|First Chilean wheat cycle||wheat||Chile||1687–1810|
|Brazilian Gold Rush||gold||Brazil||18th century|
|Carolina Gold Rush||gold||North Carolina, US||early 19th century|
|Georgia Gold Rush||gold||Georgia, US||1828 – early 1840s|
|Chilean silver rush||silver||Chile||1830–1850|
|Guano Era||guano||Peru||1845 – c. 1870|
|California Gold Rush||gold||California, US||1848–1855|
|Second Chilean wheat cycle||wheat||Chile||mid-19th century – 1870s|
|British Columbia gold rushes||gold||British Columbia, Canada||1850–1941|
|Australian gold rushes||gold||Australia||1851–1906|
|Pennsylvania oil rush||petroleum||northwestern Pennsylvania, US||1859 – early 1870s|
|Otago Gold Rush||gold||Central Otago, New Zealand||1860s|
|Colorado River mining boom||gold||Southwestern US||1861–64|
|West Coast Gold Rush||gold||West Coast, New Zealand||1864–1867|
|Lapland gold rush||gold||Lapland, Finland||1870s|
|Azerbaijan oil boom||petroleum||Azerbaijan||1870s|
|Pilgrim's Rest gold rush||gold||Pilgrim's Rest, Mpumalanga, South Africa||1873|
|Black Hills Gold Rush||gold||Dakota Territory, US||1874 – c. 1880|
|Patagonian sheep farming boom||wool, mutton||Patagonia||late 19th to early 20th century|
|Cripple Creek Gold Rush||gold||Cripple Creek, Colorado, US||late 19th to early 20th century|
|Bodie gold rush||gold||Bodie, California, US||1877–1880|
|First Amazon rubber boom||rubber||Amazon basin||1879–1912|
|Indiana gas boom||natural gas||Indiana, US||early 1880s – early 20th century|
|Ohio oil rush||petroleum||Northwest Ohio, US||1880s – 1930s|
|Tierra del Fuego gold rush||gold||Tierra del Fuego||1883–1906|
|Witwatersrand Gold Rush||gold||South Africa||1886|
|Klondike Gold Rush||gold||Klondike, Yukon, Canada||1896–1899|
|Mount Baker Gold Rush||gold||Whatcom County, Washington, US||1897 – mid-1920s|
|Nome Gold Rush||gold||Nome, Alaska, US||1899–1909|
|Fairbanks Gold Rush||gold||Fairbanks, Alaska, US||early 1900s|
|Texas oil boom||petroleum||Texas, US||1901 – 1940s|
|Cobalt silver rush||silver||Cobalt, Ontario, Canada||1903 – c. 1930|
|Stoy, Illinois oil boom||petroleum||Stoy, Illinois, US||1906–1910|
|Porcupine Gold Rush||gold||Northern Ontario, Canada||1909 – 1950s|
|Kakamega gold rush||gold||Kakamega, Kenya||early 1930s|
|Vatukoula gold rush||gold||Vatukoula, Fiji||1932|
|Second Amazon rubber boom||rubber||Amazon basin||1942–1945|
|Calgary oil boom||petroleum||Calgary, Alberta, Canada||1947 – early 1980s|
|New Zealand wool boom||wool||New Zealand||1951 – late 1950s|
|Mexican oil boom||petroleum||Mexico||1977–1981|
|2000s commodities boom||multiple||worldwide||2000s|
|Uranium bubble of 2007||uranium||worldwide||2005–2007|
|North Dakota oil boom||petroleum, shale gas||North Dakota, US||2006 – present (as of 2015[update])|
|Rhodium bubble||rhodium||worldwide (primarily South Africa, Russia)||2008|
1. Price index – A price index is a normalized average of price relatives for a given class of goods or services in a given region, during a given interval of time. It is a designed to help to compare how these price relatives, taken as a whole. Price indexes have several potential uses, for particularly broad indices, the index can be said to measure the economys general price level or a cost of living. More narrow price indices can help producers with business plans and pricing, sometimes, they can be useful in helping to guide investment. Some notable price indices include, Consumer price index Producer price index Export price index Import price index GDP deflator No clear consensus has emerged on who created the first price index. The earliest reported research in this came from Welshman Rice Vaughan who examined price level change in his 1675 book A Discourse of Coin. Vaughan wanted to separate the impact of the influx of precious metals brought by Spain from the New World from the effect due to currency debasement. Vaughan compared labor statutes from his own time to similar statutes dating back to Edward III and these statutes set wages for certain tasks and provided a good record of the change in wage levels. Vaughans analysis indicated that price levels in England had risen six to eightfold over the preceding century, while Vaughan can be considered a forerunner of price index research, his analysis did not actually involve calculating an index. In 1707 Englishman William Fleetwood created perhaps the first true price index, an Oxford student asked Fleetwood to help show how prices had changed. The student stood to lose his fellowship since a fifteenth-century stipulation barred students with annual incomes over five pounds from receiving a fellowship, Fleetwood, who already had an interest in price change, had collected a large amount of price data going back hundreds of years. Fleetwood proposed an index consisting of averaged price relatives and used his methods to show that the value of five pounds had changed greatly over the course of 260 years and he argued on behalf of the Oxford students and published his findings anonymously in a volume entitled Chronicon Preciosum. Of course, for any purpose, quantities purchased are rarely if ever identical across any two periods. As such, this is not a very practical index formula, one might be tempted to modify the formula slightly to P = ∑ ∑ This new index, however, doesnt do anything to distinguish growth or reduction in quantities sold from price changes. To see that this is so, consider what happens if all the double between t 0 and t n while quantities stay the same, P will double. Now consider what happens if all the double between t 0 and t n while all the prices stay the same, P will double. In either case the change in P is identical, as such, P is as much a quantity index as it is a price index. Various indices have been constructed in an attempt to compensate for this difficulty, the two most basic formulae used to calculate price indices are the Paasche index and the Laspeyres indexPrice index – William Fleetwood
2. Tulip mania – Tulip mania or tulipomania was a period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for bulbs of the recently introduced tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then suddenly collapsed. At the peak of tulip mania, in March 1637, some single tulip bulbs sold for more than 10 times the income of a skilled craftsman. The term tulip mania is now often used metaphorically to refer to any large economic bubble when asset prices deviate from intrinsic values, the 1637 event was popularized in 1841 by the book Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds, written by British journalist Charles Mackay. According to Mackay, at one point 12 acres of land were offered for a Semper Augustus bulb, Mackay claims that many such investors were ruined by the fall in prices, and Dutch commerce suffered a severe shock. Although Mackays book is a classic, his account is contested, many modern scholars feel that the mania was not as extraordinary as Mackay described and argue that not enough price data are available to prove that a tulip bulb bubble actually occurred. Research is difficult because of the economic data from the 1630s—much of which come from biased. Some modern economists have proposed rational explanations, rather than a speculative mania, for the rise, for example, other flowers, such as the hyacinth, also had high initial prices at the time of their introduction, which immediately fell. The high asset prices may also have driven by expectations of a parliamentary decree that contracts could be voided for a small cost—thus lowering the risk to buyers. Tulip bulbs were soon distributed from Vienna to Augsburg, Antwerp and he planted his collection of tulip bulbs and found they were able to tolerate the harsher conditions of the Low Countries, shortly thereafter the tulip began to grow in popularity. The tulip was different from other flower known to Europe at that time. The appearance of the tulip as a status symbol at this time coincides with the rise of newly independent Hollands trade fortunes. No longer the Spanish Netherlands, its resources could now be channeled into commerce. Amsterdam merchants were at the center of the lucrative East Indies trade, as a result, tulips rapidly became a coveted luxury item, and a profusion of varieties followed. They were classified in groups, the tulips of red, yellow, or white were known as Couleren, the multicolored Rosen, Violetten, and the rarest of all. The multicolor effects of intricate lines and flame-like streaks on the petals were vivid and spectacular, growers named their new varieties with exalted titles. Many early forms were prefixed Admirael, often combined with the growers names, generael was another prefix used for around thirty varieties. Later varieties were given even more extravagant names, derived from Alexander the Great or Scipio, or even Admiral of Admirals, however, naming could be haphazard and varieties highly variable in quality. Most of these varieties have now died out, tulips grow from bulbs, and can be propagated through both seeds and budsTulip mania – A tulip, known as "the Viceroy" (viseroij), displayed in the 1637 Dutch catalog 'Verzameling van een Meenigte Tulipaanen'. Its bulb cost between 3,000 and 4,200 guilders (florins) depending on size (aase). A skilled craftsman at the time earned about 300 guilders a year.
3. Economic boom – The business cycle or economic cycle is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product around its long-term growth trend. The length of a cycle is the period of time containing a single boom. These fluctuations typically involve shifts over time periods of relatively rapid economic growth, and periods of relative stagnation or decline. Business cycles are usually measured by considering the rate of real gross domestic product. Despite the often-applied term cycles, these fluctuations in economic activity do not exhibit uniform or predictable periodicity, the common or popular usage boom-and-bust cycle refers to fluctuations in which the expansion is rapid and the contraction severe. Prior to that point classical economics had either denied the existence of cycles, blamed them on external factors, notably war. Sismondi found vindication in the Panic of 1825, which was the first unarguably international economic crisis and they advocated government intervention and socialism, respectively, as the solution. He devoted hundreds of pages of Das Kapital to crises, in Progress and Poverty, Henry George focused on lands role in crises – particularly land speculation – and proposed a single tax on land as a solution. In 1860 French economist Clement Juglar first identified economic cycles 7 to 11 years long, interest in the different typologies of cycles has waned since the development of modern macroeconomics, which gives little support to the idea of regular periodic cycles. There were great increases in productivity, industrial production and real per capita product throughout the period from 1870 to 1890 that included the Long Depression, there were also significant increases in productivity in the years leading up to the Great Depression. Both the Long and Great Depressions were characterized by overcapacity and market saturation, the effect of technological progress can be seen by the purchasing power of an average hours work, which has grown from $3 in 1900 to $22 in 1990, measured in 2010 dollars. There were similar increases in wages during the 19th century. See Financial crisis, 19th century for listing and details, the first of these crises not associated with a war was the Panic of 1825. Business cycles in OECD countries after World War II were generally more restrained than the business cycles. This was particularly true during the Golden Age of Capitalism, in this period, the economic cycle – at least the problem of depressions – was twice declared dead. The first declaration was in the late 1960s, when the Phillips curve was seen as being able to steer the economy, however, this was followed by stagflation in the 1970s, which discredited the theory. The second declaration was in the early 2000s, following the stability, notably, in 2003, Robert Lucas, in his presidential address to the American Economic Association, declared that the central problem of depression-prevention been solved, for all practical purposes. Unfortunately, this was followed by the 2008–2012 global recession, various regions have experienced prolonged depressions, most dramatically the economic crisis in former Eastern Bloc countries following the end of the Soviet Union in 1991Economic boom – Business cycle with it specific forces in four stages according to Malcolm C. Rorty, 1922
4. Commodity – In economics, a commodity is a marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs. Economic commodities comprise goods and services, the word commodity came into use in English in the 15th century, from the French commodité, amenity, convenience. Going further back, the French word derives from the Latin commoditas, meaning suitability, convenience, the Latin word commodus meant variously appropriate, proper measure, time, or condition, and advantage, benefit. The term commodity is specifically used for a good or service when the demand for it has no qualitative differentiation across a market. In other words, a commodity good or service has full or partial but substantial fungibility, that is, the market treats its instances as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them. As the saying goes, From the taste of wheat, it is not possible to tell who produced it, a Russian serf, petroleum and copper are other examples of such commodities, their supply and demand being a part of one universal market. Items such as systems, on the other hand, have many aspects of product differentiation, such as the brand, the user interface. The demand for one type of stereo may be larger than demand for another. In contrast, one of the characteristics of a commodity good is that its price is determined as a function of its market as a whole, well-established physical commodities have actively traded spot and derivative markets. Generally, these are basic resources and agricultural products such as ore, sugar. Soft commodities are goods that are grown, while hard commodities are ones that are extracted through mining, there is another important class of energy commodities which includes electricity, gas, coal and oil. Electricity has the characteristic that it is usually uneconomical to store, hence. Commoditization occurs as a goods or services market loses differentiation across its supply base, as such, goods that formerly carried premium margins for market participants have become commodities, such as generic pharmaceuticals and DRAM chips. Following this trend, nanomaterials are emerging from carrying premium profit margins for market participants to a status of commodification, there is a spectrum of commoditization, rather than a binary distinction of commodity versus differentiable product. Many products degree of commoditization depends on the mentality and means. For example, milk, eggs, and notebook paper are not differentiated by many customers, for them, other customers take into consideration other factors besides price, such as environmental sustainability and animal welfare. This is a list of companies trading globally in commodities, descending by size as of October 28,2011, on a commodity exchange, it is the underlying standard stated in the contract that defines the commodity, not any quality inherent in a specific producers product. Commodities exchanges include, Bourse Africa Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Chicago Board of Trade Chicago Mercantile Exchange Dalian Commodity Exchange Euronext and these markets will quickly respond to changes in supply and demand to find an equilibrium price and quantityCommodity – Yerba mate (left), coffee bean (middle) and tea (right), all used for caffeinated infusions, are commodity cash crops.
5. Tulip – The tulip is a Eurasian and North African genus of perennial, bulbous plants in the lily family. It is a herb with showy flowers, of which around 75 wild species are currently accepted. The tulips centre of diversity is in the Pamir, Hindu Kush and it is a common element of steppe and winter-rain Mediterranean vegetation. A number of species and many cultivars are grown in gardens or as potted plants. Tulips are spring-blooming perennials that grow from bulbs, depending on the species, tulip plants can be between 4 inches and 28 inches high. The tulips large flowers usually bloom on scapes with leaves in a rosette at ground level, larger species tend to have multiple leaves. Plants typically have two to six leaves, some species up to 12, the tulips leaf is strap-shaped, with a waxy coating, and the leaves are alternately arranged on the stem, these fleshy blades are often bluish green in color. Most tulips produce only one flower per stem, but a few species bear multiple flowers on their scapes, the generally cup or star-shaped tulip flower has three petals and three sepals, which are often termed tepals because they are nearly identical. These six tepals are often marked on the surface near the bases with darker colorings. Tulip flowers come in a variety of colors, except pure blue. The flowers have six distinct, basifixed stamens with filaments shorter than the tepals, each stigma has three distinct lobes, and the ovaries are superior, with three chambers. The tulips seed is a capsule with a covering and an ellipsoid to globe shape. Each capsule contains numerous flat, disc-shaped seeds in two rows per chamber and these light to dark brown seeds have very thin seed coats and endosperm that does not normally fill the entire seed. Tulipanin is a found in tulips. It is the 3-rutinoside of delphinidin, the chemical compounds named tuliposides and tulipalins can also be found in tulips and are responsible for allergies. Tulipalin A, or α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone, is an allergen, generated by hydrolysis of the glucoside tuliposide A. It induces a dermatitis that is mostly occupational and affects tulip bulb sorters and florists who cut the stems, tulipanin A and B are toxic to horses, cats and dogs. The genus Tulipa was traditionally divided into two sections, Eriostemones and Tulipa, and comprises ca.76 speciesTulip – Tulip
6. Netherlands – The Netherlands is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country. Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country also ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life. The Netherlands also ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder, Nether and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Boven, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, however, changed over time tremendouslyNetherlands – The Netherlands in 5500 BC
7. Chilean wheat cycle – In Chilean historiography, the wheat cycle refers to two episodes of booming wheat exports and related changes in society and agriculture. The first cycle occurred from 1687 to the wars and was caused by heavy demand in Peru. The importance of wheat had led the 18th century in Chile to be labelled the wheat century, the second cycle started in the mid-19th century, fueled by the California and Australian gold rushes and ended definitively during the Long depression in the 1870s. Chile has a history of exporting cereals to Peru dating back to 1687 when Peru was struck by both an earthquake and a stem rust epidemic. Chilean soil and climatic conditions were better for cereal production than those of Peru and Chilean wheat was cheaper, according to historians Villalobos et al. the 1687 events were only the detonant factor for exports to start. The Chilean Central Valley, La Serena and Concepción were the districts that came to be involved in export to Peru. Compared with the 19th century, the area cultivated with wheat was very small, initially Chilean latifundia could not meet the wheat demand due to a labour shortage, so had to incorporate temporary workers in addition to the permanent staff. Another response by the latifundia to labour shortages was to act as merchants, in the period 1700 to 1850, this second option was overall more lucrative. The independence wars in Chile and Peru had a impact on the Chilean wheat industry. Trade was disrupted and armies in Chile pillaged the countryside, the Guerra a muerte phase was particularly destructive and ended only to see a period of outlaw banditry occur until the late 1820s. Trade with Peru did not fully recover after the independence struggles, in the 19th century, access to the Californian and Australian markets made wheat export a very lucrative activity. In the mid-19th century, those countries experienced large gold rushes, Chile was at the time the only wheat producer of some importance in the Pacific. At the same time as the cycle, new irrigation canals were built and apiculture. Apart from that, new markets were explored for Chilean agricultural products, the wheat boom did not last for long, by 1855, California managed to supply itself with wheat and from 1858 onwards it went over to export wheat to Chile. The cycle came to an end in the late 1870s due to the increased technification of agriculture in the United States and Argentina, the end of the wheat cycle added to the already difficult situation that Chilean economy was passing through in the 1870s. Exports to England continued at least until 1890Chilean wheat cycle – Economic history
8. Wheat – Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region but now cultivated worldwide. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize, since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st Century. This grain is grown on land area than any other commercial food. World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined, globally, wheat is the leading source of vegetal protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals and staple foods. The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. In a small part of the population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia. Cultivation and repeated harvesting and sowing of the grains of wild grasses led to the creation of domestic strains, in domesticated wheat, grains are larger, and the seeds remain attached to the ear by a toughened rachis during harvesting. In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to easily shatter, as the traits that improve wheat as a food source also involve the loss of the plants natural seed dispersal mechanisms, highly domesticated strains of wheat cannot survive in the wild. Cultivation of wheat began to spread beyond the Fertile Crescent after about 8000 BCE, jared Diamond traces the spread of cultivated emmer wheat starting in the Fertile Crescent sometime before 8800 BCE. Archaeological analysis of wild emmer indicates that it was first cultivated in the southern Levant with finds dating back as far as 9600 BCE, Genetic analysis of wild einkorn wheat suggests that it was first grown in the Karacadag Mountains in southeastern Turkey. Dated archeological remains of wheat in settlement sites near this region, including those at Abu Hureyra in Syria. With the anomalous exception of two grains from Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 date for einkorn wheat remains at Abu Hureyra is 7800 to 7500 years BCE. Remains of harvested emmer from several sites near the Karacadag Range have been dated to between 8600 and 8400 BCE, that is, in the Neolithic period and these remains were dated by Willem van Zeist and his assistant Johanna Bakker-Heeres to 8800 BCE. They also concluded that the settlers of Tell Aswad did not develop this form of emmer themselves, the cultivation of emmer reached Greece, Cyprus and India by 6500 BCE, Egypt shortly after 6000 BCE, and Germany and Spain by 5000 BCE. The early Egyptians were developers of bread and the use of the oven, by 3000 BCE, wheat had reached the British Isles and Scandinavia. A millennium later it reached China, the oldest evidence for hexaploid wheat has been confirmed through DNA analysis of wheat seeds, dating to around 6400-6200 BCE, recovered from Çatalhöyük. The first identifiable bread wheat with sufficient gluten for yeasted breads has been identified using DNA analysis in samples from a dating to approximately 1350 BCE at Assiros in Macedonia. From Asia, wheat continued to spread throughout Europe, in the British Isles, wheat straw was used for roofing in the Bronze Age, and was in common use until the late 19th centuryWheat – Wheat
9. Chile – Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes, the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. Spain conquered and colonized Chile in the century, replacing Inca rule in northern and central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic, in the 1960s and 1970s the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010. Chile is today one of South Americas most stable and prosperous nations and it leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile, another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a locally known as trile. The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, ultimately, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such. The older spelling Chili was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching over to Chile, stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys, settlement sites from very early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Craters lava tube. They fought against the Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui and his army, the result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, the Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarros lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541. Although the Spanish did not find the gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chiles central valleyChile – The Mapuche people were the original inhabitants of southern and central Chile.
10. Brazilian Gold Rush – The Brazilian Gold Rush was a gold rush that started in the 18th century, in the then Portuguese colony of Brazil. The rush opened up the major gold-producing area of Ouro Preto, the rush began when bandeirantes discovered large gold deposits in the mountains of Minas Gerais. The bandeirantes were adventurers who organized themselves into groups to explore the interior of Brazil. Many bandeirantes were of mixed indigenous and European background who adopted the ways of the natives, while the bandeirantes searched for indigenous captives, they also searched for mineral wealth, which led to the gold being discovered. More than 400,000 Portuguese and half a million African slaves came to the region to mine. Many people abandoned the plantations and towns in the northeast coast to go to the gold region. By 1725, half the population of Brazil was living in southeastern Brazil, officially,850 tons of gold were sent to Portugal in the XVIII century. Other gold circulated illegally, and still other gold remained in the colony to adorn churches, in the 18th century, Ouro Preto became for a time the most populous city in the New World, with an estimated population of 80,000 in 1750. At that time, the population of New York was half that number, Minas Gerais was the gold mining center of Brazil. Slave labor was used for the workforce. The discovery of gold in the area caused an influx of European immigrants. They set up numerous bureaucracies, often with conflicting duties and jurisdictions, the officials generally proved unequal to the task of controlling this highly lucrative industry. In 1830, the St. John del Rey Mining Company, controlled by the British, the British brought in modern management techniques and engineering expertise. Located in Nova Lima, the mine produced ore for 125 years, erário Mineral, author Luís Gomes Ferreira Brazilian Gold Gold mining in Brazil Chilean silver rush Tierra del Fuego Gold RushBrazilian Gold Rush – The main square of Ouro Preto - Praça Tiradentes
11. Gold – Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly yellow, dense, soft, malleable. Chemically, gold is a metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions, Gold often occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the element silver and also naturally alloyed with copper. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium, golds atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher numbered, naturally occurring elements. It is thought to have produced in supernova nucleosynthesis, from the collision of neutron stars. Because the Earth was molten when it was formed, almost all of the present in the early Earth probably sank into the planetary core. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of acid and hydrochloric acid. Gold also dissolves in solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating. Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but this is not a chemical reaction, as a precious metal, gold has been used for coinage, jewelry, and other arts throughout recorded history. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold is in existence above ground, the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry. Gold is also used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine. As of 2014, the worlds largest gold producer by far was China with 450 tonnes, Gold is cognate with similar words in many Germanic languages, deriving via Proto-Germanic *gulþą from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃-. The symbol Au is from the Latin, aurum, the Latin word for gold, the Proto-Indo-European ancestor of aurum was *h₂é-h₂us-o-, meaning glow. This word is derived from the root as *h₂éu̯sōs, the ancestor of the Latin word Aurora. This etymological relationship is presumably behind the frequent claim in scientific publications that aurum meant shining dawn, Gold is the most malleable of all metals, a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, and an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet. Gold leaf can be thin enough to become semi-transparentGold – Gold, 79 Au
12. Brazil – Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. As the worlds fifth-largest country by area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to wildlife, a variety of ecological systems. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, in 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a state governed under a constitutional monarchy. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, the country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup détat. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, Brazils current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, Brazils economy is the worlds ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015. A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the worlds fastest growing economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition. Brazils national development bank plays an important role for the economic growth. Brazil is a member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Unasul, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP. Brazil is a power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs. One of the worlds major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years and it is likely that the word Brazil comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast. In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology red like an ember, formed from Latin brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name, early sailors sometimes also called it the Land of Parrots. In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called PindoramaBrazil – Megaliths in the Solstice Archaeological Park, in Amapá, erected between 500 and 2000 years ago, probably to carry out astronomical observations.
13. Carolina Gold Rush – The Carolina Gold Rush, the first gold rush in the United States, followed the discovery of a large gold nugget in North Carolina in 1799, by a 12-year-old boy named Conrad Reed. He spotted the nugget while playing in Meadow Creek on his familys farm in Cabarrus County, Conrad took the 17 lb gold nugget home to show his father, however gold was not commonly seen in their community and the value of the nugget was not understood. The nugget was used as a stop in the familys home for several years. In 1802, Conrads father, John Reed, showed the rock to a jeweler, Reed, still unaware of the real value of his doorstop, sold it to the jeweler for $3.50. After learning of the value of the resource on his land John Reed entered into a partnership with Federick Kisor, James Love, in the year 1803 the men found a nugget weighing 28 pounds. News of the discovery was quickly spread by regional newspapers and land owners across the area began to search for gold on their property. Nearly all of the land was owned and the beginning of the Carolina Gold Rush was largely conducted by farmers at the end of the growing season each year. These farmers were capable of conducting shallow surface mining of the known as placer mining. With this progression of mining technique, the profession of mining became a necessity as underground tunnels, the region of Cornwall England had bred miners for decades, who skillfully extracted the copper from their deep mines until, by the early 19th century, those deposits became exhausted. Learning of new opportunity in North Carolina many of these miners immigrated in pursuit of work, some of the ore mills built in the Carolinas can be seen to resemble the design of the old mines in Cornwall. The expertise that these minors taught to the Carolina men spread throughout the region as men sought gold across the Carolina Slate Belt, the Reed Gold Mine, was designated a National Historic Landmark. Visitors can explore reconstructed underground mining tunnels, over 2,500 ounces of gold was deposited in the Philadelphia Mint by 1824. In 1835, Andrew Jackson signed into a law bill to open three branch mints, in Charlotte, North Carolina, and Dahlonega, Georgia, for minting gold coinage, the ones in Charlotte and Dahlonega were to mint the newly discovered gold. Georgia Gold Belt Georgia Gold Rush Charlotte Mint Dahlonega MintCarolina Gold Rush – Carolina Gold Belt, showing, south to north, the Haile, Brewer, Howie, Stuart, Moore, Long, Means, Pioneer Mills, Reed, Ferris, Rocky River, Buffalo, Phoenix, San Cristian, Concord, Moratock, Eisenhauer, Mt. Mackin, Russel, Gold Hill, Reimer, Dunns Mt., Salisbury, Silver Hill, Emmons, Silver Valley, Hoover Hill, and Jones mines. Gold-quartz veins are found in the schists.
14. North Carolina – North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, North Carolina is the 28th most extensive and the 9th most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties, the most populous municipality is Charlotte, which is the second largest banking center in the United States after New York City. The state has a range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell. The climate of the plains is strongly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a highland climate. North Carolina is bordered by South Carolina on the south, Georgia on the southwest, Tennessee on the west, Virginia on the north, the United States Census Bureau places North Carolina in the South Atlantic division of the southern region. So many ships have been lost off Cape Hatteras that the area is known as the Graveyard of the Atlantic, the most famous of these is the Queen Annes Revenge, which went aground in Beaufort Inlet in 1718. The coastal plain transitions to the Piedmont region along the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, the Piedmont region of central North Carolina is the states most populous region, containing the six largest cities in the state by population. It consists of rolling countryside frequently broken by hills or low mountain ridges. The Piedmont ranges from about 300 feet in elevation in the east to about 1,500 feet in the west, the western section of the state is part of the Appalachian Mountain range. Among the subranges of the Appalachians located in the state are the Great Smoky Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, the Black Mountains are the highest in the eastern United States, and culminate in Mount Mitchell at 6,684 feet, the highest point east of the Mississippi River. North Carolina has 17 major river basins, the five basins west of the Blue Ridge Mountains flow to the Gulf of Mexico, while the remainder flow to the Atlantic Ocean. Of the 17 basins,11 originate within the state of North Carolina, but only four are contained entirely within the states border – the Cape Fear, the Neuse, the White Oak, and the Tar-Pamlico basin. Elevation above sea level is most responsible for temperature change across the state, the climate is also influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream, especially in the coastal plain. These influences tend to cause warmer winter temperatures along the coast, the coastal plain averages around 1 inch of snow or ice annually, and in many years, there may be no snow or ice at all. North Carolina experiences severe weather in summer and winter, with summer bringing threat of hurricanes, tropical storms, heavy rainNorth Carolina – North Carolina topographic map
15. Georgia Gold Rush – The Georgia Gold Rush was the second significant gold rush in the United States and the first in Georgia, and overshadowed the previous rush in North Carolina. It started in 1829 in present-day Lumpkin County near the county seat, Dahlonega, by the early 1840s, gold became difficult to find. Many Georgia miners moved west when gold was found in the Sierra Nevada in 1848, while the discovery in Georgia in 1828 was the event that led to what is called the Georgia Gold Rush, there were reports of gold in the North Georgia Mountains much earlier. Since the 16th century, American Indians in Georgia told European explorers that the amounts of gold which they possessed came from mountains of the interior. Some poorly documented accounts exist of Spanish or French mining gold in North Georgia between 1560 and 1690, but they are based on supposition and on rumors passed on by Indians. In summing up known sources, Yeates observed, “Many of these accounts and traditions seem to be quite plausible. Nevertheless, it is probable that the Spaniards would have abandoned mines which were afterwards found to be quite profitable, as those in North Georgia. ”Hernando de Soto led an expedition in 1540, and came across a young native who showed the Spaniards how gold was mined, melted. Ozley Bird Saunook, a former Cherokee chief, claimed his people knew of gold in the area as early as the century when de Soto passed through the region. In 1799, gold was discovered in Cabarrus County, North Carolina, Conrad had the stone identified in Fayetteville, North Carolina, three years later. By 1804, this Carolina Gold Rush resulted in placer mining, the gold belt was extended north into Virginia, and south into South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. No one knows which version of the find is accurate, Some anecdotes have either Frank Logan or his slave making the find in White County, Georgia. Another version of the White County find has John Witheroods finding a three-ounce nugget along Dukes Creek, still another version was that the North Carolina prospector Jesse Hogan found gold near Dahlonega, Georgia, at Wards Creek. Thomas Bowen supposedly found gold in the roots of a tree along Dukes Creek. Benjamin Parks found gold on his birthday in 1828 while walking along a deer path, however, these stories have no contemporary documents to support their validity. No matter who made the discovery in 1828, the gold rush started in 1829 in Lumpkin County. One of the first public accounts was on August 1,1829, so it appears that what we long anticipated has come to pass at last, namely, that the gold region of North and South Carolina, would be found to extend into Georgia. Gold was discovered in Carroll County, Georgia, in 1830, in the early stages of the gold rush, the majority of the mining was placer mining. The Philadelphia Mint received $212,000 in gold from Georgia in 1830, other estimates were that in 1831 there were 6,000 to 10,000 miners between the Chestatee River and the Etowah RiverGeorgia Gold Rush – Gold veinlets (they appear white) in a sample of gneiss from the Battle Branch Mine in Lumpkin County
16. Georgia (U.S. state) – Georgia is a state in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies, named after King George II of Great Britain, Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2,1788. It declared its secession from the Union on January 19,1861 and it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15,1870. Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States, from 2007 to 2008,14 of Georgias counties ranked among the nations 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South, Atlanta is the states capital, its most populous city and has been named a global city. Georgia is bordered to the south by Florida, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina, to the west by Alabama, the states northern part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. Georgias highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level, Georgia is the largest state entirely east of the Mississippi River in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures, the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12,1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II. The Trustees implemented a plan for the colonys settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan. In 1742 the colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins Ear, in 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a colony, with a governor appointed by the king. The Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence, the State of Georgias first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24,1778, in 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains, which led to the Georgia Gold Rush and an established federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued its operation until 1861. The subsequent influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgias tribes. Despite the Supreme Courts ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that ruled U. S. states were not permitted to redraw the Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched troops to gather the CherokeeGeorgia (U.S. state) – A girl spinner in a Georgia cotton mill, 1909.
17. Chilean silver rush – Between 1830 and 1850 Chilean silver mining grew at an unprecedented space which transformed mining into one of the countrys principal sources of wealth. The rush caused rapid demographic, infrastructural, and economic expansion in the semi-arid Norte Chico mountains where the silver deposits lay, a number of Chileans made large fortunes in the rush and made investments in other areas of the economy of Chile. By the 1850s the rush was in decline and lucrative silver mining ended in the 1870s. At the same time mining activity in Chile reoriented to saltpetre operations, placer deposits of gold were exploited by the Spanish in the 16th century following their arrival in the same century. However, only after the independence in the 19th century did mining once again get prominence among economic activities in Chile, following the discovery of silver at Agua Amarga and Arqueros the Norte Chico mountains north of La Serena were exhaustively prospected. In 1832 prospector Juan Godoy found a silver outcrop 50 km south of Copiapó in Chañarcillo, Godoy successfully claimed the discovered outcrop in his name and the name of José Godoy and Miguel Gallo. The finding attracted thousands of people to the place and generated significant wealth, during the heyday of Chañarcillo it produced more than 332 tons of silver ore until the deposits begun to be exhausted in 1874. A settlement of 600 people mushroomed in Chañarcillo leading to the establishment of surveillance system to avoid disorders and theft of ore. The settlement evolved over time to a town named Juan Godoy which came to have a plaza, school, market, hospital, theater, a railroad station, following the discovery of Chañarcillo many other ores were found near Copiapó well into the 1840s. The many findings resulted in the court of Copiapó receiving numerous claims, in 1848 another large ore deposit was discovered at Tres Puntas sparkling yet another rush. Copiapó experienced a demographic and urbanistic growth during the rush. The town became a centre for trade and services of a mining district. In 1851 Copiapó was connected by railroad to Caldera, its port of export. The mining zone slowly grew northwards into the border with Bolivia. Agriculture in Norte Chico also expanded as a consequence of the rush, by 1855, Copiapó was already in decline. At the end of the rush, rich miners had diversified their assets into banking, agriculture, trade. In 1870,1570 miners worked in the Chañarcillo mines, however the mines were exhausted by 1874, despite this, Chañarcillo was the most productive mining district in 19th century Chile. A last major discovery of silver occurred 1870 in Caracoles in Bolivian territory adjacent to Chile, apart from being discovered by Chileans, the ore was also extracted with Chilean capital and minersChilean silver rush – Drawing of an early 19th-century Chilean miner.
18. Silver – Silver is a metallic element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. The symbol Ag stems from Latin argentum, derived from the Greek ὰργὀς, a soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earths crust in the pure, free form, as an alloy with gold and other metals. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, Silver is more abundant than gold, but it is much less abundant as a native metal. Its purity is measured on a per mille basis, a 94%-pure alloy is described as 0.940 fine. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had a role in most human cultures. Silver has long valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many premodern monetary systems in bullion coins, Silver is used in numerous applications other than currency, such as solar panels, water filtration, jewelry, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, and as an investment medium. Silver is used industrially in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, Silver compounds are used in photographic film and X-rays. Dilute silver nitrate solutions and other compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings, catheters. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table, copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with an electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell. Silver is a soft, ductile and malleable transition metal. Silver crystallizes in a cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are relatively weak and this observation explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of silver. Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a polish. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm, at wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silvers reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. The electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater even than copper, during World War II in the US,13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium, mainly because of the wartime shortage of copperSilver – Electrolytically refined silver
19. Guano Era – The Guano Era refers to a period of stability and prosperity in Peru during the mid-19th century. It was sustained on the revenues generated by the export of guano. The starting date for the era is commonly considered to be 1845. It ended shortly after the war between Spain and Peru in 1866, Agustín Gamarra, named president by Congress, was anxious to once again attempt to unite Peru with Bolivia, however this time under Peruvian governorship rather than by confederation. He invaded Bolivia in 1841 with the Battle of Ingavi commencing a war between the two countries, in the process he died during the Battle of Ingavi. At his death, a state of discord ran through Peru, April 20,1845, Ramon Castilla assumed the presidency. From 1845 to 1862, Castilla exercised influence over the life of his citizens. His first government ended on 20 April 1851 allowing the general Jose Rufino Echenique assume power, Echenique a prestigious military officer, had been one of the top advisors of Castillas government. Using his extensive influence, Echenique continued on the progress of Castillas government to further advance the social. Ramon Castilla eventually became involved in the rebellion, soon becoming its leader, in the battle of La Palma, in the outskirts of Lima, Echenqiue was defeated and Ramon Castilla assumed the presidency for a second time. The economic aspect of the era was expressed by the management of state finances through the implementation of budgets, during this time the economy was experiencing a boom due to guano being sold to European markets. This allowed the government to repay its debt, earning it international economic prestige. Before Castilla, state expenses were calculated in a disorderly fashion, using the guano money, he was able to settle international debt with various nations which had existed since the time of independence. Communications to the interior began to improve with the construction of new highways, the first railroad that was constructed was during Castillas first term between Lima and Callao. During Echeniques government, the Tacna-Arica railroad was constructed and in Castillas second term, two important provisions were made during the liberal revolution against the government of General Echenique, with the aim of making all Peruvians equal before the law. One of these provisions was the abolition of the tribute which the indigenous population was forced to pay only for the reason of their ethnicity. Another, was the abolition of the slavery of the population of blacks in Peru. To compensate for the lack of workers on the haciendas of the coast and it thus opened the door to Chinese immigration that more diversified the races of the nationGuano Era – Under the governship of Castilla, Peru entered one of its most prosperous times
20. Guano – Guano is the accumulated excrement of seabirds, seals, or cave-dwelling bats. As a manure, guano is an effective fertilizer due to its exceptionally high content of nitrogen, phosphate and potassium. During the twentieth century, guano-producing birds became an important target of conservation programs, today, guano is increasingly sought after by organic farmers. Seabird guano consists of nitrogen-rich ammonium oxalate and urate, phosphates, as well as some earth salts, the word guano originates from the Andean indigenous language Quechua, which refers to any form of dung used as an agricultural fertilizer. Archaeological evidence suggests that Andean people have collected guano from small islands, spanish colonial documents suggest that the rulers of the Inca Empire assigned great value to guano, restricted access to it, and punished any disturbance of the birds with death. The Guanay cormorant has historically been the most abundant and important producer of guano, other important guano producing species off the coast of Peru are the Peruvian pelican and the Peruvian booby. At that time, massive deposits of guano existed on some islands, in this context the United States passed the Guano Islands Act in 1856, which gave U. S. citizens discovering a source of guano on an unclaimed island exclusive rights to the deposits. Nine of these islands are still officially U. S. territories, control over guano played a central role in the Chincha Islands War between Spain and a Peruvian-Chilean alliance. Indentured workers from China played an important role in guano harvest, the first group of 79 Chinese workers arrived in Peru in 1849, by the time that trade ended a quarter of a century later, over 100,000 of their fellow countrymen had been imported. There is no evidence that enslaved Pacific Islanders participated in guano mining. Between 1847 and 1873, there was a significant increase in Peruvian guano exports, after 1870, the use of Peruvian guano as a fertilizer was eclipsed by saltpeter in the form of caliche extraction from the interior of the Atacama Desert, not far from the guano areas. Since 1909, when the Peruvian government took over guano extraction for use by Peru farmers, South Africa independently developed its own guano industry based on sustained-yield production from marine birds during this period, as well. Both industries eventually collapsed due to pressure from overfishing, DNA testing has suggested that new potato varieties imported alongside Peruvian seabird guano in 1842 brought a virulent strain of potato blight that began the Irish Potato Famine. The ideal type of guano is found in dry climates. Post-depositional decomposition and ammonia volatilization of penguin guano also plays an important role in the evolution of ornithogenic sediments in the cold, Bat guano is usually mined in caves and this mining is associated with a corresponding loss of troglobytic biota and diminishing of biodiversity. Guano deposits support a variety of cave-adapted invertebrates that rely on bat feces as their sole source of nutrition. The greatest damage caused by mining to caves with extant guano deposits is to the bat colonies themselves, bats are highly vulnerable to regular disturbance to their roosts. Some species, such as Phyllonycteris aphylla, have low fat reserves, many species will drop pups when in panic, with subsequent death, leading to a steady reduction in populationGuano – The nest of the Peruvian booby is made of almost pure guano.
21. Peru – Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence, subsequently, the country has undergone changes in government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability, Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is a country with a high Human Development Index score. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing, the Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages and this mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music. The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans, thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, son of an Inca princess, the Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using such as irrigation and terracing, camelid husbandry. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money, the oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal, the Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Perus Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, on the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca, Wari, and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica. Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo, in the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in CuscoPeru – Sculpted Chavin head embedded in one of the walls of the temple of Chavín de Huantar
22. California Gold Rush – The California Gold Rush began on January 24,1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill in Coloma, California. The news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States, the Gold Rush initiated the California Genocide, with 100,000 Native Californians dying between 1848 and 1868. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican territory to the state of the first nominee for the Republican Party. The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial, whole indigenous societies were attacked and pushed off their lands by the gold-seekers, called forty-niners. The first to hear confirmed information of the rush were the people in Oregon, the Sandwich Islands, and Latin America. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin America, Europe, Australia, agriculture and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the settlers. San Francisco grew from a settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852. Roads, churches, schools and other towns were built throughout California, in 1849 a state constitution was written. The new constitution was adopted by vote, and the future states interim first governor. In September,1850, California became a state, at the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of staking claims was developed. Prospectors retrieved the gold from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, although the mining caused environmental harm, more sophisticated methods of gold recovery were developed and later adopted around the world. New methods of transportation developed as steamships came into regular service, by 1869 railroads were built across the country from California to the eastern United States. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, Gold worth tens of billions of todays dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few. However, many returned home with more than they had started with. The Mexican–American War ended on February 3,1848, although California was firmly in American hands before that, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided for, among other things, the formal transfer of Upper California to the United States. The California Gold Rush began at Sutters Mill, near Coloma, on January 24,1848, James W. Marshall, a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John Sutter, found shiny metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the American River. Marshall brought what he found to John Sutter, and the two tested the metal. However, rumors started to spread and were confirmed in March 1848 by San Francisco newspaper publisherCalifornia Gold Rush – Sailing to California at the beginning of the Gold Rush
23. California – California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California also has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire then claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence. The western portion of Alta California then was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups also were diverse in their organization with bands, tribes, villages. Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years later English explorer Francis Drake also explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565California – A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park
24. British Columbia – British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, with a population of more than four million people located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. British Columbia is also a component of the Pacific Northwest and the Cascadia bioregion, along with the U. S. states of Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Alaska. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Port Moody is named after him, in 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, and Victoria became the united colonys capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu, the capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for the Queen who created the original European colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, in October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871, First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties and the question of Aboriginal Title, notably, the Tsilhqotin Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the recent Supreme Court of Canada decision. BCs economy is diverse, with service producing industries accounting for the largest portion of the provinces GDP and it is the endpoint of transcontinental railways, and the site of major Pacific ports that enable international trade. Though less than 5% of its vast 944,735 km2 land is arable and its climate encourages outdoor recreation and tourism, though its economic mainstay has long been resource extraction, principally logging, farming, and mining. Vancouver, the provinces largest city and metropolitan area, also serves as the headquarters of many western-based natural resource companies and it also benefits from a strong housing market and a per capita income well above the national average. The Northern Interior region has a climate with very cold winters. The climate of Vancouver is by far the mildest winter climate of the major Canadian cities, the provinces name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i. e. the Mainland, became a British colony in 1858. The current southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, British Columbias land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbias rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres and it is the only province in Canada that borders the Pacific Ocean. British Columbias capital is Victoria, located at the tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of the Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is significantly populated, much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by thick, tall and sometimes impenetrable temperate rainforestBritish Columbia – Strait of Georgia, near Vancouver.
25. Australian gold rushes – During the Australian gold rushes, significant numbers of workers relocated to areas in which gold had been discovered. A number of gold occurred in Australia prior to 1851. This is mainly because, prior to 1851, the government of New South Wales had suppressed news of gold finds which it believed would reduce the workforce. The first gold rush in Australia began in May 1851 after prospector Edward Hargraves claimed to have discovered gold near Orange. Hargraves had been to the Californian goldfields and had learned new gold prospecting techniques such as panning and cradling, Hargraves was offered rewards by the Colony of New South Wales and the Colony of Victoria. Before the end of the year, the rush had spread to many other parts of the state where gold had been found, not just to the west. The Australian gold rushes changed the convict colonies into more cities with the influx of free emigrants. These hopefuls, termed diggers, brought new skills and professions, the mateship that evolved between these diggers and their collective resistance to authority led to the emergence of a unique national identity. Although not all diggers found riches on the goldfields, many decided to stay, in July 1851, Victorias first gold rush began on the Clunes goldfield. Gold, just as in New South Wales, was found in many other parts of the state. When the rush began at Ballarat, diggers discovered it was a prosperous goldfield, lieutenant-Governor, Charles La Trobe visited the site and watched five men uncover 136 ounces of gold in one day. Mount Alexander was even more rich than Ballarat, with gold sitting just under the surface, the shallowness allowed diggers to easily unearth gold nuggets. In 7 months,2.4 million pounds of gold was transported from Mount Alexander to nearby capital cities, the gold rushes caused a huge influx of people from overseas. Australias total population more than tripled from 430,000 in 1851 to 1.7 million in 1871, Australia first became a multicultural society during the gold rush period. Between 1852 and 1860,290,000 people migrated to Victoria from the British Isles,15,000 came from other European countries, non-European immigrants, however, were unwelcome, especially the Chinese. The Chinese were particularly industrious, with techniques that differed widely from the Europeans and this and their physical appearance and fear of the unknown led to them to being persecuted in a racist way that would be regarded as untenable today. In 1855,11,493 Chinese arrived in Melbourne, Chinese travelling outside of New South Wales had to obtain special re-entry certificates. In 1855, Victoria enacted the Chinese Immigration Act 1855, severely limiting the number of Chinese passengers permitted on an arriving vesselAustralian gold rushes – Gold diggings, Ararat, Victoria circa 1854
26. Pennsylvania oil rush – The Pennsylvania oil rush was a boom in petroleum production which occurred in northwestern Pennsylvania from 1859 to the early 1870s. It was the first oil boom in the United States, the oil rush began in Titusville, Pennsylvania, in the Oil Creek Valley when Colonel Edwin L. Drake struck rock oil there. Titusville and other towns on the shores of Oil Creek expanded rapidly as oil wells, Oil quickly became one of the most valuable commodities in the United States and railroads expanded into Western Pennsylvania to ship petroleum to the rest of the country. By the mid-1870s, the oil industry was established. Pennsylvania oil production peaked in 1891, and was surpassed by western states such as Texas and California. Before petroleum was used as a fuel, oil had many uses, in Pennsylvania, the Native American tribes had been using oil from seeps for several centuries. These oil seeps, which are areas where oil spontaneously escapes the earth in gas or liquid form, were common across northern Pennsylvania. As the frontier expanded into Western Pennsylvania during the 18th century, the became known for the oil beneath its surface, and maps of the era displayed the label “Petroleum. ”With few uses for crude oil. Crude oil began to be used as an alternative to oil for lamps. With petroleum seeps popping up across western Pennsylvania, it became difficult for other extractive industries and this business was popular in the area at the time but with oil from the seeps spilling into the wells, it became much more difficult. In 1849 Samuel Kier began extracting oil from the wells on his property. Upon further examination, Kier recognized that the oil being prescribed to his wife was the same in chemistry as the oil found in his wells. Kier sold his oil as a remedy and grew wealthy, other uses for Kier’s oil were explored. In the 1850s Kier began to drill for oil rather than separating it from salt water. After extracting the oil drilling, Kier joined up with John T. Kirkpatrick to build the first refinery. Soon Kier and Kirkpatrick distilled oil that could be used for lighting, for years after, Kier improved the crude oil refining process to produce the cleanest and most efficient lighting oil. He called his oil “carbon oil. ”To accompany his refined oil and this could have been profitable to Kier, but he never patented his lamp. News of Kier’s experiments spread, and George Bissell, a lawyer from New York, in 1854, Bissell commissioned a study from Yale chemist Benjamin Silliman, Jr. to assess the viability of harvesting oil in western PennsylvaniaPennsylvania oil rush – A Pennsylvanian oil field in 1862.
27. Petroleum – Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earths surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation and it consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other organic compounds. The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock, Petroleum has mostly been recovered by oil drilling. Drilling is carried out studies of structural geology, sedimentary basin analysis. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a variety of materials. Concern over the depletion of the earths finite reserves of oil, the burning of fossil fuels plays the major role in the current episode of global warming. The word petroleum comes from Greek, πέτρα for rocks and Greek, the term was found in 10th-century Old English sources. It was used in the treatise De Natura Fossilium, published in 1546 by the German mineralogist Georg Bauer, Petroleum, in one form or another, has been used since ancient times, and is now important across society, including in economy, politics and technology. Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus, ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society. By 347 AD, oil was produced from bamboo-drilled wells in China, early British explorers to Myanmar documented a flourishing oil extraction industry based in Yenangyaung that, in 1795, had hundreds of hand-dug wells under production. The mythological origins of the oil fields at Yenangyaung, and its hereditary monopoly control by 24 families, Pechelbronn is said to be the first European site where petroleum has been explored and used. The still active Erdpechquelle, a spring where petroleum appears mixed with water has been used since 1498, Oil sands have been mined since the 18th century. In Wietze in lower Saxony, natural asphalt/bitumen has been explored since the 18th century, both in Pechelbronn as in Wietze, the coal industry dominated the petroleum technologies. In 1848 Young set up a small business refining the crude oil, Young eventually succeeded, by distilling cannel coal at a low heat, in creating a fluid resembling petroleum, which when treated in the same way as the seep oil gave similar products. The production of oils and solid paraffin wax from coal formed the subject of his patent dated 17 October 1850. In 1850 Young & Meldrum and Edward William Binney entered into partnership under the title of E. W. Binney & Co. at Bathgate in West Lothian, the worlds first oil refinery was built in 1856 by Ignacy Łukasiewicz. The demand for petroleum as a fuel for lighting in North America, edwin Drakes 1859 well near Titusville, Pennsylvania, is popularly considered the first modern wellPetroleum – Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas
28. Pennsylvania – Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading, Lebanon and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, Bethlehem, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, Philadelphia, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware. Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in AmericaPennsylvania – World's End State Park, Sullivan County
29. Otago Gold Rush – The Otago Gold Rush was a gold rush that occurred during the 1860s in Central Otago, New Zealand. This was the countrys biggest gold strike, and led to an influx of foreign miners to the area - many of them veterans of other hunts for the precious metal in California and Victoria, Australia. Only a few later, most of the smaller new settlements were deserted. Previously gold had been found in quantities in the Coromandel Peninsula. In September 1852, Charles Ring, a merchant, claimed the prize for a find in Coromandel. The rush lasted only three months. Māori had long known of the existence of gold in Central Otago, for a precious material they relied on greenstone for weaponry and tools, and used greenstone, obsidian and bone carving for jewellery. The first known European Otago gold find was at Goodwood, near Palmerston in October 1851, the find was of a very small amount with no ensuing rush. Instead, the settlement of Dunedin was just three years old, and more practical matters were of importance to the young town. Other finds around the Mataura River in 1856 and the Dunstan Range in 1858 stirred minimal interest and it was two months later that the a gold strike was made that prompted a major influx of prospectors. The public heard about Reads find via a letter published in the Otago Witness on 8 June 1861, with this statement, the gold rush began. By Christmas 14,000 prospectors were on the Tuapeka and Waipori fields, within a year, the regions population swelled greatly, growing by 400 per cent between 1861 and 1864, with prospectors swarming from the dwindling Australian goldfields. Gabriel’s Gully led to the discovery of further goldfields within Central Otago, the Arthurs Point strike led to the largest rush that occurred in Otago. By the end of 1863, the gold rush was over. The number of miners reached its maximum of 18,000 in February 1864, read’s find of gold sparked the interest of people at Dunedin others, people traveled long distances in the hope of striking it rich. These goldfields all gave rise to mining towns and communities of temporarily shops, hotels, as the scope of the goldfields developed, communities became more permanent with buildings constructed in timber and concrete. A restored Chinese Village at Arrowtown is a popular tourist attraction, the news of gold at Gabriel’s Gully reached the inhabitants of Dunedin and the rest of the world, prospectors immediately left their homes in search of gold. The majority of these prospectors were labourers and tradesmen, in their late teensOtago Gold Rush – Old gold workings, St. Bathans, Otago
30. Central Otago – Central Otago is an informal name for the inland part of the Otago region in the South Island of New Zealand. The area commonly known as Central Otago includes both the Central Otago District and the Queenstown-Lakes District to its west, the motto for the area is A World of Difference. The area is dominated by mountain ranges and the reaches of the Clutha River. The wide flat plateau of the Maniototo which lies between the upper reaches of the Taieri River and the Cluthas northern tributary the Manuherikia is also considered part of Central Otago. Characterised by cold winters and hot, dry summers, the area is lightly populated, although there has recently been considerable development around the tourist towns of Queenstown. First significant European occupation came with the discovery of gold at Gabriels Gully near Lawrence in 1861, which led to the Central Otago goldrush. Other towns and villages include Albert Town, Alexandra, Arrowtown, Bannockburn, Clyde, Cromwell, Hawea, Millers Flat, Naseby, Omakau, Ranfurly, Roxburgh, St. Bathans, and Wedderburn. Since the 19th century, most of the economic activity has centred on sheep, stone fruit. In recent years, deer farms and vineyards have increased the economic diversification. Central Otago is the worlds southernmost commercial wine production region, Central Otago is a land of extremes, it is the coldest, driest part of New Zealand. The seasons are defined, summers are hot and low in humidity, winter mornings are often misty, the days cloudless and windless. Alexandra, for example, has the lowest average rainfall recorded anywhere in New Zealand, is the least windy and has 148 frosts annually. Spring warms the soil and fruit tree blossom dominates the district’s orchard areas, temperatures range from minus 3 to 20 deg C, with 10 frosts a month. Average rainfall is 28mm a month and sunshine 206 hours, in summer, daylight lasts as long as 10pm. Temperatures range from 10 to plus 30 deg C on several days, rainfall averages 38mm a month and sunshine is 227 hours. Autumn is brilliant as the orchards and poplar shelterbelts turn red, yellow. Temperatures range from minus 3 to 24 deg C, rainfall averages 30mm a month with 11 frosts monthly and 150 hours of sunshine. Winter brings a range of minus 6 to 15 deg CCentral Otago – T. Gilchrist & Sons - boasts being the oldest existing shop in New Zealand, established 1902, and since 1987 operated by a community trust (but still working as a normal grocery).
31. Steamboats of the Colorado River – Steamboats were tried on the upper Colorado River, in Glen Canyon, on the Green River in Utah and Wyoming, and on the Grand River, above its confluence with the Green River in Utah and in Colorado. These attempts in the late 19th Century and early 20th Century met with little success, the beginnings of the use of steamboats on the Colorado River came as the result of the founding of Fort Yuma during the Yuma War. Costs of such transport was minimally $500 per ton, supplying the fort became so difficult, that for a time it had to be abandoned. Attempts had been made by the Army to bring supplies the 150 miles up from the Gulf of California, first in November 1850 to January 1851, by its transport schooner, Invincible under Captain Alfred H. Wilcox and then by its longboat commanded by Lieutenant George Derby. Later Lieutenant Derby, in his report, recommended that a shallow draft sternwheel steamboat would be the way to send supplies up river to the fort. On board were 250 tons of supplies for the newly reoccupied fort and these they assembled to be poled up the Colorado. However the first barge sank with its cargo a total loss, the second was finally, after a long struggle poled up to Fort Yuma, but what little it carried was soon consumed by the garrison. Subsequently wagons again were sent from the fort to haul the balance of the supplies overland from the estuary through the marshes and woodlands of the Delta. Both of these attempts on the river failed in the face of extreme tides in the estuary or strong currents, hauling supplies from the estuary worked but was less satisfactory than the 185 mile San Diego route over land. Firstly it was a violation of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo for American troops to intrude into Mexican territory, secondly, on top of already costly land shipping was the prospect of the additional expense of Mexican custom duties that would be levied on anything landed on Mexican territory. In November 1852, the Uncle Sam, a 65-foot long side-wheel paddle steamer, also built by Domingo Marcucci and it was brought by the schooner Capacity from San Francisco to the delta by the next contractor to supply the fort, Captain James Turnbull. It was assembled and launched in the estuary,30 miles above the mouth of the Colorado River, equipped with only a 20 horsepower engine, the Uncle Sam could only carry 35 tons of supplies, taking 15 days to make the first 120 mile trip. It made many trips up and down the river, taking four months to finish carrying the supplies for the fort, negligence caused it to sink at its dock below Fort Yuma, and was then washed away before it could be raised, in the spring flood of 1853. Turnbull who meanwhile had returned to the Delta from San Francisco with another cargo and he returned for a new hull, while the army sent wagons to recover the cargo from the delta again. However, Turnbull in financial difficulty, disappeared from the city leaving creditors unpaid, nevertheless, Turnbull had shown the worth of steamboats to solve Fort Yumas supply problem. In late 1852, George Alonzo Johnson with his partner Hartshorne, there it was reassembled at a landing in the upper tidewater of the river and reached Fort Yuma, January 18,1854. This new boat, capable of carrying 50 tons of cargo, was very successful making round trips from the estuary to the fort in only four or five days, costs were cut to $75 per ton. A second reason for the speed of the new steamboat beside its powerful engine was the establishment of the wood-yards along the river between the delta and Fort YumaSteamboats of the Colorado River – Yuma and Fort Yuma across the Colorado River (circa 1875 lithograph). Steamboat is downriver from the ferry crossing that is equipped with poles on both banks to raise the ferry's tow cables above the smokestacks of passing steamboats.
32. Southwestern United States – The population of the area is around 11 million people, with over half that in Arizona, the most populous cities are Phoenix, El Paso, Las Vegas, Albuquerque, and Tucson. Most of the area was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in the Spanish Empire before becoming part of Mexico and it became part of the United States through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Gadsden Purchase. The deserts dominate the southern and western reaches of the area, the two major rivers of the region are the Colorado River, running in the northern and western areas, and the Rio Grande, running in the south. Formed approximately 8000 years ago, the Chihuahuan Desert is a dry desert. The Chihuahuan Desert spreads across the portion of the region, covering from southeastern Arizona, across southern New Mexico. While it is the second largest desert in the United States, only a third of the desert is within the United States, El Paso is the major city in this desert, with other smaller cities being Las Cruces and Roswell in New Mexico. The Chihuahuan is a rain shadow desert, formed two mountain ranges which block oceanic precipitation from reaching the area. The most prolific plants in this region are agave, yucca and creosote bushes, when people think of the desert southwest, the landscape of the Sonoran Desert is what mostly comes to mind. Rainfall averages between 4–12 inches per year, and the deserts most widely known inhabitant is the saguaro cactus and it is bounded on the northwest by the Mojave Desert, to the north by the Colorado Plateau and to the east by the Arizona Mountains forests and the Chihuahuan Desert. The portion of the Sonora Desert which lies in the Southwestern United States is the most populated area within the region. Six of the top ten major population centers of the region are found within its borders, Phoenix, Tucson, Mesa, Chandler, Glendale, also within its borders are Yuma and Prescott Arizona. The most northwest portion of the American Southwest is covered by the Mojave Desert, bordered on the south by the Sonoran Desert and the east by the Colorado Plateau, its range within the region makes up the southeast tip of Nevada, and the northwestern corner of Arizona. In terms of topography, the Mojave is very similar to the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave is the smallest, driest and hottest desert within the United States. The Mojave gets less than six inches of rain annually, the most prolific vegetation is the tall Joshua tree, which grow as tall as 40 feet, and are thought to live almost 1000 years. Other major vegetation includes the Parry saltbush and the Mojave sage, the Colorado Plateau varies from the large stands of forests in the west, including the largest stand of ponderosa pine trees in the world, to the Mesas to the east. Although not called a desert, the Colorado Plateau is mostly made up of high desert, the Plateau is characterized by a series of plateaus and mesas, interspersed with canyons. The most dramatic example is the Grand Canyon, but that is one of many dramatic vistas included within the Plateau, which includes spectacular lava formations, painted deserts, sand dunes, and badlands. One of the most distinctive features of the Plateau is its longevity, the Plateau can be divided into six sections, three of which fall into the Southwest regionSouthwestern United States – Panoramic view of the southwestern United States.
33. West Coast, New Zealand – The West Coast is a region of New Zealand on the west coast of the South Island, one of the more remote and most sparsely populated areas of the country. It is administered by the West Coast Regional Council, at the territorial authority level, the region comprises Buller District, Grey District and Westland District. The principal towns are Westport, Greymouth, and Hokitika, fiordland is on the west coast, but is in the Southland Region rather than the West Coast Region. Inhabitants of the West Coast are colloquially known as Coasters, the region reaches from Kahurangi Point in the north to Awarua Point in the south, a distance of 600 km. To the west is the Tasman Sea, and to the east are the Southern Alps, much of the land is rugged, with a coastal plain where much of the population resides. The land is very scenic, with wild coastlines, mountains, scenic areas include the Haast Pass, Fox and Franz Josef Glaciers, the Pancake Rocks at Punakaiki and the Heaphy Track. The region has a high rainfall due to the prevailing northwesterly wind pattern and the location of the Southern Alps. The rain shadow effect is responsible for the arid climate of the Canterbury Plains on the other side of the Southern Alps. The regions area is 23,276 km2 and it is divided into the three districts of Buller, Grey and Westland. Industries on the West Coast include mining for coal and alluvial gold, forestry and wood processing, dairy farming has grown strongly - the local dairy co-operatives Westland Milk Products remained independent when most others merged to form Fonterra in 2001. Other industries are the manufacturing and sales of greenstone jewellery, sphagnum moss gathering, the sub-national GDP of the region was estimated at US$779 million in 2003, 1% of national GDP. The region is home to Māori, who valued it for the greenstone found there in abundance, the region was only occasionally visited by Europeans until the discovery of gold near the Taramakau River in 1864 by two Māori, Ihaia Tainui and Haimona Taukau. By the end of the year there were an estimated 1800 prospectors, many of them around the Hokitika area, after that time, the population dwindled, but the main towns that still exist had become established. Following greenstone and gold, the valuable mineral was coal. Discovered near the Buller River in the mid-1840s, mining began in earnest during the 1860s, by the 1880s coal had become the region’s main industry, with mines throughout the northern half of the region, especially around Westport. Many of these continued in operation until the mid-20th century, timber has also long been a major industry, although in recent years there has been an uneasy balance between forestry for wood and forestry for conservation. Much of the region is public land administered by the Department of Conservation, ecotourism is now an important industry, and this goes hand in hand with the conservation efforts. The region is populated, especially in the south, with the 2006 census recording 31,326 inhabitants, up from 30,303 in 2001West Coast, New Zealand – Pancake Rocks, Punakaiki
34. Lapland (Finland) – Lapland is the largest and northernmost region of Finland. The municipalities in the region cooperate in a Regional Council, Lapland borders the region of Northern Ostrobothnia in the south. It also borders the Gulf of Bothnia, Norrbotten County in Sweden, Finnmark County and Troms County in Norway, and Murmansk Oblast and the Republic of Karelia in Russia. The area of Lapland region is 100,367 km², which consists of 92,667 km²of dry land,6,316 km² fresh water and 1,383 km² of sea areas. In south it borders Northern Ostrobothnia region, in west Sweden, in north and west Norway and its borders follow three rivers, Tana, Muonio and Torne. The largest lake is Lake Inari,1,102 km², highest point is on Halti, which reaches 1,324 m on Finnish side of the border. There are eight national parks in Lapland, Bothnian Bay, Lemmenjoki, Oulanka, Pallas-Yllästunturi, Pyhä-Luosto, Riisitunturi, Syöte, the very first snowflakes fall to the ground in late August or early September over the higher peaks. The first ground-covering snow arrives in average in October or late September, permanent snow cover comes between mid-October and end of November, significantly earlier than in southern Finland. The winter is long, approximately seven months, the snow cover is usually thickest in early April. Soon after that the snow starts to melt fast. The thickest snow cover ever was measured in Kilpisjärvi in 19 April 1997, due to the warming effect of the Arctic Sea, the coldest spot is not located in northernmost Lapland but in the north-western corner. The annual mean temperature varies from a couple of degrees below zero in Northwest to a couple of degrees above zero in the southwest, the area of Lapland was split between two counties of the Swedish Realm from 1634 to 1809. The northern and western areas were part of Västerbotten County, while the areas were part of Ostrobothnia County. The northern and western areas were transferred in 1809 to Oulu County, under the royalist constitution of Finland during the first half of 1918, Lapland was to become a Grand Principality and part of the inheritance of the proposed king of Finland. Lapland Province was separated from Oulu Province in 1938, during the Interim Peace and beginning of the Continuation War the government of Finland allowed the Nazi German Army to station itself in Lapland as a part of Operation Barbarossa. After Finland made a peace with the Soviet Union in 1944. The result was the Lapland War, during which almost the whole population of Lapland was evacuated. The Germans used scorched earth tactics in Lapland, before they withdrew to Norway, ninety percent of Rovaniemi, the capital of Lapland, was burned to the ground, with only a few pre-war buildings surviving the destructionLapland (Finland) – First Finnish gold euro commemorative coin
35. Petroleum industry in Azerbaijan – The petroleum industry in Azerbaijan produces about 873,260 barrels of oil per day and 29 billion cubic meters of gas per year as of 2013. Azerbaijan is one of the birthplaces of the oil industry and its history is linked to the fortunes of petroleum. It is poised to become an important oil and gas producer once again, in 1871, Ivan Mirzoev, an ethnic Armenian who was then an otkupchina monopolist, built the first wooden oil derrick followed by another the next year. Drilling was conducted primitively with an arm, whim and manual pump. There is evidence of petroleum being used in trade as early as the 3rd, information on the production of oil on the Apsheron peninsula can be found in the manuscripts of most Arabic and Persian authors. This oil is not good to eat, but it is good for burning and as a salve for men, men come from a long distance to fetch this oil, and in all the neighborhood no other oil is burnt but this. The first detailed description of the Baku oil industry was made by Engelbert Kaempfer, in his notes he confirms the existence of places where natural gas discharges to the surface. Kaempfer describes flaming steppe as follows, it and it was occupying the territory of 88 steps in length and 26 in width. Many 18th and 19th century European accounts of the Caucasus refer to the Fire Temple of Baku at Suraxanı raion, in 1806, the Russian empire occupied Baku Khanate and took monopolistic control of oil production. Later exclusive rights to produce oil were given to individuals, thereby creating the Persian otkupchina lease system, Oil extraction methods in those times were very primitive —mainly hand-dug wells, drilled to very shallow depths. The production volume of those years can be judged from data provided in 1842 by the Caspian Chamber of the Department of State Property Ministry. As a result of monopoly and the absence of growing demand. In 1813, the number of producing wells was 116, then 125 in 1825,120 in 1850, otkupschina system meant that oil production was monopolized by set of individuals who saw no incentive to increase production or improve drilling methods. In 1846, under the supervision of state advisor V. N, semyonov engineer Alekseev drilled a 21 m deep well using a primitive percussion drilling mechanism, in Bibiheybət to explore for oil, with positive results. More than a later, on August 27,1859. A small petrochemical industry sprung up around Baku, as demand for kerosene soared locally, vasily Kokorev, Peter Gubonin and German baron N. E. Tornow built the first kerosene factory in Surakhany, the factory was used to produce kerosene out of kir, an asphalt-like substance. Vitte, a Tiflis pharmacist, built the second paraffin-producing factory on Pirallahi Island, as a result, there was flurry of financial activity and various bank societies and organization were createdPetroleum industry in Azerbaijan – Onshore oil fields in Azerbaijan
36. Azerbaijan – Azerbaijan, officially the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a country in the South Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Southwest Asia and Southeastern Europe. It is bound by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south. The exclave of Nakhchivan is bound by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence in 1918 and became the first democratic state in the Muslim orient world. The country was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1920 as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, the modern Republic of Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991, prior to the official dissolution of the USSR in December 1991. In September 1991, the Armenian majority of the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region seceded to form the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, the region and seven adjacent districts outside it became de facto independent with the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994. These regions are recognized as part of Azerbaijan pending a solution to the status of the Nagorno-Karabakh. Azerbaijan is a unitary semi-presidential republic, the country is a member state of the Council of Europe, the OSCE and the NATO Partnership for Peace program. It is one of six independent Turkic states, a member of the Turkic Council. Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with 158 countries and holds membership in 38 international organizations and it is one of the founding members of GUAM, the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Its term of office began on 19 June 2006, Azerbaijan is also a member state of the Non-Aligned Movement, holds observer status in World Trade Organization and is a correspondent at the International Telecommunication Union. The Constitution of Azerbaijan does not declare an official religion and all political forces in the country are secularist. However, the majority of the population are of a Shiite Muslim background, Azerbaijan has a high level of human development which ranks on par with most Eastern European countries. It has a rate of economic development and literacy, as well as a low rate of unemployment. According to the Davos World Economic Forum, Azerbaijans economy has scored 37th place within 138 countries in 2016, Global Competitiveness Index 2015 indicates that Azerbaijan scores highest in its region. ASAN services, established with Presidential Decree, are known for eliminating bribery. ASAN Service has been awarded with United Nations Public Service Award 2015, the ruling party, the New Azerbaijan Party, has been accused of authoritarianism and human rights abuses. The original etymology of name is thought to have its roots in the once-dominant Zoroastrianism. In the Avesta, Frawardin Yasht, there is a mention of âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide, the name Atropates itself is the Greek transliteration of an Old Iranian, probably Median, compounded name with the meaning Protected by the Fire or The Land of the FireAzerbaijan – Petroglyphs in Gobustan dating back to 10,000 BC indicating a thriving culture. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered to be of "outstanding universal value"
37. Black Hills Gold Rush – The Black Hills Gold Rush took place in Dakota Territory in the United States. It began in 1874 following the Custer Expedition and reached a peak in 1876-77, rumors and poorly documented reports of gold in the Black Hills go back to the early 19th century. In the 1860s, Roman Catholic missionary Father De Smet is reported to have seen Sioux Indians carrying gold which they told him came from the Black Hills, prior to the Gold Rush, the Black Hills were used by Native Americans. The United States government recognized the Black Hills as belonging to the Sioux by the Treaty of Laramie in 1868, despite being within Indian territory, and therefore off-limits, white Americans were increasingly interested in the gold-mining possibilities of the Black Hills. Prospectors found gold in 1874 near present-day Custer, South Dakota, the tale of first gold discovery in the Black Hills was thrown into question in 1887 by the discovery of what has become known as the Thoen Stone. Many of the miners came up the Missouri River from Kansas, the Black Hills Gold Rush began in 1874. The first arrivals were a force of 1000 men led by George Armstrong Custer to investigate reports that the area contained gold and they found small amounts of gold in present-day Custer, South Dakota, and looked for better-paying locations. They moved north, establishing the towns of Hill City, Sheridan, at each spot, they found flakes of gold, but not the bonanza they sought. Things changed when the miners stumbled across Deadwood and Whitewood Creeks in the northern Black Hills, for the initial discoverers, each spade of earth revealed a veritable fortune in gold. By 1876, miners had claimed all the land around the creeks, although all the land was claimed, thousands more flocked in, hoping to find a missed spot. The gold the miners found was placer gold, loose gold pieces that were mixed in with the rocks, most good prospectors knew that this placer gold was eroded from hard-rock deposits. So while many still flocked to Deadwood, others looked for the deposits that were the source of the placer gold. On April 9,1876 Fred and Moses Manuel, Hank Harney and Alex Engh discovered an outcropping near Lead, South Dakota, they claimed their find. They had located the area from which the gold in Deadwood Creek had eroded. Here, the men produced 10% of the gold supply over the next 125 years. Many more prospectors hoped to find another Homestake so they continued to look, the workers crushed the rock to release the gold, concentrated the gold by gravity methods, and then exposed the concentrate to mercury that would amalgamate or mix with the gold. Miners call this kind of gold extraction free milling, Gold existed elsewhere in the Black Hills, but it was not in the free-milling state. In these conditions, gold was chemically bound to the rock and it was called refractory gold oreBlack Hills Gold Rush – The Homestake Mine in 1889
38. Dakota Territory – The name refers to the Dakota branch of the Sioux tribes which occupied the area at the time. Most of Dakota Territory was formerly part of the Minnesota and Nebraska territories, when Minnesota became a state in 1858, the leftover area between the Missouri River and Minnesotas western boundary fell unorganized. Three years later President-elect Abraham Lincolns cousin-in-law, J. B. S, todd, personally lobbied for territory status and the U. S. Congress formally created Dakota Territory. It became a territory on March 2,1861. Upon creation, Dakota Territory included much of present-day Montana and Wyoming as well as all of present-day North Dakota and South Dakota, the Department of the Northwest sent expeditions into Dakota Territory in 1863,1864 and 1865. It also established forts in Dakota Territory to protect the settlements of the Territory, Iowa and Minnesota. Following the Civil War, hostilities continued with the Sioux until the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie, by 1868, creation of new territories reduced Dakota Territory to the present boundaries of the Dakotas. Territorial counties were defined in 1872, including Bottineau County, Cass County, during the existence of the organized territory, the population first increased very slowly and then very rapidly with the Dakota Boom from 1870 to 1880. Because the Sioux were considered hostile and a threat to early settlers. Gradually, the population grew and the Sioux were not considered as severe a threat. The population increase can largely be attributed to the growth of the Northern Pacific Railroad, settlers who came to the Dakota Territory were from other western territories as well as many from northern and western Europe. These included large numbers of Norwegians, Germans, Swedes, commerce was originally organized around the fur trade. Furs were carried by steamboat along the rivers to the settlements, gold was discovered in the Black Hills in 1874 and attracted more settlers, setting off the last Sioux War. The population surge increased the demand for meat spurring expanded cattle ranching on the territorys vast open ranges, with the advent of the railroad agriculture intensified, wheat became the territorys main cash crop. Economic hardship hit the territory in the 1880s due to lower wheat prices, the territorial capital was Yankton from 1861 until 1883, when it was moved to Bismarck. The Dakota Territory was divided into the states of North Dakota, the admission of two states, as opposed to one, was done for a number of reasons. The two population centers in the territory were in the northeast and southeast corners of the territory, on a national level, there was pressure from the Republican Party to admit two states to add to their political power in the Senate. Admission of new states was a party political battleground with each party looking at how the proposed new states were likely to voteDakota Territory – Dakota territory historical coat of arms (illustrated, 1876)
39. Patagonian sheep farming boom – In late 19th and early 20th century sheep farming expanded across the Patagonian grasslands making the southern regions of Argentina and Chile one of the worlds foremost sheep farming areas. The sheep farming boom attracted thousands of immigrants from Chiloé and Europe to southern Patagonia, early sheep farming in Patagonia was oriented towards wool production but changed over time with the development of industrial refrigerators towards meat export. Besides altering the demographic and economic outlook of Southern Patagonia the sheep farming boom also changed the steppe ecosystem, sheep farming in Patagonia was carried out in a estancia system. Each of these estancias was administered from a casco central where administrators, foremen, sociedad Explotadora de Magallanes possessed more than 200,000 sheep by 1901. In 1843 Chile established a colony in Brunswick Peninsula to assert sovereignty over the strategic Strait of Magellan, early sheep herding activity in the Chilean colony was very modest. The first men to realize the potential for large-scale sheep herding in the lands around the Strait of Magellan were a group of British immigrants that settled in Punta Arenas in the 1870s. The first successful attempt at farming in the Straits of Magellan is credited to the Englishman Henry Reynard who raised sheep in 1877 on Isabel Island. These sheep were brought to the Straits of Magellan by Chilean governor Diego Dublé Almeida who travelled specifically for purpose to the Falkland Islands Chacabuco in 1876. In Port Stanley he bought 300 sheep and back in Chile he sold them to Henry Reynard, by 1878 this first sheep-raising experiment was considered a success and it created a huge demand for land among individuals who attempted to establish their own sheep-raising businesses. All the best sheep-herding areas along the Strait had been leased or reserved by 1884, the sheep farming boom altered not only the demographic and economic outlook of Southern Patagonia, but also changed the steppe ecosystem. Research suggests that sheep excrement might have caused eutrophication of lagoons like Potrok Aike, the Strait of Magellan and the Atlantic coast were covered by natural grasslands so no clearing of forests occurred during the introduction of sheep. Amazon rubber boom Argentine beef New Zealand wool boom Patagonia rebeldePatagonian sheep farming boom – Economic history
40. Wool – Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids. Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur, it is crimped, Wool is produced by follicles which are small cells located in the skin. These follicles are located in the layer of the skin called the epidermis. Follicles can be classed as primary or secondary follicles. Primary follicles produce three types of fiber, Kemp, medullated fibers and true wool fibers, secondary follicles only produce true wool fibers. Medullated fibers share nearly identical characteristics to hair and are long but lack crimp, Kemp fibers are very coarse and shed out. Wools scaling and crimp make it easier to spin the fleece by helping the individual fibers attach to each other, because of the crimp, wool fabrics have greater bulk than other textiles, and they hold air, which causes the fabric to retain heat. Wool has a specific heat coefficient, so it impedes heat transfer in general. This effect has benefited desert peoples, as Bedouins and Tuaregs use wool clothes for insulation, felting of wool occurs upon hammering or other mechanical agitation as the microscopic barbs on the surface of wool fibers hook together. The amount of crimp corresponds to the fineness of the wool fibers, a fine wool like Merino may have up to 100 crimps per inch, while coarser wool like karakul may have as few as one or two. In contrast, hair has little if any scale and no crimp, on sheep, the hair part of the fleece is called kemp. Wool fibers readily absorb moisture, but are not hollow, Wool can absorb almost one-third of its own weight in water. Wool absorbs sound like many other fabrics and it is generally a creamy white color, although some breeds of sheep produce natural colors, such as black, brown, silver, and random mixes. Wool ignites at a higher temperature than cotton and some synthetic fibers, Wool carpets are specified for high safety environments, such as trains and aircraft. Wool is usually specified for garments for firefighters, soldiers, Wool is considered by the medical profession to be allergenic. Sheep shearing is the process by which the fleece of a sheep is cut off. After shearing, the wool is separated into four categories, fleece, broken, bellies. In Australia before being auctioned, all Merino fleece wool is objectively measured for micron, yield, staple length, staple strength, the sheep is given a dip in antiseptic solution after shearing, so as to cure the wounds caused during shearingWool – Wool just before processing
41. Mutton – Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep at different ages. A sheep in its first year is called a lamb, the meat of a juvenile sheep older than one year is hogget, outside North America this is also a term for the living animal. The meat of a sheep is mutton, a term only used for the meat. The term mutton is almost always used to refer to meat in the Indian subcontinent. Lamb is the most expensive of the three types, and in recent decades sheep meat is increasingly only retailed as lamb, sometimes stretching the accepted distinctions given above. The stronger-tasting mutton is now hard to find in many areas, in Australia, the term prime lamb is often used to refer to lambs raised for meat. The definitions for lamb, hogget and mutton vary considerably between countries, younger lambs are smaller and more tender. Mutton is meat from a sheep over two old, and has less tender flesh. In general, the darker the colour, the older the animal, baby lamb meat will be pale pink, while regular lamb is pinkish-red. Lamb — a young sheep under 12 months of age which does not have any permanent incisor teeth in wear, hogget — A term for a sheep of either sex having no more than two permanent incisors in wear, or its meat. Still common in farming usage, it is now rare as a domestic or retail term for the meat, Much of the lamb sold in the UK is hogget to an Antipodean farmer. Mutton — a female or castrated male sheep having more than two permanent incisors in wear, under United States law, lamb is defined in terms of mutton, The term lamb means meat, other than mutton, produced from sheep. Under current federal regulations, only the lamb is used, Lamb — ovine animals of any age, including ewes and rams The terms mutton. Nevertheless, the use of lamb in the United States may be confusing. Under the previous definition, lamb meant meat, other than mutton, the term mutton is applied to goat meat in most of these countries, and the goat population has been rising. For example, mutton-curry is always made from goat meat and it is estimated that over one-third of the goat population is slaughtered every year and sold as mutton. The flavour and texture of milk-fed lamb when grilled or roasted is generally thought to be finer than that of older lamb, the areas in northern Spain where this can be found include Asturias, Cantabria, Castile and León, and La Rioja. Milk-fed lambs are prized for Easter in Greece, when they are roasted on a spitMutton – Lamb
42. Patagonia – Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile. The region comprises the section of the Andes mountains as well as the deserts, steppes. Patagonia has two coasts, a western one towards the Pacific Ocean and an eastern one towards the Atlantic Ocean, the Colorado and Barrancas rivers, which run from the Andes to the Atlantic, are commonly considered the northern limit of Argentine Patagonia. The archipelago of Tierra del Fuego is sometimes included as part of Patagonia, most geographers and historians locate the northern limit of Chilean Patagonia at Reloncaví Estuary. The name Patagonia comes from the word used by Magellan in 1520 to describe the native people that his expedition thought to be giants. It is now believed that the people he called the Patagons were Tehuelches, the hypothesis was accepted and published in the New Review of Spanish Philology in the 2011 article. In the hollows of the plains are ponds or lakes of fresh and brackish water, towards the Andes, the shingle gives place to porphyry, granite, and basalt lavas, animal life becomes more abundant and vegetation more luxuriant. It is characteristic of the flora of the western coast, and consist principally of southern beech and conifers. Among the depressions by which the plateau is intersected transversely, the ones are the Gualichu, south of the Río Negro, the Maquinchao and Valcheta, the Senguerr. There, erosion which is caused principally by the sudden melting, best in evidence where in contact with folded Cretaceous rocks which are uplifted by the Cenozoic granite. It generally separates the plateau from the first lofty hills, the ridges generally called the pre-Cordillera, to the west of these, a similar longitudinal depression extends all along the foot of the snowy Andean Cordillera. This latter depression contains the richest and most fertile land of Patagonia, Lake basins along the Cordillera were also excavated by ice-streams, including Lake Argentino and Lake Fagnano, as well as coastal bays such as Bahía Inútil. There have been discrepancies among geologists on the origin of the Patagonian landmass, víctor Ramos has proposed that the Patagonian landmass originated as an allochtonous terrane that separated from Antarctica and docked in South America 250 to 270 Ma in the Permian era. A2014 study by Robert John Pankhurst and coworkers reject any idea of a far-travelled Patagonia claiming it is likely of parautochtonous origin, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits have revealed a most interesting vertebrate fauna. The Patagonian Myolania belongs to the Upper Chalk, having been associated with remains of Dinosauria. In the Cenozoic marine formation, a number of cetaceans has been discovered. At a state level, Patagonia lies inside two countries, Chile and Argentina, both countries have organised their Patagonian territories into non-equivalent administrative subdivisions, Provinces and departments in Argentina, and regions, provinces and communes in Chile. Being a unitary state Chiles first level administrative divisions—the regions—enjoy far less autonomy than Argentine provinces, Argentine provinces have elected governors and parliaments, while Chilean regions have government-appointed intendantsPatagonia – Patagonia
43. Cripple Creek, Colorado – The City of Cripple Creek is the Statutory City that is the county seat of Teller County, Colorado, United States. The city population was 1,189 at the 2010 United States Census, Cripple Creek is a former gold mining camp located 44 miles southwest of Colorado Springs near the base of Pikes Peak. The Cripple Creek Historic District, which received National Historic Landmark status in 1961, includes part or all of city, the city is now a part of the Colorado Springs, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area. For many years Cripple Creeks high valley, at an elevation of 9,494 feet, was considered no more important than a cattle pasture, many prospectors avoided the area after the Mount Pisgah hoax, a mini gold rush caused by salting. On the 20th of October,1890, Robert Miller Bob Womack discovered a rich ore, thousands of prospectors flocked to the region, and before long Winfield Scott Stratton located the famous Independence lode, one of the largest gold strikes in history. In three years, the population increased from five hundred to ten thousand by 1893, although $500 million worth of gold ore was dug from Cripple Creek, Womack died penniless on 10 August 1909. In 1896 Cripple Creek suffered two disastrous fires, the first occurred on April 25 destroying half of the city including much of the business district. Four days later another fire destroyed much of the remaining half, the city was rebuilt in a period of a few months, most historic buildings today date back to 1896. By 1900, Cripple Creek and its city, Victor, were substantial mining communities. During the 1890s, many of the miners in the Cripple Creek area joined a miners union, the Western Federation of Miners. By 1903, the allegiance of the government had shifted. The WFM strike of 1903 and the governors response precipitated the Colorado Labor Wars, through 2005, the Cripple Creek district produced about 23.5 million troy ounces of gold. The underground mines are mostly idle, except for a few small operations, there are significant underground deposits remaining which may become feasible to mine in the future. The current mining operation is conducted by Cripple Creek and Victor Gold Mining Company ran currently by Newmont Mining, the mine operates 24 hours a day,365 days a year. Mine operations, maintenance, and processing departments work a rotating day/night schedule in 12-hour shifts, with many empty storefronts and picturesque homes, Cripple Creek once drew interest as a ghost town. At one point the population dropped to a few hundred, although Cripple Creek was never entirely deserted, in the 1970s and 1980s travelers on photo safari might find themselves in a beautiful decaying historic town. A few restaurants and bars catered to tourists who could pass weathered empty homes with lace curtains hanging in broken windows, Colorado voters allowed Cripple Creek to establish legalized gambling in 1991. Cripple Creek is currently more of a gambling and tourist town than a ghost town, casinos now occupy many historic buildingsCripple Creek, Colorado – Entering Cripple Creek
44. Bodie, California – Bodie is a ghost town in the Bodie Hills east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Mono County, California, United States, about 75 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe. It is located 12 mi east-southeast of Bridgeport, at an elevation of 8379 feet, as Bodie Historic District, the U. S. Department of the Interior recognizes it as a National Historic Landmark. Also registered as a California Historical Landmark, the ghost town officially became Bodie State Historic Park in 1962, since 2012, Bodie has been administered by the Bodie Foundation, which uses the tagline Protecting Bodies Future by Preserving Its Past. Bodie began as a camp of little note following the discovery of gold in 1859 by a group of prospectors. Bodey perished in a blizzard the following November while making a trip to Monoville. Gold discovered at Bodie coincided with the discovery of silver at nearby Aurora, but while these two towns boomed, interest in Bodie remained lackluster. By 1868 only two companies had built stamp mills at Bodie, and both had failed, rich discoveries in the adjacent Bodie Mine during 1878 attracted even more hopeful people. By 1879, Bodie had a population of approximately 5, 000–7,000 people, one idea maintains that in 1880, Bodie was Californias second or third largest city, but the U. S. Census of that year disproves the popular tale. Over the years, Bodies mines produced gold valued at nearly US$34 million, Bodie boomed from late 1877 through mid– to late 1880. The first newspaper, The Standard Pioneer Journal of Mono County and it started out as a weekly, but soon became a thrice-weekly paper. It was also during this time that a line was built which connected Bodie with Bridgeport and Genoa. California and Nevada newspapers predicted Bodie would become the next Comstock Lode, men from both states were lured to Bodie by the prospect of another bonanza. Gold bullion from the towns nine stamp mills was shipped to Carson City, Nevada, by way of Aurora, Wellington, most shipments were accompanied by armed guards. After the bullion reached Carson City, it was delivered to the mint there, at its peak,65 saloons lined Main Street, which was a mile long. Murders, shootouts, barroom brawls, and stagecoach holdups were regular occurrences, as with other remote mining towns, Bodie had a popular, though clandestine, red light district on the north end of town. She is credited with giving life-saving care to many, but was buried outside the cemetery fence. Bodie had a Chinatown, the street of which ran at a right angle to Bodies Main Street, with several hundred Chinese residents at one point. Opium dens were plentiful in this area, the cemetery includes a Miners Union section, and includes a cenotaph to President James A. GarfieldBodie, California – Bodie
45. Amazon rubber boom – It encouraged the growth of cities such as Manaus, Porto Velho, and Belém, capitals within the respective Brazilian states of Amazonas, Rondônia and Pará, as well as the expansion of Iquitos in Peru. The rubber boom occurred largely between 1879 and 1912, there was heightened rubber production and associated activities from 1942 to 1945 during the Second World War. Natural rubber is an elastomer, also known as gum, India rubber, and caoutchouc. Christopher Columbus was the one of the first Europeans to bring news of this odd substance back to Europe, around 1736, a French astronomer recalled how Amerindians used rubber to waterproof shoes and cloaks. He brought several samples of rubber back to France, Rubber was used as an eraser by scientist Joseph Priestley in England. It was not until the 1800s that practical uses of rubber were developed, a rubber factory that made rubber garters for women opened in Paris, France, in the year 1803. However, the still had disadvantages, at room temperature. At higher temperatures, the rubber became softer and stickier, while at temperatures it became hard. The South Amerindians first discovered rubber, sometime dating back to 1600BC, the Amerindians in the Amazon rainforest developed ways to extract rubber from the rubber tree, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family. A white liquid called latex is extracted from the stem of the rubber tree, the rubber, which constitutes about 35% of the latex, is chemically cis-1, 4-polyisoprene. Latex is practically a neutral substance, with a pH of 7.0 to 7.2, however, when it is exposed to the air for 12 to 24 hours, its pH falls and it spontaneously coagulates to form a solid mass of rubber. Rubber produced in this fashion has disadvantages, for example, exposure to air causes it to mix with various materials, which is perceptible and can cause rot, as well as a temperature-dependent stickiness. Industrial treatment was developed to remove the impurities and vulcanize the rubber and this process gives it superior mechanical properties, and causes it to lose its sticky character, and become stable - resistant to solvents and variations in temperature. The rubber boom and the associated need for a large workforce had a significant negative effect on the population across Brazil, Peru, Ecuador. As rubber plantations grew, labor shortages increased, the owners of the plantations or rubber barons were rich, but those who collected the rubber made very little as a large amount of rubber was needed to be profitable. The rubber barons rounded up all the Indians and forced them to tap out of the trees. One plantation started with 50,000 Indians and when discovered of the killings, slavery and systematic brutality were widespread, and in some areas, 90% of the Indian population was wiped out. These rubber plantations were part of the Brazilian rubber market, which declined as rubber plantations in Southeast Asia became more effective, Rubber had catastrophic effects in parts of Upper Amazonia, but its impact should not be exaggerated nor extrapolated to the whole regionAmazon rubber boom – Map showing the region of the Amazon which enjoyed the rubber boom. It includes part of Brazil and Bolivia, along the rivers Madeira, Mamoré and Guaporé, near which the Madeira-Mamoré Railroad was built.
46. Rubber – Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water. Malaysia and Indonesia are two of the leading rubber producers, forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Currently, rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from the tree or others. The latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions in the bark, the latex then is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. In major areas, latex is allowed to coagulate in the collection cup, the coagulated lumps are collected and processed into dry forms for marketing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other materials, in most of its useful forms, it has a large stretch ratio and high resilience, and is extremely waterproof. The major commercial source of rubber latex is the Pará rubber tree. This species is preferred because it grows well under cultivation, a properly managed tree responds to wounding by producing more latex for several years. Congo rubber, formerly a source of rubber, came from vines in the genus Landolphia. These cannot be cultivated, and the drive to collect latex from wild plants was responsible for many of the atrocities committed under the Congo Free State. The latex exhibits the quality as the natural rubber from rubber trees. In the wild types of dandelion, latex content is low, in Nazi Germany, research projects tried to use dandelions as a base for rubber production, but failed. In collaboration with Continental Tires, IME began a pilot facility, many other plants produce forms of latex rich in isoprene polymers, though not all produce usable forms of polymer as easily as the Pará. Some of them require more processing to produce anything like usable rubber. Some produce other desirable materials, for example gutta-percha and chicle from Manilkara species, the term gum rubber is sometimes applied to the tree-obtained version of natural rubber in order to distinguish it from the synthetic version. The first use of rubber was by the cultures of Mesoamerica. The earliest archeological evidence of the use of latex from the Hevea tree comes the Olmec culture. The Pará rubber tree is indigenous to South America, charles Marie de La Condamine is credited with introducing samples of rubber to the Académie Royale des Sciences of France in 1736Rubber – Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree, Cameroon.
47. Amazon basin – The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Amazon drainage basin covers an area of about 7,500,000 km2 and it is located in the countries of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. Most of the basin is covered by the Amazon Rainforest, also known as Amazonia, with a 5,500,000 km2 area of dense tropical forest, this is the largest rainforest in the world. The Amazon River rises in the Andes Mountains at the west of the basin with its tributary the Marañón River in Peru. It is usually considered to be the second longest river in the world, however, a team of Brazilian scientists has claimed that the Amazon is the longest river in the world. It covers about 6,400 km before draining into the Atlantic Ocean, the Amazon and its tributaries form the largest volume of water. The Amazon accounts for about 20% of the water carried to the oceans by rivers. Some of the Amazon rainforests are deforested because of the increasing of cattle ranches, the highest point in the watershed of the Amazon is the peak of Yerupajá at 6,635 m. The Amazon basin formerly flowed west to Pacific Ocean until the Andes formed, politically the basin is divided into the Brazilian Amazônia Legal, the Peruvian Amazon, the Amazon region of Colombia and parts of Bolivia, Ecuador and the Venezuelan state of Amazonas. Plant growth is dense and its variety of inhabitants is comparatively high due to the heavy rainfall. Little sunlight reaches the ground due to the roof canopy by plants. The ground remains dark and damp and only shade tolerant vegetation will grow here, orchids and bromeliads exploit trees and other plants to get closer to the sunlight. They grow hanging onto the branches or tree trunks with aerial roots, not as parasites, species of tropical trees native to the Amazon include Brazil nut, rubber tree and Assai palm. More than 1,400 species of mammals are found in the Amazon and its larger mammals include the jaguar, ocelot, capybara and South American tapir. About 1500 bird species inhabit the Amazon Basin, the biodiversity of the Amazon and the sheer number of diverse bird species is given by the number of different bird families that reside in these humid forests. An example of such would be the family, to which the Guianan cock-of-the-rock belong. Birds such as toucans, and hummingbirds are found here. Macaws are famous for gathering by the hundreds along the cliffs of the Amazon RiverAmazon basin – Aerial view of part of the Amazon rainforest.
48. Indiana gas boom – The Indiana gas boom was a period of active drilling and production of natural gas in the Trenton Gas Field, in the US state of Indiana and the adjacent northwest part of Ohio. The boom began in the early 1880s and lasted into the early 20th century, when the Indiana natural gas belt was discovered, the citizens were unaware of what they had found. Nearly a decade passed without action to recover the resource, once its significance was realized, further exploration showed the Indiana gas belt was the largest deposit of natural gas discovered until then. The resource was rapidly tapped for use, because the gas was being wasted in use, the Indiana General Assembly attempted to regulate its use. In a series of cases, the Indiana Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the law, the poor understanding of oil and gas wells at the time led to the loss of an estimated 90% of the natural gas by venting into the atmosphere or by widespread misuse. By 1902 the yield from the fields began to decline, leading to a switch to alternative forms of energy, with most of the gas removed from the field, there was no longer enough pressure to pump the oil out of the ground. An estimated 900 million barrels of oil remain in the field, advancements in artificial lift technology have led to extraction of some of the oil, but at a relatively slow rate and high cost compared to more productive fields. Natural gas was first discovered in Indiana in 1876, coal miners in the town of Eaton were boring a hole in search of coal. After they reached a depth of about 600 feet, a noise came from the ground. Some believed that they had breached the ceiling of Hell and they plugged the hole and did not drill any more at that location. In 1884, natural gas was discovered in Ohio and the news of the discovery was published in the local Indiana newspapers, residents of Eaton remembered the early incident near their town and realized the magnitude of the discovery. Returning to the site, a company reopened the hole and drilled down another 322 feet, when the escaping gas was ignited, the flame reached 12 feet into the air and was visible from Muncie. Gas fever swept the state and thousands of gas wells were created, explorers found that the gas field was the largest of natural gas fields found up to that date, covering an area of 5,120 square miles. The belt came to be called the Trenton Gas Field, drillers found large quantities of oil in addition to the natural gas. The Trenton Gas Field was almost completely interconnected, so a well at any one location lowered pressure across the entire field, whenever new holes were bored, a pipe was created off the main line. It was lit with a constant flame as proof that the gas was flowing, although burning such a flame wasted massive amounts of the resource, the practice became common. The constant burning gas flare was called a flambeau, the gas discovery stimulated the development of industry in northern Indiana. The Ball Corporation opened in Muncie, using the fuel to make glassIndiana gas boom – Natural gas miners and their drill, near Kokomo, Indiana, c. 1885
49. Natural gas – It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of bonds in the gas. Natural gas is a fuel used as a source of energy for heating, cooking. It is also used as fuel for vehicles and as a feedstock in the manufacture of plastics. Natural gas is found in underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds. Petroleum is another resource and fossil fuel found in proximity to. Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms, biogenic and thermogenic, biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, landfills, and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material. In petroleum production gas is burnt as flare gas. The World Bank estimates that over 150 cubic kilometers of gas are flared or vented annually. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, most, Natural gas is often informally referred to simply as gas, especially when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. However, it is not to be confused with gasoline, especially in North America, Natural gas was used by the Chinese in about 500 BCE. They discovered a way to transport gas seeping from the ground in crude pipelines of bamboo to where it was used to salt water to extract the salt. The worlds first industrial extraction of gas started at Fredonia, New York. By 2009,66000 km³ had been used out of the total 850000 km³ of estimated remaining reserves of natural gas. An annual increase in usage of 2–3% could result in currently recoverable reserves lasting significantly less, unwanted natural gas was a disposal problem in the active oil fields. If there was not a market for natural gas near the wellhead it was expensive to pipe to the end user. In the 19th century and early 20th century, unwanted gas was burned off at oil fieldsNatural gas – Natural gas coming out of the ground in Taiwan.
50. Indiana – Indiana /ɪndiˈænə/ is a U. S. state located in the midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 38th largest by area and the 16th most populous of the 50 United States and its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11,1816, before becoming a territory, varying cultures of indigenous peoples and historic Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Indiana has an economy with a gross state product of $298 billion in 2012. Indiana has several areas with populations greater than 100,000. The states name means Land of the Indians, or simply Indian Land and it also stems from Indianas territorial history. On May 7,1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a resident of Indiana is officially known as a Hoosier. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads who hunted large game such as mastodons. They created stone tools made out of chert by chipping, knapping and flaking, the Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, such new tools included different types of spear points and knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as axes, woodworking tools. During the latter part of the period, they built mounds and middens. The Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC, afterward, the Woodland period took place in Indiana, where various new cultural attributes appeared. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, an early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods, nearing the end of the stage, the people developed highly productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash. The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD, the Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with mounds and plazas defining ceremonialIndiana – State sign, Interstate 65