The Timucua were a Native American people who lived in Northeast and North Central Florida and southeast Georgia. They were the largest indigenous group in that area and consisted of about 35 chiefdoms, the various groups of Timucua spoke several dialects of the Timucua language. At the time of European contact, the occupied by speakers of Timucuan dialects occupied about 19,200 square miles. The name Timucua came from the used by the Saturiwa to refer to the Utina. The Spanish came to use the more broadly for other peoples in the area. Eventually it became the term for all peoples who spoke what is known as the Timucuan language. While alliances and confederacies arose between the chiefdoms from time to time, the Timucua were never organized into a political unit. The various groups of Timucua speakers practiced several different cultural traditions, the people suffered severely from the introduction of Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no immunity. By 1595, their population was estimated to have reduced from 200,000 to 50,000.
By 1700, the population of the tribe had been reduced to 1000, warfare against them by the English colonists and native allies completed their extinction as a tribe soon after the turn of the 19th century. The word Timucuan may derive from Thimogona or Tymangoua, a used by the Saturiwa chiefdom of present-day Jacksonville for their enemies, the Utina. Both groups spoke dialects of the Timucua language, the French followed the Saturiwa in this usage, but the Spanish applied the term Timucua much more widely to groups within a wide section of interior North Florida. In the 16th century they designated the area north of the Santa Fe River between the St. Johns and Suwannee Rivers as the Timucua Province, which they incorporated into the mission system, the dialect spoken in that province became known as Timucua. During the 17th century, the Province of Timucua was extended to include the area between the Suwannee River and the Aucilla River, thus extending its scope, Timucua was applied to all speakers of the various dialects of the Timucua language.
The pre-Columbian era was marked by regular and probably small tribal wars with neighbors, the Timucua were organized into as many as 35 chiefdoms, each of which had hundreds of people in assorted villages within its purview. They sometimes formed loose political alliances, but did not operate as a political unit. It is the oldest archaeological site in the city, the Timucua may have been the first American natives to see the landing of Juan Ponce de León near St. Augustine in 1513. This notion is up for debate since most historians now agree that the Ponce de León landing point was likely much further south in Ais territory
Spanish missions in Florida
Augustine to the area around Tallahassee, southeastern Georgia, and some coastal settlements, such as Pensacola, Florida. A few short-lived missions were established in locations, including Mission Santa Elena in present-day South Carolina, around the Florida peninsula. The missions of what are now northern Florida and southeastern Georgia were divided into four provinces where the bulk of missionary effort took place. These provinces roughly corresponded to the areas where those dialects were spoken among the varying Native American peoples, there were ephemeral attempts to establish missions elsewhere, particularly further south into Florida. It ended in failure after six weeks with de Cancers death at the hands of the Tocobaga natives, the first Spanish missions to the Indians of Florida, starting with the foundation of St. Augustine in 1565, were attached to presidios. Between 1565 and 1567 ten presidios were established at major harbors from Port Royal Sound to Tampa Bay to prevent other European powers from establishing bases in the area, most of the presidios were unsustainable.
By 1573 the only remaining presidios in Florida were St. Augustine and Santa Elena, the missions at the presidios were staffed by the Jesuits. Due to the hostility of the Indians, which resulted in the murder of several of the missionaries, franciscan friars entered into La Florida in 1573, but at first confined their activities to the immediate vicinity of St. Augustine. The Franciscans began taking their mission to the Guale and Timucua Indians along the Atlantic coast in 1587, starting in 1606 the Franciscans expanded their mission efforts westward across Timucua territory, and by 1633 had established missions in Apalachee Province. The network of missions took its heaviest blow with Carolina Governor James Moores raids into the area during Queen Annes War, most of the Spanish missions in the Apalachee Province were wiped out during the Apalachee massacre. The mission buildings of La Florida were built with posts set into the ground, the walls were palmetto thatch and daub or plank, or left open.
The floors were clay, and scholars believe the roofs were thatched, the church buildings in the missions averaged some 20 m by 11 m. Other buildings situated within a palisade included a convento to house the missionaries, a barracks for the soldiers, the Spanish used the term province for the territory of a tribe or chiefdom. There was no fixed definition of province boundaries, as tribes and chiefdoms lost population and importance, the provinces associated with them would no longer appear in the records. Other provinces expanded to take in their territories, most of the people taken into the mission system were Timucua speakers. Three major groups that other languages were taken into the mission system. The Guale Province was the territory the Guale, and covered what is now coastal Georgia, the Guale were among the first people to be taken into the mission system, in the 1580s. Later in the 17th century, Guale Province was sometimes referred to as extending southward, the Apalachee Province included the Apalachee people, who spoke a Muskogean language, and were brought into the mission system in the 1630s
Diego de Rebolledo
Diego de Rebolledo y Suárez de Aponte, most known just as Diego de Rebolledo, was the colonial governor of la Florida between 1655 and 1659. He is considered by historians as one of more controversial and corrupt governors of Colonial Florida and he rejected the status they had the Timucua chiefs as hereditary chiefs of this people and administrative intermediaries, provoking an Timucuan uprising against the government of the province. Rebolledo was Knight of the Order of Santiago, Diego de Rebolledo y Suárez de Aponte was son of a former royal treasurer of the Cartagenas Spanish city. He was appointed governor of la Florida province on March 24,1653, during his administration, the food scarce more in Florida and the prices of the products were excessive. Thus, there are documents that have indicated that Rebolledo sold wine and chocolate at high prices. For those who have deerskins or other items, the governor offered them all the gifts that could subsidize. He did it, for spend the money contained in the Indian background in others necessary or more profitable activities, probably for this reason, former treasurer Joseph Prado set up quickly in Florida to control the Amerindian funds.
In December 1654, he sent a letter to the Spanish Crown explaining that Rebolledo must leave of do this, the Fiscal Council of Consejo de Indias ruled in favor of Prado in 1656. During his rule, in order to themselves, committed illegal activities to exploit both Amerindians as soldiers in Florida. Rebollero bought goods in Havana and developed a trade with the Indians based on barter, there, he sold them iron tools and other goods in exchange for amber, which he sold in Havana, paying real taxes. Thus, gifts were replaced by trade with the Amerindians, there were complaints of other former governors and some Amerindian caciques about how the new governor treated those last. Also, he increased the labor quotas in Guale, so, he wanted that this Amerindians people reactive the Amerindia militia, to help them against the British Moreover, these men should supply the city with 75 pounds of corn and of grain. However, Timucua chiefs refused to provide supplies to the city. However, unlike other Amerindian uprisings, this did not kill any Franciscan, the Governor led Spanish and Amerindian troops against the Timucua revolt to pacify the region.
Then, on November 27 of that year, Rebolledo traveled to Ivitachuco to oversee the trial about the revolt of the Timucuan chiefs, six caciques and four Timucuans murderers were sentenced to death. After that, apparently, he repopulated the devastated Camino Real, in 1656, Spanish authorities decided to establish their western capital on one of the region’s highest hilltops for strategic purposes. Mission San Luis de Apalachee was described by Spanish military authorities as extending for miles, inhabitants of old San Luis moved to the present site at the request of the Spaniards. The garrison was expanded to 12 and San Luiss chief promised to build a blockhouse for them
History of Florida
The history of Florida can be traced back to when the first Native Americans began to inhabit the peninsula as early as 14,000 years ago. They left behind artifacts and archeological evidence, written history begins with the arrival of Europeans to Florida, the Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León in 1513 made the first textual records. The state was the first mainland realm of the United States to be settled by Europeans, thus,1513 marked the beginning of the American Frontier. Florida was under rule by Spain and Great Britain during the 18th and 19th centuries before becoming a territory of the United States in 1821. Two decades later, in 1845, Florida was admitted to the union as the 27th US state, since the 19th century, immigrants have arrived from Europe, Latin America and Asia. Florida is nicknamed the Sunshine State due to its climate and days of sunshine. A diverse population and urbanized economy have developed, in 2011 Florida, with over 19 million people, surpassed New York and became the third largest state in population.
The economy has developed over time, starting with natural resource exploitation in logging, mining and sponge diving, as well as ranching, farming. The tourism, real estate, trade and retirement destination businesses followed, the foundation of Florida was located in the continent of Gondwana at the South Pole 650 Mya. When Gondwana collided with the continent of Laurentia 300 Mya, it had moved further north,200 Mya, the merged continents containing what would be Florida, had moved north of the equator. By then, Florida was surrounded by desert, in the middle of a new continent, when Pangaea broke up 115 mya, Florida assumed a shape as a peninsula. The emergent landmass of Florida was Orange Island, a low-relief island sitting atop the carbonate Florida Platform which emerged about 34 to 28 million years ago, when glaciation locked up the worlds water, starting 2.58 million years ago, the sea level dropped precipitously. It was approximately 100 metres lower than present levels, as a result, the Florida peninsula not only emerged, but had a land area about twice what it is today.
Florida had a drier and cooler climate than in recent times. There were few flowing rivers or wetlands, paleo-Indians entered what is now Florida at least 14,000 years ago. Across large areas of Florida, fresh water was only in sinkholes. As a result, most paleo-Indian activity was around the watering holes and basins in the beds of modern rivers have yielded a rich trove of paleo-Indian artifacts, including Clovis points. Excavations at an ancient stone quarry yielded crude stone implements showing signs of wear from deposits below those holding Paleo-Indian artifacts
Florida /ˈflɒrᵻdə/ is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States, the Miami metropolitan area is Floridas most populous urban area. The city of Tallahassee is the state capital, much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south, the American alligator, American crocodile, Florida panther, and manatee can be found in the Everglades National Park. It was a location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, the states economy relies mainly on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, the Kennedy Space Center, Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, auto racing, by the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee, the Timucua, the Ais, the Tocobaga, the Calusa and the Tequesta. Florida was the first part of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans, the earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2,1513 and he named the region La Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is a myth, in May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. He described seeing a wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet.
Very soon, many smokes appeared along the whole coast, billowing against the sky, the Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Spanish language, and more to Florida. Both the Spanish and French established settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success, in 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561. Spain maintained tenuous control over the region by converting the tribes to Christianity. The area of Spanish Florida diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north, the English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Florida attracted numerous Africans and African-Americans from adjacent British colonies who sought freedom from slavery, in 1738, Governor Manuel de Montiano established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near St
Antonio de Benavides
He secured the friendship of the neighboring Indian groups who had previously been inimical to the Spaniards, a state of affairs that continued without interruption while he governed the province. He defended the rights of the people and established the first black militia unit in Florida to defend St. Augustine. Antonio de Benavides was born at La Matanza de Acentejo, Tenerife, in the Canary Islands on December 8,1678, the son of Andrés Benavides, a captain in the provincial militia, and his wife María, he was the third of 8 siblings. In late 1698 a captain of the Bandera de la Habana stayed at the Benavides family home while touring the island to recruit young men into the Spanish army for service in the New World colonies. According to Bernardo Cólogan Fallón, writer of the first biography of Benavides, the officer saw military potential in the young Benavides, in 1699, at age 19, Benavides entered the Spanish army and joined ninety-nine other recruits in a regiment assigned to the garrison of Havana.
He spent three years in the Cuban city, where he was promoted to lieutenant in 1701. After the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession, Benavides went to Madrid as a member of one of the infantry regiments sent there as reinforcements for Philip Vs troops. Philip customarily hunted on the grounds of the hunting estate, the Casa de Campo, accompanied by the best marksmen in the Royal Guard Corps. Benavides was admitted to the company of the unit, the most elite branch of the Royal Army. He distinguished himself in battle at Flanders and, most famously and he participated in various actions at Salcedillo and Iniesta, as well as the Battle of Balaguer at Barcelona and Tortosa, and Almahara and Peñalba. In 1710, Benavides fought in battles of the War of the Spanish Succession. On August 20,1710, he commanded a Guards of Corps cavalry squadron of the Bourbon Spanish forces in the Battle of Saragossa, the Bourbon troops suffered serious casualties and after a disorderly retreat saw that further efforts were futile and conceded defeat.
Benavides possibly saved the life of Philip V, the first Bourbon king of Spain, on September 10,1710, in the Battle of Villaviciosa at Guadalajara between the Bourbon and Habsburg armies. A shell knocked Benavides off the horse and he lay senseless until the king, noticing that he was missing. He was soon found, still unconscious, and treated by Philip Vs personal surgeons, to reward his bravery the king promoted Benavides to colonel, and thereafter called him Father as a mark of affection and respect. Serious irregularities in local administration were a problem in St. Augustine, the capital of La Florida, and the governorship was considered a difficult assignment in a dangerous frontier. Benavides was sworn into office by the governor of the Canary Islands, rather than before the Royal Council in Madrid, so that he could establish his administration as soon as possible. He embarked from Tenerife in a squadron included the frigates San Jorge and San Francisco and their escort, the San Javier
Laureano de Torres y Ayala
Laureano de Torres y Ayala, Marquis of Casa Torres and Knight of Santiago, was a Spanish soldier and royal governor of La Florida and of Cuba. During his administration in Florida, he completed the construction of the Castillo de San Marcos fortress in St. Augustine, the provincial capital. Laureano José de Torres Ayala a Duadros Castellanos was born in 1645 in Seville and grew up in Madrid, Ayala came from a noble family, being the son of Tomás de Torres y Ayala and Elvira de Quadros Castellanos. His father was a judge in Seville in 1649 and mayor and Captain General of Mérida and he had three brothers, Pedro Ignacio, Cristóbal and Diego Torres Ayala y Quadros. In his youth he joined the Spanish army, in June 1693, Ayala joined a Spanish expedition in La Florida which passed through what is now Okaloosa County and crossed the natural bridge of the spring-fed Chipola River. On September 21,1693, Torres y Ayala was appointed Governor of Spanish Florida, like the previous governors since 1672, Torres y Ayala oversaw construction of the Castillo de San Marcos, completed in 1695.
During his administration, the San Carlos de los Chacatos mission was attacked by Alibamu Indian warriors in 1696, in 1698, the first European settlement and the first fort were founded at the site of present-day Pensacola. He held the post of governor of Florida until 1699, when he returned to Spain, between 1704 and 1707, Ayala fought in the War of the Spanish Succession in Europe. On January 18,1708, Ayala was appointed Governor General of Cuba, and worked mainly at Havana, a Spanish official and landowner, had proposed a project to sell tobacco for the Cuban government. The government tobacco monopoly was very successful, and Ayala was rewarded with the title of Marquis de Casa-Torre, on February 18,1711, the oidor Pablo Cavera had Ayala temporarily suspended while the matter was investigated. After sailing to Spain to explain his case, Ayala was reinstated as governor of Cuba on February 14,1713, the administration of Governor Ayala was a period of relative peace. Ayala founded the city of Santiago del Bejucal, the tobacco industry expanded greatly during his governorship, and the tobacco plant began to be widely cultivated in the Vuelta Abajo district.
Ayala died in 1722 in Havana, Laureano de Torres y Ayala married the Cuban Catalina Gertrudis Bayona y Chacón on August 5,1687 in Havana. He had three children, Tomasa María, Laureano Antonio José, and Sor Manuela de San Laureano
New Spain was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire, in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. It was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, after 1535 the colony was governed by the Viceroy of New Spain, an appointed minister of the King of Spain, who ruled as monarch over the colony. The capital of New Spain was Mexico City and it developed highly regional divisions, which reflect the impact of climate, the presence or absence of dense indigenous populations, and the presence or absence of mineral resources. The areas of central and southern Mexico had dense indigenous populations with complex social, silver mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain, and transformed the global economy. New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, although New Spain was a dependency of Spain, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula. Every privilege and position, economic political, or religious came from him and it was on this basis that the conquest and government of the New World was achieved.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in 1535 in the Kingdom of New Spain and it was the first New World viceroyalty and one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th century Bourbon Reforms. The Spanish Empire comprised the territories in the north overseas Septentrion, from North America, to the west of the continent, New Spain included the Spanish East Indies. To the east of the continent, it included the Spanish West Indies and this was not occupied by many Spanish settlers and were considered more marginal to Spanish interests than the most densely populated and lucrative areas of central Mexico. To shore up its claims in North America starting in the late 18th century, Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest explored and claimed the coast of what is now British Columbia and Alaska. The indigenous societies of Mesoamerica brought under Spanish control were of unprecedented complexity, the societies could provide the conquistadors, especially Hernán Cortés, a base from which the conquerors could become autonomous, or even independent, of the Crown.
As a result, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, since the time of the Catholic Monarchs, central Iberia was governed through councils appointed by the monarch with particular jurisdictions. Thus, the creation of the Council of the Indies became another, the crown had set up the Casa de Contratación in 1503 to regulate contacts between Spain and its overseas possessions. A key function was to gather information about navigation to make trips less risky and they were accompanied by maps of the area discussed, many of which were drawn by indigenous artists. The Francisco Hernández Expedition, the first scientific expedition to the New World, was sent to gather information medicinal plants, an earlier Audiencia had been established in Santo Domingo in 1526 to deal with the Caribbean settlements. That Audiencia, housed in the Casa Reales in Santo Domingo, was charged with encouraging further exploration, management by the Audiencia, which was expected to make executive decisions as a body, proved unwieldy.
Therefore, in 1535, King Charles V named Don Antonio de Mendoza as the first Viceroy of New Spain. After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in 1532 opened up the vast territories of South America to further conquests, the Crown established an independent Viceroyalty of Peru there in 1540
Spanish Constitution of 1812
The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was established on 19 March 1812 by the Cádiz Cortes, Spains first national sovereign assembly, the Cortes Generales, in refuge in Cádiz during the Peninsular War. It established the principles of universal suffrage, national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy and freedom of the press. This constitution, one of the most liberal of its time, was effectively Spains first, on 24 March 1814, six weeks after returning to Spain, Ferdinand VII abolished the constitution and had all monuments to it torn down. The Constitution Obelisk in Saint Augustine, Florida survived, the constitution was reinstated during the Trienio Liberal, and again briefly 1836—1837 while the Progressives prepared the Constitution of 1837. The Spaniards nicknamed the Constitution La Pepa, possibly because it was adopted on Saint Josephs Day, from a Spanish point of view, the Peninsular War was a war of independence against the French Empire and the king installed by Napoleon, his brother Joseph Bonaparte.
While many in elite circles in Madrid were willing to accept Josephs rule, the war began on the night of 2 May 1808, and was immortalized by Francisco Goyas painting The Second of May 1808, known as The Charge of the Mamelukes. The Junta first met on 25 September 1808 in Aranjuez and in Seville, in any event, Floridablancas strength failed him and he died on 30 December 1808. When the Cortes convened in Cádiz in 1810, there appeared to be two possibilities for Spains political future if the French could be driven out. The first, represented especially by Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, was the restoration of the absolutist Antiguo Régimen, the origins of the Cortes did not harbor any revolutionary intentions, since the Junta saw itself simply as a continuation of the legitimate government of Spain. The opening session of the new Cortes was held on 24 September 1810 in the now known as the Real Teatro de las Cortes. Few of the most conservative voices were at Cádiz, and there was no communication with King Ferdinand.
Three basic principles were soon ratified by the Cortes, that sovereignty resides in the nation, the legitimacy of Ferdinand VII as king of Spain, and the inviolability of the deputies. Although the Cortes was not unanimous in its liberalism, the new Constitution reduced the power of the crown, the Catholic Church, the Cortes of Cádiz worked feverishly and the first written Spanish constitution was promulgated in Cádiz on 19 March 1812. The Constitution of 1812 is regarded as the document of liberalism in Spain. Suffrage, which was not determined by property qualifications, favored the position of the class in the new parliament. Repeal of traditional property restrictions gave liberals the freer economy they wanted, the first provincial government created under the Constitution was in the province of Guadalajara con Molina. Its deputation first met in the village of Anguita in April 1813, among the most debated questions during the drafting of the constitution was the status of the native and mixed-race populations in Spains possessions around the world.
Most of the provinces were represented, especially the most populous regions
West Florida was a region on the north shore of the Gulf of Mexico, which underwent several boundary and sovereignty changes during its history. The province was established by the British in 1763 out of lands ceded from the Spanish, as its name suggests, it was formed out of the Western part of formerly Spanish Florida, along with lands taken from French Louisiana, West Floridas capital was Pensacola. The colony included most of what is now the Florida Panhandle, plus parts of the modern U. S. states of Louisiana, Great Britain established West and East Florida out of land taken from France and Spain after the French and Indian War. As the newly acquired territory was too large to govern from one administrative center, British West Floridas government was based in Pensacola, and the colony included the part of formerly Spanish Florida which lay west of the Apalachicola, plus parts of formerly French Louisiana. It thus comprised all territory between the Mississippi and Apalachicola Rivers, with a boundary which shifted several times over the subsequent years.
Both West and East Florida remained loyal to the British crown during the American Revolution, Spain invaded West Florida and captured Pensacola in 1781, and after the war Britain ceded both Floridas to Spain. However, the lack of defined boundaries led to a series of disputes between Spanish West Florida and the fledgling United States known as the West Florida Controversy. Disagreements with the Spanish government led American and English settlers between the Mississippi and Perdido Rivers to declare that area the independent Republic of West Florida in 1810, within months it was annexed by the United States, which claimed the region as part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. In 1819 the United States negotiated the purchase of the remainder of West Florida and all of East Florida in the Adams–Onís Treaty, and in 1822 both were merged into the Florida Territory. The area known as West Florida was originally claimed by Spain as part of La Florida, in 1698 the settlement of Pensacola was established in order to check French expansion into the area.
Beginning in the late 17th century the French established settlements in the region as part of colonial Louisiana, notably including Mobile, after years of contention the Perdido River was agreed upon as the boundary between French Louisiana and Spanish Florida. Before 1762 France had owned and administered the land west of the Perdido River as part of La Louisiane. A secret treaty in 1762 had effectively, upon being revealed in 1764, ceded to Spain all of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River, Spain failed to make good by occupancy its title to Louisiana until 1769, when it took formal possession. Spain ceded to Great Britain its territory of La Florida, in exchange for Cuba, as a result, for the next two decades, the British controlled nearly all of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico east of the Mississippi River. Most of the Spanish population left Florida at that time, and its colonial government records were relocated to Havana, East Florida consisted of most of the formerly Spanish Florida, and retained the old Spanish capital of St.
Augustine. West Florida comprised the land between the Mississippi and Apalachicola Rivers, with Pensacola designated as its capital, the northern boundary was arbitrarily set at the 31st parallel north. Many English Americans and Scotch-Irish Americans moved to the territory at this time, the Governor of West Florida in November 1763 was George Johnstone, his lieutenant governor, Montfort Browne, was a major landowner in the province who heavily promoted its development. Seven General Assemblies were convoked between 1766 and 1778, in 1764, the British moved the northern boundary to the 32° 22′ north latitude, extending from the Yazoo to the Chattahoochee River, which included the Natchez District and the Tombigbee District