Anorthosis Famagusta FC
Αnorthosis Famagusta FC, known as Anorthosis, is a Cypriot football and volleyball club. Based in Famagusta, the club is now based in Larnaca. Anorthosis was founded in 1911 in Famagusta and in 1934 became one of the founder clubs of the Cyprus Football Association, their home ground is the Antonis Papadopoulos Stadium, the president of the club is Antreas Panteli. One of the most successful clubs in Cypriot football, Anorthosis has won 13 First Division titles, 10 Cypriot Cups and seven Super Cups. Anorthosis is one of three Cypriot clubs never to have played in the second division and the first one which had participated in the Champions League Group Stages; the club was founded in Famagusta on 30 January 1911. After the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974 and the occupation of Famagusta by the Turkish army, Anorthosis was relocated to Antonis Papadopoulos Stadium in Larnaca and because of the occupation of Famagusta Anorthosis is one of those clubs that are known as the "refugee" clubs. Anorthosis' original home stadium in Famagusta, G.
S. E. is in poor condition. Ammochostos, or better Varoshi, around 1910 was a small town of about 4,000 inhabitants: farmers, fishermen and a few shop-keepers; the only place of recreation was the coffee shop. At that time a few and enthusiastic men of that community set a goal and managed to create a "reading club" in hospitable rooms where they could gather and educate the youth in cultural and national matters; the period from 1911 until 1928 can be characterized as the first period of Anorthosis history. In that period, Anorthosis was a nationalist and spiritual group. Patriotic speeches and national commemorations were organised in the building of Anorthosis, but the sector where Anorthosis had created a tradition, unique in the history of clubs of which the reputation and activity was spread all over Cyprus, was in music. Under the control of Demetris Demetriades, it began with great success the only madolinade and band of Anorthosis; the actions taken at that time were many, some of them were: 1913: In a collection, done in the building of Anorthosis the extravagant – for that time – amount of 84 pounds was gathered in just one hour, given for the political needs of the country.
1922: Anorthosis establishes a depository for the relief of the refugees from the Asia Minor destruction. The second period in the history of Anorthosis started with an important changeover in the aims and actions of the club; the "Anorthosis Reading Club" renamed to "Musical Philological and Philanthropical Club" and as an emblem of the club is now the mythical bird Phoenix. During this period the mantolinade and band of Anorthosis are better organised and stipendiary teachers are being appointed for the development of the two groups. In the philological sector the tradition of the past continued. Anorthosis created a first class library with a lending section. In 1936, 1,500 volumes of books were lent to Anorthosis members. In the second period a great importance was given to the athletic sector. Under the control of professor of Gymnastics, Anastasis Oikonomides and volleyball teams, sea sports and teams of classical athleticism, gave Anorthosis many first wins and trophies. Anorthosis in association with Gymnastic Club Evagoras, its own child, organized district and pan-Cyprian games and athletes got their first wins, not only in PanCyprian games.
Of course, for a small time period, there was nothing to show. For example, in 1929 with a letter of POEB of which members are in Anorthosis, said that it was ready to break up and its members to be merged into the football team of Anorthosis, it was decided that a second football team should be funded, the responsibility was on Mr. An. Oikonomidis and S. Mathaiou. On 11 February 1932, at the command of the Ammochostos governor the club of Anorthosis closed for a short time. On 29 October, the president, the general secretary and the boufι manager of Anorthosis were arrested by the police because the Greek flag was hanging on the balcony of the club building. On 26 July 2005, they beat the Turkish team Trabzonspor 3-1 in the first leg of their second-round Champions League qualifying match, they progressed 3-2 on aggregate. In the third-round qualifying tie against the Scottish team Rangers, Anorthosis lost the first leg 2-1, the second leg 2-0, so dropped into the first round of the UEFA Cup.
They were defeated 6-1 on aggregate by the Italian team Palermo. Anorthosis qualified for the 2007–08 UEFA Cup by way of their Cypriot Cup win, they entered the competition at the First Qualifying round stage. Aggregate victories over FK Vardar and CFR 1907 Cluj saw them move through to the First Round proper. Anorthosis were drawn against English Premier League side Tottenham Hotspur; the first leg was played at White Hart Lane on 20 September 2007 which Tottenham Hotspur won 6-1. On 4 October 2007 the second leg resulted in a 1-1 draw when Robbie Keane equalised for Tottenham Hotspur after Fabinho had put Anorthosis ahead. After winning the domestic league 2007–08, Anorthosis qualified for the 2008–09 UEFA Champions League Group Stage, over-running Armenian Champions FC Pyunik, Austrian Champions Rapid Wien and Greek Champions Olympiacos in the qualifying rounds; this allowed the team to qualify for the Group Stage of the Champions League, the first time for a Cypriot team. In the group stage, they earned their first point following a 0-0 away draw with Werder Bremen got their first win beating Panathinaikos FC 3-1 while Hawar Mulla Mohammed became the first Iraqi playe
Limassol is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and capital of the eponymous district. Limassol is the second largest urban area in Cyprus after Nicosia, with an urban population of 183,658 and a metropolitan population of 239,842. Limassol has been ranked by TripAdvisor as the 3rd up-and-coming destination in the world, in its Top 10 Traveler’s Choice Destinations on the Rise; the city is ranked 89th worldwide in Mercer's Quality of Living Survey. In the ranking published by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Limassol has been classified global city in the 4th category. Limassol was built between two ancient Greek cities and Kourion, during Byzantine rule it was known as Neapolis. Limassol's historical centre is located around the Old Port. Today the city spreads along the Mediterranean coast and has extended much farther than the castle and port, with its suburbs stretching along the coast to Amathus. To the west of the city, is the Akrotiri Area of the British Overseas Territory of Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
The city of Limassol is situated between the ancient cities of Kourion. Limassol was built after Amathus had been ruined. However, the town of Limassol has been inhabited since ancient times. Graves found there date back to 2000 BC and others date back to the 8th and 4th centuries BC; these few remains show that a small colonisation must have existed which did not manage to develop and flourish. Ancient writers mention nothing about the foundation of the town. In 85 BC, Armenian emperor Tigranes the Great had reached Limassol in order to establish security and protection of local Greek allies against Rome in a result followed by his conquest of Syria and Anatolia. According to the Council of Chalcedon which took place in 451, the local bishop as well as the bishops of Amathus and Arsinoe were involved in the foundation of the city, which would be known by the names of Theodosiana and Neapolis. Bishop Leontios of Neapolis was an important church writer in the 7th century; the records of the 7th Synod refer to it.
The town was known as Lemesos in the 10th century. The history of Limassol is known by the events associated with the Third Crusade; the king of England, Richard the Lionheart, was travelling to the Holy Land in 1170. His fiancée Berengaria and his sister Joan, Queen of Sicily, were travelling on a different ship; because of a storm, the ship with the queens arrived in Limassol. Isaac Komnenos, the renegade Byzantine Greek governor of Cyprus invited the queens ashore, with the intention of holding them to ransom, but they refused. So he refused they had to put out to sea again or yield to capture; when Richard arrived in Limassol and met Isaac Komnenos, he asked him to contribute to the crusade for the liberation of the Holy Land. While at the beginning Isaac had accepted, he on refused to give any help. Richard chased him and arrested him. Richard celebrated his marriage with Berengaria who had received the crown as queen of England in Cyprus. Richard destroyed Amathus and the inhabitants were transferred to Limassol.
A year in AD 1175 Cyprus was sold for the sum of 100,000 bezants to the Templars, rich monks and soldiers whose aim was the protection of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. The knights enforced high taxes, in order to get back the money, given for the purchase of Cyprus; this led to the revolt of the Cypriots. Richard accepted their request and a new purchaser was found: Guy de Lusignan, a Roman Catholic from Poitou. Cyprus was therefore handed over to the French dynasty of the house of Lusignan, thus establishing the medieval Kingdom of Cyprus. For a period of about three centuries 1175–1489, Limassol enjoyed remarkable prosperity. Cyprus was characterised by its great number of Latin bishops; this lasted until the occupation of Cyprus by the Ottomans in AD 1570. Latin battalions; the settlement of merchants in Cyprus and in Limassol in the 13th century led to the financial welfare of its inhabitants. Its harbour as a centre of transportation and commerce, contributed to the financial and cultural development.
Cyprus was sold in 1489 to Venice by the Cypriot Queen Catherine Cornaro. The Venetians did not have Cyprus' best interest at heart, they were only interested in receiving the taxes and in exploiting the country’s resources; the Venetians strengthened the Castle of Limassol. The Ottoman Empire occupied it. Limassol was conquered in July 1570 without any resistance; some neighbourhoods to the east of the city were predominantly Greek, to the west predominantly Turkish with an evenly mixed area around the castle. The church played an important role in the education of Greeks during the years 1754–1821. During those years new schools were set up in all the towns. Greek intellectuals used to teach Greek history and French; the following schools operated in the town of Limassol: The Greek School, established in 1819. The first public school, established in 1841; the Girls’ School, established in 1861. The British took over in Cyprus in 1878; the first British governor of Limassol was Colonel Warren. He showed a particular interest in Limassol and from the first days the condition of the town showed an improvement.
Cyprus Neuroscience and Technology Institute
The Cyprus Neuroscience and Technology Institute is a non-profit, non-Governmental independent organization active in programs with future orientation in areas related to human brain-modern technology-social transformation and the repercussions of relevant research for humanity. The Cyprus Neuroscience and Technology Institute was founded through the initiatives of Yiannis Laouris and a team of repatriated Cypriot scientists with the support of ex-Minister of Education and Culture Dr. Chrysostomos Sofianos, District School Inspector Dr. Christodoulos Laouris, the Bishop of Paphos Chrysostomos and three prominent foreign academics Prof. Dr. Sc. Med. Peter Schwartze, Prof. Dr. Med. Habil. Uwe Windhorst, Regents Prof. Douglas Stuart, it was registered on 6 November 1991 and launched its activities in 1993. Between 1994 and 1999 it expanded its operations hosting a number of peace related projects, it was re-structured in year 2000 modifying its original Constitution to embrace projects aiming in the development of an active civil society in Cyprus, as well as projects with international scope those that involve the application of technology towards bridging the literacy and digital divides.
At the end of 2005 it evolved into a larger organization with a pure international orientation integrating all its activities under one umbrella and a new name, Future Worlds Center. CNTI served as the research partner CYBER KIDS, a chain of computer learning centers that operated in 7 countries between 1993-2000; the curriculum, which received seven international awards, introduced problem solving, IT skills to young children. In 1993, CNTI launched an innovation fair under the running title "Innovation-Technology-Social Progress Fair." The Ministries of Commerce & Industry, Education & Culture, as well as Labour & Social Insurance, were collectively engaged in order to signify the economic and job-creating facets of promoting innovation. The Fair was supported by the Cyprus Development Bank, the Bank of Cyprus and CYBER KIDS. Between the late 90s and 2015, research funded by national and international grants, resulted to the development of video-game like interfaces that assess and improve mental abilities of growing children.
MAPS has been validated in schools as a dyslexia screening test and as a cognitive assessment tool that profiles and predicts abilities of children to read and learn. A more recent line of research aimed the enhancement of cognitive abilities through playing. Many of CNTI’s projects aimed the exploration of children's and special needs individuals’ attitudes towards and interactions with information technologies. In 2005, CNTI launched a number of projects that promote and implement research in the field of safer use of the Internet. CNTI has founded the Unit of Rehabilitation of Victims of Torture. CNTI pioneered with a number of projects in the promotion of reconciliation in Cyprus; the Technology for peace initiative in 1997 aimed to capitalize on the proliferation of the Internet as a means to bear the communication barriers between the northern and the southern parts of divided Cyprus. Other notable peace projects include the Civil Society Dialogue, the Act Beyond Borders and Everybody's song.
CNTI scientists represent Cyprus in many European and international networks such as COST 276. CNTI and several of its members have been honored with various prestigious awards, such as the Innovation and Quality in Services Award in 1996 for the development of the Cyber Kids curriculum, The Hellenic Society for Systemic Studies Medal in 2005, the Cyprus civil society award in the category of social inclusion in 2006 etc. Official website
World Bank high-income economy
A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,056 or more in 2017, calculated using the Atlas method. While the term "high-income" is used interchangeably with "First World" and "developed country", the technical definitions of these terms differ; the term "first world" refers to countries that aligned themselves with the U. S. and NATO during the Cold War. Several institutions, such as the Central Intelligence Agency or International Monetary Fund, take factors other than high per capita income into account when classifying countries as "developed" or "advanced economies". According to the United Nations, for example, some high-income countries may be developing countries; the GCC countries, for example, are classified as developing high-income countries. Thus, a high-income country may be developing. Although the Holy See is a sovereign state, it is not classified by the World Bank under this definition. According to the World Bank the following 81 countries are classified as "high-income economies".
In brackets the year during which they held such classification. As of the 2019 fiscal year, high-income economies are those that had a GNI per capita of $12,056 or more—in 2017. In parenthesis the year during which they held such classification. A Between 1994 and 2009, as part of the Netherlands Antilles. B Dissolved on 10 October 2010. Succeeded by Curaçao and Sint Maarten; the high-income threshold was set in 1989 at US$6,000 in 1987 prices. Thresholds for subsequent years were adjusted taking into account the average inflation in the G-5 countries, from 2001, that of Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States and the eurozone. Thus, the thresholds remain constant in real terms over time. To ensure no country falls right on the threshold, country data are rounded to the nearest 10 and income thresholds are rounded to the nearest 5; the following table shows the high-income threshold from 1987 onwards. Countries with a GNI per capita above this threshold are classified by the World Bank as "high-income economies".
High income OECD country Developed country Developing country Least developed country North–South divide
Cyprus Mines Corporation
The Cyprus Mines Corporation was an early twentieth century American mining company based in Cyprus. In 1914, Charles G. Gunther began prospecting in the Skouriotissa area after reading in ancient books that the island was rich in copper and noticing promising ancient Roman slag heaps in the area; the company was established in 1916 by Colonel Seeley W. Mudd, his son, Harvey Seeley Mudd, mining engineer/business partner, Philip Wiseman, whose family, along with the Mudds, were the primary owners of Cyprus Mines until the early 1970s when it was sold to Amoco; the mine struggled, but obstacles were overcome and the mine produced money. Turkish and Greek Cypriots were hired, the town of Skouriotissa became a hub as many miners moved there; the corporation took an old-style, paternalistic attitude towards workers, building a company town around the mine. Harvey Seeley Mudd claimed his experience with the Cyprus Mines Corporation influenced him to push the study of humanities in the engineering college he started, Harvey Mudd College.
The Cyprus Mines Corporation provided copper to Nazi Germany right up until the start of the World War II. Although the company knew that some of its copper sales to Germany would be used to produce weapons for the Nazi military, at a time before the war when Germany traded for resources with many countries, the owner of the mine argued that stopping those exports would have adversely affected Cyprus, they were, disturbed by Hitler's policy of Jewish persecution, in late 1938, CMC established a relief fund along with their agent to help former business associates get out of Germany. Long strikes took place in 1948, organized by the Pancyprian Federation of Labour and the Turkish Cypriot trade unions. After extending the initial five-day strike, the union asked for government intervention; the government declared. As of 1955, the company's copper mines on Cyprus had become the island's largest industry, exporting nearly a million tons of copper a year. Mudd's copper mines on Cyprus supported 2,000 of the island's inhabitants and provided more than 25 percent of the island's entire annual revenue.
Cyprus Mines paid its employees 15–20 percent above the island average. The company ran an up-to-date, 65-bed hospital for its employees, built scores of low-cost houses for them to live in, helped to run schools, sports clubs, welfare centers, summer camps for their families. One of the operating mines and the company's processing plant fell north of the cease-fire line in Northern Cyprus following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974, whilst the rest of the company's mines were the other side of the Green Line. Given this insurmountable problem, the Cyprus Mines Corporation pulled out of Cyprus and the Mavrovouni mine and processing plant remained in an area not controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus. Over 30 copper deposits, ranging in size from 50,000 to over 20,000,000 tonnes, with grades from 0.3 to 4.5 percent copper have been discovered with most of the mining activity been centered on the following districts: Skouriotissa Tamassos Kambia Kalavassos LimniA few isolated deposits have been found at Troulli Mine, Mangaleni and Vretchia.
As in most mines, the tailings, waste left over from processing ore, are a problem, although in Cyprus' case they were a boon. The discovery and analysis of copper tailings left on Cyprus by Romans had been important factors in the founding of the company and the modern economic development of Cyprus; as of 2006, there are no plans to clean up the tailings. As the company did while it operated, now Cyprus prefers to retain the past economic benefits of mining without spending funds on environmental remediation with neither the income from the mines nor the use of the now polluted land surrounding those mines, asserting that modern Cyprus has no way to pay for the cleanup. Local farmers claim. Studies of local fruit have found decreased fruit size and quality; the effect of the mine is a growing issue for Cypriot NGOs. In 1979 Cyprus Mines Corporation was acquired by Amoco Corporation. Amoco expanded Cyprus into a diversified worldwide mining company. Amoco spun off Cyprus Minerals Company in 1985.
In 1986, Cyprus acquired the Sierrita molybdenum mine near Tucson, Arizona. In July 1988, Cyprus Minerals bought the Inspiration smelting complex in Miami, Arizona. With the expiry of an agreement to purchase electricity at a favorable rate from the Salt River Project, Cyprus Minerals installed an ISASMELT™ furnace in its copper smelter; this was the first large-scale installation of the ISASMELT™ process, developed jointly by Mount Isa Mines Limited and the Australian government's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. In 1993, AMAX merged with the Cyprus Minerals Company to form Cyprus Amax Minerals Company. Cyprus-Amax was the world's leading producer of molybdenum and lithium, a leading producer of copper and coal; the company had operations on six continents. In late 1999, Cyprus Amax Minerals was acquired by Phelps Dodge Corporation, which in turn was acquired by Freeport-McMoRan in 2007, forming the world's largest copper producer. Pantelis Varnavas; the common labour struggles of Turkish Cypriots: Events through history.
Nicosia: Pancyprian Federation of Labour. ISBN 9963-7677-3-7. European Union Environmental Policy and Cyprus Mines at the Wayback Machine What is CMC? Company History: Cyprus Amax Minerals Compa
Headquarters denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated. In the United States, the corporate headquarters represents the entity at the center or the top of a corporation taking full responsibility for managing all business activities. In the United Kingdom, the term head office is most used for the HQs of large corporations; the term is used regarding military organizations. A headquarters is the entity at the top of a corporation that takes full responsibility for the overall success of the corporation, ensures corporate governance; the corporate headquarters is a key element of a corporate structure and covers different corporate functions such as strategic planning, corporate communications, legal, finance, human resources, information technology, procurement. This entity includes the chief executive officer as a key person and his or her support staff such as the CEO office and other CEO-related functions. Many companies have a registered office at a different address to their corporate office.
A headquarters includes the leader of business unit and his or her staff as well as all functions to manage the business unit and operational activities. The head of the business unit is responsible for overall result of the business unit. A headquarters sometimes functions at the top of regional unit, including all activities of the various business units, taking full responsibility for overall profitability and success of this regional unit. Military headquarters take many forms depending on the size and nature of the unit or formation they command, they are split into the forward and rear components, both within NATO nations, those following the organization and doctrine of the former Soviet Union. The forward or tactical HQs is a small group of staff and communicators. Mobile, they exist to allow the commander to go forward in an operation, command the key parts of it from a position where they can see the ground and influence their immediate subordinates; the main HQs is involved in both the planning and execution of operations.
There are a number of staff assembled here from various staff branches to advise the commander, to control the various aspects of planning and the conduct of discrete operations. A main HQ for a large formation will have a chief of staff; the rear or logistic HQs is some distance from the front line in conventional operations. Its function is to ensure the logistical support to front line troops, which it does by organizing the delivery of combat supplies and equipment to where they are needed, by organizing services such as combat medicine, equipment recovery, repair; the headquarters of the Catholic Church is Vatican City. The World Headquarters of Jehovah's Witnesses is relocated in Warwick, New York, from its former location, New York; the headquarters of the Russian Orthodox Church is in Moscow. The World Council of Churches, including Orthodox Churches, has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland; the headquarters of Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is located in Turkey. The headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is located in Salt Lake City, Utah.
The Anglican Communion Office is in London. In Japanese budō martial arts such as karate, aikido, etc. There is a headquarters for each organization or region; the Japanese word honbu is used for that outside Japan. Sometimes they refer to this headquarters as honbu dojo in which dojo is a facility provided for practicing discipline, the training ground. Sometimes honbu is written as hombu, the way it is pronounced, but according to the Hepburn transcription, the correct spelling should be honbu in which the'n' is a syllabic n. Isby, David C. Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army Jane's, London: 516 pp. Wanner, Herbert Global and regional corporate headquarters in: Kählin, Christian, H.: Switzerland Business & Investment Handbook. Wanner, Herbert.