Minnesota State Colleges and Universities system
The Minnesota State Colleges and Universities system or Minnesota State System branded as MnSCU, comprises 30 state colleges and 7 state universities with 54 campuses throughout Minnesota. The system is the largest higher education system in Minnesota and the fourth largest in the United States, educating over 375,000 students annually, it is governed by a 15-member board of trustees appointed by the governor, which has broad authority to run the system. The Minnesota State system office is located in the Wells Fargo Place building in Saint Paul, Minnesota. In 2016, the Board of Trustees approved a rebranding of the system to the shortened Minnesota State; this change was met with criticism as this is the nickname attributed to Minnesota State University, Mankato. The change affected branding but did not alter the legal name of the organization, identified in state statute; the system is now being referenced in media as the Minnesota State System, while the institution in Mankato is being referenced as Minnesota State.
In 1991, the Minnesota Legislature issued legislation which founded the creation of the Minnesota State system. Through this process the then-existing Minnesota state university system, community college system and technical college system were combined into a single higher education system; this was to be accomplished by 1995 but due to statewide opposition it wasn't until 1997 that a Central Office was formed and individual institutions began to operate under centralized direction. The members of the University of Minnesota could not be compelled by the legislature to be part of the new system because it had sued for independence in the form of constitutional autonomy from legislative oversight; this autonomy was affirmed by the Minnesota Supreme Court after the State of Minnesota was formed and was a response to lobbying demands from a newly formed Alumni Association of the University of Minnesota in the early 19th century. This difference in independence and power has led to significant differences in the way in which the State system operates and educates students.
Through this legislation the State system was given the ad-hoc role of educating all students outside of the doctoral research role that the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities campus provides. In addition, individual university and college members have, by comparison smaller endowments, receive less funding from the state government of Minnesota than comparable members of the University of Minnesota system. An appropriation by the state of Minnesota was supposed to cover 66% of the cost to educate students, as of 2014 the state provides about 50%. Minnesota State Colleges and Universities offer a wide range of collegiate programs from associates degrees to applied doctorates. All of the system's two-year community and technical colleges have an open admissions policy, which means that anyone with either a high school diploma or equivalent degree may enroll; the system runs an online collaborative called Minnesota Online, a gateway to the online course offerings of the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities.
More than 150 academic programs are available or predominantly online. About 93,300 students took online courses during the 2009-2010 academic year; the economic impact of the Minnesota State system is estimated to be $8 billion per year, with a return of twelve dollars for every dollar invested. Tuition at Minnesota State Colleges and Universities is lower than tuition at the University of Minnesota, private universities, or private trade schools. More than 80 percent of graduates stay in Minnesota to continue their education; the job-placement rate based on the last available data at two-year colleges is 88.0 percent in 2006, meaning that 88.0 percent of graduates find jobs in their chosen fields. The Minnesota State Colleges and Universities system has not designated an official flagship institution, Minnesota State University and Saint Cloud State University have been referred to as the system flagship at various points in time. 4-Year State UniversitiesBemidji State University Metropolitan State University Minnesota State University, Mankato Minnesota State University Moorhead Southwest Minnesota State University St. Cloud State University Winona State University2-Year Community and Technical Colleges: Alexandria Technical and Community College Anoka Technical College Anoka-Ramsey Community College Cambridge Campus Coon Rapids Campus Central Lakes College Brainerd Campus Staples Campus Century College White Bear Lake Campus Mahtomedi Campus Dakota County Technical College Rosemount Campus Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College Cloquet Campus Hennepin Technical College Brooklyn Park Campus Eden Prairie Campus Inver Hills Community College Inver Grove Heights Campus Lake Superior College Duluth Campus Minnesota State Community and Technical College Detroit Lakes Campus Fergus Falls Campus Moorhead Campus Wadena Campus Minnesota State College Southeast Red Wing Campus Winona Campus Minneapolis Community and Technical College Minnesota West Community and Technical College Canby Campus Granite Falls Campus Jackson Campus Pipestone Campus Worthington Campus Normandale Community College Bloomington Campus North Hennepin Community College Brooklyn Park Campus Northeast Higher Education District Hibbing Community College Itasca Community College Grand Rapids Campus Mesabi Range College Virginia Campus Eveleth Campus Rainy River Community College International Falls Campus Vermilion Community College Ely Campus Northland Community & Technical College East Grand Forks Campus Thief River Falls Campus Northwest Technical College Bemidji Campus Pine Technical and Community College Pine City Campus Ridgewater College Hutchinson
Carleton College is a private liberal arts college in Northfield, Minnesota. Founded in 1866, the college enrolled 2,105 undergraduate students and employed 269 faculty members in fall 2016; the 200-acre main campus is located between Northfield and the 800-acre Cowling Arboretum, which became part of the campus in the 1920s. In its 2019 edition of national liberal arts college rankings, U. S. News & World Report ranked Carleton fifth-best first for undergraduate teaching. From 2000 through 2016, the institution has produced 122 National Science Graduate Fellows, 112 Fulbright Scholars, 22 Watson Fellows, 20 NCAA Postgraduate Scholars, 13 Goldwater Scholars, 2 Rhodes Scholars. Carleton is one of the largest sources of undergraduate students pursuing doctorates per one hundred students for bachelors institutions; the school was founded in 1866, when the Minnesota Conference of Congregational Churches unanimously accepted a resolution to locate a college in Northfield. Two Northfield businessmen, Charles Augustus Wheaton and Charles Moorehouse Goodsell, each donated 10 acres of land for the first campus.
The first students enrolled at the preparatory unit of Northfield College in the fall of 1867. In 1870, the first college president, James Strong, traveled to the East Coast to raise funds for the college. On his way from visiting a potential donor, William Carleton of Charlestown, Strong was badly injured in a collision between his carriage and a train. Impressed by Strong's survival of the accident, Carleton donated $50,000 to the fledgling institution in 1871; as a result, the Board of Trustees renamed the school in his honor. The college graduated its first college class in 1874, James J. Dow and Myra A. Brown, who married each other that year. On September 7, 1876, the James-Younger Gang, led by outlaw Jesse James, tried to rob the First National Bank of Northfield. Joseph Lee Heywood, Carleton's Treasurer, was acting cashier at the bank that day, he was killed for refusing to open the safe. Carleton named a library fund after Heywood; the Heywood Society is the name for a group of donors. In its early years under the presidency of James Strong, Carleton reflected the theological conservatism of its Minnesota Congregational founders.
In 1903, modern religious influences were introduced by William Sallmon, a Yale Divinity School graduate, hired as college president. Sallmon was opposed by conservative faculty members and alumni, left the presidency by 1908. After Sallmon left, the trustees hired Donald J. Cowling, another theologically liberal Yale Divinity School graduate, as his successor. In 1916, under Cowling's leadership, Carleton began an official affiliation with the Minnesota Baptist Convention, it lasted until 1928, when the Baptists severed the relationship as a result of fundamentalist opposition to Carleton's liberalism, including the college's support for teaching evolution. Non-denominational for a number of years, in 1964 Carleton abolished its requirement for weekly attendance at some religious or spiritual meeting. In 1927, students founded the first student-run pub in The Cave. Located in the basement of Evans Hall, it continues to host live music shows and other events several times each week. In 1942, Carleton purchased land in Stanton, about 10 miles east of campus, to use for flight training.
During World War II, several classes of male students went through air basic training at the college. Since being sold by the college in 1944, the Stanton Airfield has been operated for commercial use; the world premiere production of the English translation of Bertolt Brecht's play, The Caucasian Chalk Circle, was performed in 1948 at Carleton's Nourse Little Theater. In 1963 the Reformed Druids of North America was founded by students at Carleton as a means to be excused from attendance of then-mandatory weekly chapel service. Within a few years, the group evolved to engage in legitimate spiritual exploration. Meetings continue to be held in the Carleton College Cowling Arboretum. President Bill Clinton gave the last commencement address of his administration at Carleton, on June 10, 2000, marking the first presidential visit to the college. Carleton is a small, liberal arts college offering 33 different majors and 31 minors, is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. Students have the option to design their own major.
There are ten languages offered: Spanish, German, Japanese, Arabic, Latin and Hebrew. The academic calendar follows a trimester system where students take three classes per 10-week term. In order to graduate with a degree from Carleton, students must take an Argument & Inquiry Seminar in their first year, a writing course, three quantitative reasoning encounters, international studies, intercultural domestic studies, humanistic inquiry, literary/artistic analysis, arts practice, formal or statistical reasoning, social inquiry, physical education; the average class size at Carleton is 16. 48% have 10–19 students, 24% of all classes have 2–9 students, 21% have 20–29 students, 5% have 30 or more students. The most popular areas of study are biology, political science and international relations, chemistry, psychology and computer science. Carleton is one of the few liberal arts colleges. Studying abroad is common at Carleton: 76% of the senior class of 2018 studied abroad at least once over their four years.
Carleton offers a number of its own programs each year, which are led by Carleton faculty and available only to Carleton students. In 2017-2018 there were 17 of such programs offered. Although m
University of Minnesota
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota. The Minneapolis and St. Paul campuses are 3 miles apart, the St. Paul campus is in neighboring Falcon Heights, it is the oldest and largest campus within the University of Minnesota system and has the sixth-largest main campus student body in the United States, with 50,943 students in 2018-19. The university is the flagship institution of the University of Minnesota system, is organized into 19 colleges and schools, with sister campuses in Crookston, Duluth and Rochester; the University of Minnesota is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which refers to top public universities in the United States capable of providing a collegiate experience comparable with the Ivy League. Founded in 1851, The University of Minnesota is categorized as a Doctoral University – Highest Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Minnesota is a member of the Association of American Universities and is ranked 14th in research activity with $881 million in research and development expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015.
The University of Minnesota faculty and researchers have won 30 Nobel Prizes and three Pulitzer Prizes. Notable University of Minnesota alumni include two Vice Presidents of the United States, Hubert Humphrey and Walter Mondale, Bob Dylan, who received the 2016 Nobel Prize in Literature; the university organization structure consists of 19 colleges and other major academic units: The university has six university-wide interdisciplinary centers and institutes whose work crosses collegiate lines: Center for Cognitive Sciences Consortium on Law and Values in Health and the Life Sciences Institute for Advanced Study at University of Minnesota Institute for Translational Neuroscience Institute on the Environment Minnesota Population Center In 2018, Minnesota was ranked 37th in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. The Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2015 ranks Minnesota 46th in the world; the Center for World University Rankings ranked the university 35th in the world and 25th in the United States in 2018.
In 2016, the Nature Index ranked Minnesota 34th in the world based on research publication data from 2015. In 2015, Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked the university 11th in the world for mathematics; the University of Minnesota is ranked 14 overall among the nation's top research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance. The university's research and development expenditures ranked 13th–15th among U. S. academic institutions in the 2010 through 2015 National Science Foundation reports. The U. S. News & World Report's 2016 rankings placed the undergraduate program of the university as the 69th-best National University in the United States, it ranked the Chemical Engineering program third-best, the Doctor of Pharmacy program third best, the Economics PhD program tenth, Psychology eighth, Statistics sixteenth, Audiology ninth, the University of Minnesota Medical School 6th for primary care and 34th for research. The Law School recognized as a'Top Law School' by U.
S. News & World Report, is ranked 20th in the nation, is a national leader in commercial law, international law, clinical education. Additionally, nineteen of the university's graduate-school departments have been ranked in the nation's top-twenty by the U. S. National Research Council. In 2008 and 2012 U. S. News & World Report ranked the College of Pharmacy 2nd in the nation. 2016 U. S. News & Report now rank the College of Pharmacy 2nd in the nation. In 2011, U. S. News & World Report ranked the School of Public Health 8th in the nation, home to the 2nd ranked program for the Master of Healthcare Administration degree; the University of Minnesota ranked 19th in NIH funding in 2008. Minnesota is listed as a "Public Ivy" in 2001 Greenes' Guides The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities. U. S. News & World Report has ranked the Nursing Informatics program of University of Minnesota as 2nd best in the nation; the university is known for innovation in research. The inventions by students and faculty have ranged from food science to health technologies.
Most of the public research funding in Minnesota is funneled to the University of Minnesota as a result of long standing advocacy by the university itself. The university developed Gopher, a precursor to the World Wide Web which used hyperlinks to connect documents across computers on the internet. However, the version produced by CERN was favored by the public since it was distributed and could more handle multimedia webpages; the university houses the Charles Babbage Institute, a research and archive center specializing in computer history. The department has strong roots in the early days of supercomputing with Seymour Cray of Cray supercomputers; the university became a member of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory in 2007, has led data analysis projects searching for gravitational waves – the existence of which were confirmed by scientists in February 2016. Puffed rice – Alexander P. Anderson led to the discovery of "puffed rice", a starting point for a new breakfast cereal advertised as "Food Shot From Guns".
Transistorized cardiac pacemaker – Earl Bakken founded Medtronic, where he developed the first external, battery-operated, wearable artificial pacemaker in 1957. ATP synthase – Paul D. Boyer elucidated the enzymatic mechanism for synthesis of adenosine triphosphate, leading to a Nobel Prize in 1997
Mixed-sex education known as mixed-gender education, co-education or coeducation, is a system of education where males and females are educated together. Whereas single-sex education was more common up to the 19th century, mixed-sex education has since become standard in many cultures in Western countries. Single-sex education, remains prevalent in many Muslim countries; the relative merits of both systems have been the subject of debate. The world's oldest co-educational day and boarding school is Dollar Academy, a junior and senior school for males and females from ages 5 to 18 in Scotland, United Kingdom. From its opening in 1818 the school admitted both boys and girls of the parish of Dollar and the surrounding area; the school continues in existence to the present day with around 1,250 pupils. The first co-educational college to be founded was Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Ohio, it opened on December 3, 1833, including 29 men and 15 women. Equal status for women did not arrive until 1837, the first three women to graduate with bachelor's degrees did so in 1840.
By the late 20th century, many institutions of higher learning, for people of one sex had become coeducational. In early civilizations, people were educated informally: within the household; as time progressed, education became more formal. Women had few rights when education started to become a more important aspect of civilization. Efforts of the ancient Greek and Chinese societies focused on the education of males. In ancient Rome, the availability of education was extended to women, but they were taught separately from men; the early Christians and medieval Europeans continued this trend, single-sex schools for the privileged classes prevailed through the Reformation period. In the 16th century, at the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic church reinforced the establishment of free elementary schools for children of all classes; the concept of universal elementary education, regardless of sex, had been created. After the Reformation, coeducation was introduced in western Europe, when certain Protestant groups urged that boys and girls should be taught to read the Bible.
The practice became popular in northern England and colonial New England, where young children, both male and female, attended dame schools. In the late 18th century, girls were admitted to town schools; the Society of Friends in England, as well as in the United States, pioneered coeducation as they did universal education, in Quaker settlements in the British colonies and girls attended school together. The new free public elementary, or common schools, which after the American Revolution supplanted church institutions, were always coeducational, by 1900 most public high schools were coeducational as well. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, coeducation grew much more accepted. In Great Britain and the Soviet Union, the education of girls and boys in the same classes became an approved practice. In Australia there is a trend towards increased coeducational schooling with new coeducational schools opening, few new single sex schools opening and existing single sex schools combining or opening their doors to the opposite gender.
The first mixed-sex institution of higher learning in China was the Nanjing Higher Normal Institute, renamed National Central University and Nanjing University. For millennia in China, public schools public higher learning schools, were for men. Only schools established by zongzu were for both male and female students; some schools such as Li Zhi's school in Ming Dynasty and Yuan Mei's school in Qing Dynasty enrolled both male and female students. In the 1910s women's universities were established such as Ginling Women's University and Peking Girls' Higher Normal School, but there were no coeducation in higher learning schools. Tao Xingzhi, the Chinese advocator of mixed-sex education, proposed The Audit Law for Women Students at the meeting of Nanjing Higher Normal School held on December seventh, 1919, he proposed that the university recruit female students. The idea was supported by the president Guo Bingwen, academic director Liu Boming, such famous professors as Lu Zhiwei and Yang Xingfo, but opposed by many famous men of the time.
The meeting decided to recruit women students next year. Nanjing Higher Normal School enrolled eight Chinese female students in 1920. In the same year Peking University began to allow women students to audit classes. One of the most notable female students of that time was Jianxiong Wu. In 1949, the People's Republic of China was founded; the Chinese government has provided more equal opportunities for education since and all schools and universities have become mixed-sex. In recent years, many female and/or single-sex schools have again emerged for special vocational training needs but equal rights for education still apply to all citizens. In China Muslim Hui and Muslim Salars are against coeducation, due to Islam, Uyghurs are the only Muslims in China that do not mind coeducation and practice it. Admission to the Sorbonne was opened to girls in 1860; the baccalaureat became gender-blind in 1924, giving equal chances to all girls in applying to any universities. Mixed-sex education became mandatory for primary schools in 1957 and for all universities in 1975.
St. Paul's Co-educational College was the first mixed-sex secondary school in Hong Kong, it was founded in 1915 as St. Paul's Girls' College. At the end of World War II it was temporarily merged with St. Paul's College, a boys' school; when classes at the campus of St. Paul'
Brainerd is a city in Crow Wing County, United States. Its population was 13,592 as of the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Crow Wing County, is one of the largest cities in Central Minnesota. Brainerd straddles the Mississippi River several miles upstream from its confluence with the Crow Wing River, having been founded as a site for a railroad crossing above said confluence. Brainerd is the principal city of the Brainerd Micropolitan Area, a micropolitan area covering Cass and Crow Wing counties and with a combined population of 91,067 as of the 2010 census; the Brainerd area serves as a major tourist destination for Minnesota. Brainerd is the home to one of five medevac helicopter flight stations in the state for "AirCare," operated by North Memorial Medical Center in Robbinsdale, a Level 1 Trauma Center; this station covers the central part of Minnesota. The city is known for the Brainerd International Raceway, which hosts races throughout the year and has a national drag racing meet annually in August.
The area, now Brainerd was traditionally territory inhabited by the Ojibwe. Brainerd was first seen by European settlers on Christmas Day in 1805, when Zebulon Pike stopped there while searching for the headwaters of the Mississippi River. Crow Wing Village, a fur and logging community near Fort Ripley, brought settlers to the area in the mid-19th century. In those early years the relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans was complicated; the most famous example of this tenuous relationship was the so-called "Blueberry War" of 1872. Two Ojibwe were hanged for murdering a missing girl; when a group of Native Americans approached the town, troops from nearby Fort Ripley were called to prevent a potential reprisal. As it turned out, the Ojibwe only wanted to sell blueberries and the settlers avoided a bloody misunderstanding. Guilt of the two Native Americans was never proven. Brainerd was the idea of Northern Pacific railroad president John Gregory Smith, who in 1870 named the township after his wife, Anne Eliza Brainerd Smith, father-in-law, Lawrence Brainerd.
The company built a bridge over the Mississippi seven miles north of Crow Wing Village and used the Brainerd station as a machine and car shop, prompting many to move north and abandon Crow Wing. Brainerd was organized as a city on March 6, 1873. On January 11, 1876, the state legislature revoked Brainerd's charter for six years, as a reaction to the election of local handyman Thomas Lanihan as mayor instead of Judge C. B. Sleeper. Brainerd functioned as a township in the interim. In 1881, the railroad, with it the town, expanded. Lumber and paper, as well as agriculture in general, were important early industries, but for many decades Brainerd remained a railroad town: in the 1920s 90 percent of Brainerd residents were dependent on the railroad. Participation in the nationwide railroad strike on July 1, 1922, left the majority of Brainerd residents unemployed and embittered many of those involved. On October 27, 1933, the First National Bank of Brainerd became famous when it was held up by Baby Face Nelson and his gang.
Over the years, increased efficiency and the better positioning of the more centralized Livingston, shops led to a decline in the importance of a railroad station that once employed over 1000 and serviced locomotives for the whole Northern Pacific line. The BNSF Railway continues to employ 70 people in Brainerd at a maintenance-of-way equipment shop responsible for performing repairs and preventive maintenance to track and equipment; the Northwest Paper Company built Brainerd's first paper mill in 1903 and with the steady increase in tourism since the early 20th century the paper and service industries have become Brainerd's primary employers. The town's coating mill was sold by Potlatch to Missota Paper in 2003 and by Missota Paper to Wausau Paper in 2004, it is now used as a small industrial center called Brainerd Industrial Center. Due to the many lakes in the area, Brainerd had become a popular summertime destination for those owning cabins in the area better known as The Brainerd Lakes.
Brainerd itself is now developed into commercial and residential areas and has seen an uptick in development in the recent years. Brainerd is located just north of the geographical center of Minnesota in a hilly terminal moraine area created by the Superior Lobe of the Labradorian ice sheet; the town occupies land on both sides of the Mississippi River, though the older parts of Brainerd are all to the east. Though the city itself has few lakes, there are over 460 lakes within 25 miles of Brainerd, located to the north. For this reason, Crow Wing County and parts of the adjoining counties are collectively referred to as the Brainerd Lakes Area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.64 square miles, of which 11.91 square miles is land and 0.73 square miles is water. Brainerd has been assigned ZIP code 56401 by the USPS; the following routes are located in the Brainerd area. Minnesota State Highway 18 Minnesota State Highway 25 Minnesota State Highway 210 Minnesota State Highway 371 Brainerd has a humid continental climate with vast seasonal differences.
Summers are warm and hot, whereas winters are severely cold. The Burlington Northern United States Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site is located on the boundary between the cities of Brainerd and Baxter; the site served as a Burlington Northern Railroad tie treatment plant, between the years of 1907 and 1985. During that time, wastewater generated from the wood-treating process was sent to two shallow, unlined pon
Higher education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education. Delivered at universities, colleges, seminaries and institutes of technology, higher education is available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications. Tertiary education at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education; the right of access to higher education is mentioned in a number of international human rights instruments. The UN International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights of 1966 declares, in Article 13, that "higher education shall be made accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means, in particular by the progressive introduction of free education". In Europe, Article 2 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1950, obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education.
In the days when few pupils progressed beyond primary education or basic education, the term "higher education" was used to refer to secondary education, which can create some confusion. This is the origin of the term high school for various schools for children between the ages of 14 and 18 or 11 and 18. Higher education includes teaching, exacting applied work, social services activities of universities. Within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level, beyond that, graduate-level; the latter level of education is referred to as graduate school in North America. In addition to the skills that are specific to any particular degree, potential employers in any profession are looking for evidence of critical thinking and analytical reasoning skills, teamworking skills, information literacy, ethical judgment, decision-making skills, fluency in speaking and writing, problem solving skills, a wide knowledge of liberal arts and sciences. Since World War II, developed and many developing countries have increased the participation of the age group who studies higher education from the elite rate, of up to 15 per cent, to the mass rate of 16 to 50 per cent.
In many developed countries, participation in higher education has continued to increase towards universal or, what Trow called, open access, where over half of the relevant age group participate in higher education. Higher education is important to national economies, both as an industry, in its own right, as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. College educated workers have commanded a measurable wage premium and are much less to become unemployed than less educated workers. However, the admission of so many students of only average ability to higher education requires a decline in academic standards, facilitated by grade inflation; the supply of graduates in many fields of study is exceeding the demand for their skills, which aggravates graduate unemployment, underemployment and educational inflation. The U. S. system of higher education was influenced by the Humboldtian model of higher education. Wilhelm von Humboldt's educational model goes beyond vocational training.
In a letter to the Prussian king, he wrote: There are undeniably certain kinds of knowledge that must be of a general nature and, more a certain cultivation of the mind and character that nobody can afford to be without. People cannot be good craftworkers, soldiers or businessmen unless, regardless of their occupation, they are good, upstanding and – according to their condition – well-informed human beings and citizens. If this basis is laid through schooling, vocational skills are acquired on, a person is always free to move from one occupation to another, as so happens in life; the philosopher Julian Nida-Rümelin criticized discrepancies between Humboldt's ideals and the contemporary European education policy, which narrowly understands education as a preparation for the labor market, argued that we need to decide between McKinsey and Humboldt. Demonstrated ability in reading and writing, as measured in the United States by the SAT or similar tests such as the ACT, have replaced colleges' individual entrance exams, is required for admission to higher education.
There is some question as to whether advanced mathematical skills or talent are in fact necessary for fields such as history, philosophy, or art. The general higher education and training that takes place in a university, college, or Institute of technology includes significant theoretical and abstract elements, as well as applied aspects. In contrast, the vocational higher education and training that takes place at vocational universities and schools concentrates on practical applications, with little theory. In addition, professional-level education is always included within Higher Education, in graduate schools since many postgraduate academic disciplines are both vocationally and theoretically/research oriented, such as in the law, pharmacy and veterinary medicine. A basic requirement for entry into these graduate-level programs is always a bachelor's degree, although alternative means of obtaining entry into such programs may be available at some universiti