Mulgrave, Nova Scotia
Mulgrave is a town on the Strait of Canso in Guysborough County, Nova Scotia, Canada. The town's current name was adopted in 1859 to honour the colonial Lieutenant Governor, the Earl of Mulgrave; the town of Mulgrave lies on the Strait of Canso opposite the town of Port Hawkesbury. Mulgrave was first settled as McNair's Cove by British Loyalists fleeing from the American Revolution and soon became a part of the lumber trade with the English in the early part of the nineteenth century. In 1818, the lumber trade ended and the economy shifted to fishing, becoming by 1830 the major occupation. In 1833, a ferry service began between the Nova Scotia mainland and Cape Breton Island began; the ferry made an important contribution to the local economy. Steam power was introduced in 1863; the economy was badly affected however, when in 1870 trade agreements in the fishing industry were cancelled to protect the American fish market, the local fishing industry collapsed. People began moving away, by 1880 more than a third of the population moved to New England in search of employment.
By the early 1900s the railroad industry had now become the main industry and Mulgrave was becoming a bustling terminal, equipped with freight sheds, marshalling yards, auxiliary services of an efficient railway centre. Adding to the economy were a new lobster factory and a new rail ferry, which further increased capacity across the Strait of Canso to Port Hawkesbury. Ferry service through Mulgrave provided a rail and road gateway for traffic from mainland Nova Scotia and the rest of Canada to Cape Breton and Newfoundland. In 1923, the community was incorporated as a town. In 1955, Mulgrave suffered a new blow to its economy with the opening of the Canso Causeway which removed both road and rail traffic through the town. Recovery has been slow. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Mulgrave recorded a population of 722 living in 310 of its 327 total private dwellings, a change of −9.1% from its 2011 population of 794. With a land area of 17.83 km2, it had a population density of 40.5/km2 in 2016.
The headquarters of the Eastern Counties Regional Library is in Mulgrave. Wallace MacDonald - silent film actor and director (d. Santa Barbar California List of municipalities in Nova Scotia Town of Mulgrave
Windsor, Nova Scotia
Windsor is a town located in Hants County, Nova Scotia, Canada. It is a service centre for the western part of the county and is situated on Highway 101; the town has a history dating back to its use by the Mi'kmaq Nation for several millennia prior to European invasion and seizure. When the Acadians lived in the area, the town was raided by New England forces in 1704; the area was central to both Father Le Loutre's War and the Expulsion of the Acadians during the Bay of Fundy Campaign in 1755. The town promotes itself as the birthplace of ice hockey and was the home of Canada's first internationally best-selling author, Thomas Chandler Haliburton. Having migrated from Port Royal, Nova Scotia, the Acadians were the first to settle in Pisiguit by the early 1680s. French census records dated 1686 list well established farms utilizing dyked marshlands. During Queen Anne's War, in response to the Wabanaki Confederacy of Acadia military campaign against the New England frontier and the Canadian Raid on Deerfield, Benjamin Church led the Raid on Pisiquid and burned the village to the ground.
In the Raid on Pisiquid, Church burned 40 houses along with out-buildings and cattle. There was resistance and two Mi ` kmaq. Despite the British Conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained occupied by Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq. Father Le Loutre's War began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports on June 21, 1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq, which were signed after Dummer's War; the British began to build other settlements. To guard against Mi'kmaq and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax, Bedford and Lawrencetown. Within 18 months of establishing Halifax, the British took firm control of peninsula Nova Scotia by building fortifications in all the major Acadian communities: present-day Windsor. Many Acadians left this region in the Acadian Exodus. During the French and Indian War, Fort Edward and Windsor played a significant role in the deportation the Bay of Fundy Campaign.
Acadians were imprisoned in the fort. Acadians numbering in the thousands were deported from mainland Nova Scotia; the deportees were held onboard ships for several weeks before being moved to their destinations, thus exacerbating unhealthy conditions below decks and leading to the deaths of hundreds. Many hundreds more were lost through ship sinkings and disease onboard ships while en route to ports in Britain's American colonies and France; the British broke apart families and sent them to different places. Their justification for this was to more efficiently put people on the boats; this resulted in more loss of life. The Township of Windsor was founded in 1764 by New England Planters; the next year, its first Agricultural Fair was held. This fair is still continued today, is the oldest and longest-running such fair in North America. In the American Revolution, Windsor was an important British stronghold. Fort Edward was the headquarters in Atlantic Canada for 84th Regiment of Foot. A relief force was mustered at Windsor to crush the American-led siege at the Battle of Fort Cumberland in 1776.
Following the American Revolution, Windsor was settled by United Empire Loyalists. Windsor developed its gypsum deposits selling it to American markets at Passamaquoddy Bay; this trade was illegal. The University of King's College and its secondary school, King's Collegiate School, were founded in 1788-1789 by United Empire Loyalists as Anglican academic institutions; the college remained in the community until a disastrous fire on February 3, 1920. In 1922 it moved to Halifax, with the assistance of the Carnegie Foundation and continues to this day; the King's Collegiate School continued operation on the campus and was joined by a sister girls school,'Edgehill School', in 1890. In 1976 both institutions merged to form King's-Edgehill School, remains the oldest independent school in the Commonwealth outside of the United Kingdom. Thomas Chandler Haliburton brought fame to Windsor during the 19th century with his writings about a clockmaker named Sam Slick. In 1878, Windsor was incorporated as a town.
Its harbour made the town a centre for shipbuilding during the age of sail. Notable shipbuilders such as Bennett Smith built a large fleet of merchant vessels, one of the last being the ship Black Watch; as the port of registry for the massive wooden shipbuilding industry of the Minas Basin, Windsor was the homeport of one of the largest fleet of sailing ships in Canada. Notable vessels registered at Windsor included Hamburg, the largest three masted barque built in Canada, Kings County, the largest four masted barque. Following the completion of the Nova Scotia Railway's line from Halifax in 1857, the town became an important steamship connection giving Halifax access to the Bay of Fundy shipping routes; the railway continued westward as the Windsor and Annapolis Railway in 1870 connecting to Yarmouth as the Dominion
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Bridgewater, Nova Scotia
Bridgewater is a town in Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia, Canada, at the navigable limit of the LaHave River. With a population of 8,532 as of 2016, Bridgewater is the largest town in the South Shore region. Priding itself as "The Main Street of the South Shore," Bridgewater has long been established as the primary commercial and professional service centre in the southern half of the province; the community boasts a diverse local economy, as well as larger national and international employers. The first European settlers of the town came from the nearby settlements of Lunenburg, Riverport and LaHave, constructing the first house around 1810 on the west bank of the river; the town was named after the bridge built over the LaHave River. The commissioners for the construction of the first bridge were three brothers-in-law, George Heb, John Weil and John Vienot; the town was incorporated on February 13, 1899, one month after the Great Commercial Street Fire, which devastated the downtown core of the community, destroying buildings along both sides of what would become King Street for more than half a kilometre.
The fire, which occurred on the night of January 12, 1899, is believed to have begun in the basement of the old music hall, located at what would, today, be the intersection of King and Dominion Streets. For much of the 20th century, the town's economy depended on forestry and a large wood mill in the center of town, as well as the Nova Scotia Central Railway and the Halifax and Southwestern Railway, for which the town acted as a central hub for the South Shore region; the Acadia Marine Engine Company was based in Bridgewater and it made fish boat and coaster engines. A period of some stagnation occurred beginning in the mid-1950s until a new Michelin plant opened within town limits in the early 1970s, providing employment for some 1,000 people; the abandoned passenger train station burnt to the ground in the early 1980s, shortly after a revitalization plan was announced. Freight rail service continued to the town until the early 1990s when Canadian National Railway abandoned the line and the tracks were removed.
The rail yard property on the east bank of the LaHave River is now occupied by the Bridgewater Mall and various retail businesses. Since the 1990s, the town has tried with some success to come up with solutions for problems that have crippled other areas of the Maritime provinces: economic decline and an aging population. Encouraging Bridgewater's growth as a commercial and professional services centre, promoting artistic and environmentally conscious initiatives, refreshing aging municipal infrastructure has helped to strengthen the community's position in the early 21st century. Bridgewater is split in two by the LaHave River, with the majority of the town's land area situated on the western bank of the river; the town is dominated by hills that lead down to the river. Elevation ranges from 5 metres above sea level, to nearly 110 m at the highest point at the former Olde Towne Golf Course on the southwestern limit of the town; the surrounding area is characterized by rolling drumlins formed during the last glacial period, some of which reach 150 m above sea level.
There are several streams which empty into the river. The LaHave River is traversed by two bridges in the centre of the town, a 103 highway overpass and a foot bridge towards the northern limits. On a basic level, the town is split in two by the LaHave River; the western bank of the river was the area first developed more than 200 years ago. Today it remains the most populated part of the town and is home to the Bridgewater Industrial Park and most other civic amenities; the eastern bank of the river was home, to a large lumber yard and train station. This area developed in the last quarter of the 20th century with the arrival of the Bridgewater Mall and a large subdivision. Today, this area remains the centre of population growth. In the 2011 census, the eastern side of town held 37% of the total population, up from 33% in 2006. Compared to the previous census, the population of the western side of town declined 2%, while the eastern side increased by 16%. There are few distinctive neighbourhoods in the town, most designations rely on subdivision names.
The Pinecrest Subdivision and low income housing centered along Marie Avenue remain the only major large-scale residential development on the western side of the town in the last 25 years, while the eastern flank has seen rapid growth, including the Glen Allan Subdivision, two large mobile home parks. Most of these areas, are built-out, so development is now spilling out into the county. Just outside the town's limits, Hebbville has seen the development of the now older Catidian Place and the much more recent Botany Lane, while bordering Conquerall Bank is hosting the still-growing Meadowbrook Subdivision, arguably the most upscale development in the Bridgewater area; the Cookville area continues to see growth in the Osprey Ridge area. With the exception of Glen Allan, most new residential developments within town limits are the result of urban infill. Bridgewater experiences a humid continental climate; the South Shore's proximity to the Atlantic Ocean influences the climate to a significant degree, such that the region is somewhat milder than most of Canada during the winter months.
Winters are cold and overcast with snowfall occurring as well as frequent rain. Summers, while less extreme than inland central Canada, are warm to
Shelburne, Nova Scotia
Shelburne is a town located in southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada. It is home to the Bowers Meadows Wilderness Area. Early European settlers had small subsistence farms, but most of the inhabitants' income from that time to the present have been derived from the sea. Shelburne lies at the southwest corner of Nova Scotia, at the same latitude as Portland, Maine in the United States; the Mi ` kmaq called Sogumkeagum. The first Europeans to make a settlement on these shores were the French Acadians, they set up a small fishing settlement known as Port Razoir in the late 17th century, named after the harbour's resemblance to an open razor. The Acadian fishing settlement was abandoned after repeated raids from English colonists from New England during Queen Anne's War in 1705, in which five Acadians were taken prisoner, 1708. On May 14, 1715, New England naval commander Cyprian Southack attempted to create a permanent fishing station at a place he named "Cape Roseway". Shortly after he set up a base, in July 1715 the Mi'kmaq raided the station and burned it to the ground.
In response, Southack led a raid on Canso, Nova Scotia and encouraged Governor Phillips to fortify Canso. New England fishermen knew Shelburne as "Port Roseway" and used the outer harbour for seasonal shelter and repairs. Pirate Ned Low raided the New England fishing fleet at Shelburne Harbour in 1723, capturing 13 ships and taking Philip Ashton captive. After the English conducted the Acadian Expulsion in 1755, there were no settlers for several decades. Alexander McNutt was not successful. In the spring of 1783, more than 5,000 settlers arrived on the shores of Shelburne Harbour from New York and the Middle Colonies of the Thirteen Colonies; these settlers were Loyalists, British-American colonists who had opposed the Revolution and remained loyal to Britain. The Crown offered them free land and provisions as compensation to lure them to settle in this undeveloped area. Four hundred families associated to form a town at Port Roseway, which Governor Parr renamed Shelburne that year, after Lord Shelburne, the British prime minister.
This group was led by the Port Roseway Associates, who had formed while still in New York and petitioned Governor Parr for the land. The Black Loyalists, a large group of African-American slaves who escaped from rebels to British lines and were promised freedom, were evacuated and transported by British forces to Shelburne Harbour at the same time, they founded Birchtown next to Shelburne. It developed as North America's largest free Black settlement. But, the Black Loyalists had to endure long waits before receiving land, were granted less than the whites, faced discrimination from other colonists, including some who had taken their slaves with them to Canada. In July 1784 whites conducted the Shelburne Riots against the African Americans. In the fall of 1783, a second wave of settlers arrived in Shelburne; the community was settled by Loyalists soldiers of the Duke of Cumberland's Regiment. By 1784, the population of this new community is estimated to have been 17,000, making it the fourth-largest city in North America.
But, initial hopes were short-lived. These problems curtailed its economic growth; the population fell by the 1790s, leaving many abandoned buildings. However, the remaining residents developed the harbour potential as a fishing and shipbuilding centre. In 1792 more than 1,000 Black Loyalists accepted a British offer to resettle in Freetown, a newly founded British colony in West Africa, they became the core of an ethnic group that became known as Krios, which included numerous Black Poor of London, former slaves resettled from Jamaica, slaves liberated from illegal trading ships after Britain and the United States prohibited the Atlantic slave trade. Shipbuilding is a significant industry; the first vessel launched at Shelburne was the 181-ton Roseway, built for MacLean and Bogle in 1786. Commissary Island, now a peninsula, was the area from which supplies of flour and salt were dispensed to the Loyalists by the Commissary General, Mr. Brinley; this area became the shipyard of Joseph McGill. The Cox family built their own ships and conducted extensive international trade.
The former MacKay shipyard was located in Shelburne at Black's Brook. Donald McKay, famous in the United States for the clippers which he built at Boston, began his shipbuilding career in Shelburne, he was born at Jordan Falls in 1810, left the area at the age of 16 to apprentice in New York. Led by master shipbuilders such as Amos Pentz and James Havelock Harding, Shelburne shipyards built many fishing schooners in the banks fishing era, as well as a notable research yacht inspired by fishing schooners, the schooner Blue Dolphin in 1926. In May 1945, following Germany's surrender, U-889 surrendered to the RCN at Nova Scotia. Many of Shelburne's buildings date back to Loyalist times; the Shelburne County Museum is a restored home built in 1787 by a cooper from Scotland. The present-day Christ Church is on the site of the original building of the same name, designed by Loyalist Isaac Hildreth and consecrated by Bishop Charles Inglis in 1790; the original structure was destroyed by fire in 1971.
Tottie's Store is thought to have been built by John Tottie about the year 1800. In 1787, government distr
Lockeport is a town and port in Shelburne County, Nova Scotia, Canada. It is a traditional Nova Scotian fishing town, situated on a peninsula in Allendale Bay, it is connected to the mainland by the Crescent Beach causeway. The area that surrounds the bay is known as the "Ragged Islands." In 1762, two families from Massachusetts journeyed to Nova Scotia in an effort to find a new colony, closer to the rich fishing grounds of the Grand Banks. When they found the sheltered Allendale Bay, they knew. Situated halfway between the colonies in New England and the fishing grounds, their new town would be a centre for both fishing and trade; the patriarchs of those first two families, Jonathan Locke and Josiah Churchill, went on to become the captains of industry in the area. Churchill became the first mayor of the Township of Locke's Island. Locke's Island and its surroundings entered a period of booming industry, with hotels, trade warehouses and multiple fish plants being constructed. Large trade ships plied the sea lanes from Locke's Island to the West Indies to trade lumber and salt cod, returning to the town laden with molasses and salt.
The fishing schooners were returning from the Banks loaded with cod. However, this golden age of the Ragged Islands would come to an end, with the first of many catastrophes coming in the form of a fish market collapse in the 1890s. Subsequent fires plagued the town, the once great community was brought to its knees. In 1907, a meeting was held among the rate-payers of the town, it was obvious to all in attendance that drastic action would need to be taken in order to stimulate the economy of Locke's Island. They decided. By incorporating as a town, the community was able to receive money from the provincial government; the money received by the town was used to construct a ferry that would link the town with a nearby rail line. This action did succeed in stimulating the declining economy, however, it was unable to restore the town to its former state of glory. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Lockeport recorded a population of 531 living in 249 of its 320 total private dwellings, a change of −9.7% from its 2011 population of 588.
With a land area of 2.33 km2, it had a population density of 227.9/km2 in 2016. The town is home to a number of annual festivals that promote the heritage and culture of the Ragged Islands area; the Lockeport Sea Derby is a popular, family-oriented festival, which brings members of the community together to share in the area's rich fishing heritage. The Annual Canada Day festivities are renowned, imbue a strong sense of local pride in the community. Lockeport is host to a popular women's music and arts festival, which celebrates the independence of women on the South Shore, known as Harmony Bazaar Festival of Women & Song. Lockeport is one of the most sport-infused communities in Nova Scotia, Canada. Since 1950, the local High School has accumulated 44 provincial championships in basketball and track and field; the town has produced notable athletes including Marjorie Turner-Bailey, a sprinter who represented Canada at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, Walter Nickerson, the most successful dory-rowing athlete in Canada, Ian MacMillan, a well-known basketball coach in Nova Scotia who spent time as an assistant coach in the National Basketball Association.
Sporting events still attract large numbers of spectators. Lockeport is host to a number of indoor and outdoor recreational areas where youth continue to gather and play. Located at 35 North Street in Lockeport, the Lillian Benham Library is one of the 10 branches of Western Counties Regional Library, it joined the Western Counties Regional Library on June 5, 1969, but it did not have a physical location in Lockeport until the first branch opened on April 13, 1973. The branch relocated to its present site on September 1, 1981. Tomi Ungerer, Far Out Isn't Far Enough: Life in the Back of Beyond, 1984 Town of Lockeport Visit Shelburne and Lockeport The Lockeport Loop The Annual Lockeport Sea Derby Crescent Beach Centre Public Archives of Nova Scotia Carter Island Lighthouse. Gull Rock Lighthouse. Lockeport Regional high School Statistics Canada Profile The Icelandic Memorial Society Western Counties Regional Library website
Westville, Nova Scotia
Westville is a town in Pictou County, Nova Scotia, Canada. It is located west of Stellarton and about four kilometres southwest of New Glasgow, the major town in the area. Called Acadian Village, the name Westville was chosen because the community was west of the Albion Mines. Westville has a long history of coal mining dating back to 1864; the opening of the Acadia Mine followed in 1866. Westville, along with Stellarton, was once home to a thriving coal mining industry. At its peak, during World War I, Westville boasted three underground workings. Westville was the site of the Drummond Mine explosion on May 13, 1873; the last underground mine, the Drummond pit, closed in the 1970s. Extensive open-pit mining on the Drummond and Acadia sites was carried out throughout the 1980s and 1990s, by Pioneer Coal Limited of Antigonish, Nova Scotia. In the early 1900s Westville boasted the largest natural ice skating rink east of Montreal. Today the miner's monument at Acadia Park honoring those touched by the town's mining disasters, a community centre is all that remains of its proud coal mining heritage.
The war memorial was sculpted by the renowned Emanuel Hahn. Like many coal towns Westville was a hotbed of sports. Baseball was popular among the miners. One of the Westville baseball teams was crowned Maritime champion in 1927 and the legendary Babe Ruth visited the town in 1936 and hit a ball over the centre field fence; the town sponsored championship cricket, lacrosse and hockey teams. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Westville recorded a population of 3,628 living in 1,586 of its 1,698 total private dwellings, a change of −4.5% from its 2011 population of 3,798. With a land area of 14.23 km2, it had a population density of 255.0/km2 in 2016. While a bedroom community, Westville's Main Street features banks, shops and other amenities. A Nova Scotia highway rest stop was opened at the end of Cowan Street off exit 21 of Highway 104, part of the Trans-Canada Highway. One of the largest Canada Day celebrations in Atlantic Canada takes place in Westville.
The five-day event includes a county fair, street parade, annual guest bands from around the world. The year 2007 marked the 100th anniversary of Westville's Canada Day celebrations. Kris MacFarlane, the drummer of Great Big Sea George Canyon country singer Russell MacEwan, Member of Parliament and judge List of municipalities in Nova Scotia Town of Westville Official Website