Finnlines Plc is a shipping operator of ro-ro and passenger services in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. The Company is a part of the Grimaldi Group. Finnlines' sea transports are concentrated in the North Sea. Finnlines’ passenger-freight vessels offer services from Finland to Germany and via the Åland Islands to Sweden as well as from Sweden to Germany; the Company has subsidiaries or sales offices in Germany, Great Britain, Sweden and Poland. In addition to sea transportation, the Company provides port services in Finland in Helsinki and Turku. Finnlines’ ro-ro services cover the Finnish ports of Rauma, Turku and Kotka, offering connections with Russian, Polish, Danish, Dutch and Spanish ports. HansaLink consists of three Star-class ro-pax vessels plying between Travemünde. For passengers it is the only direct connection by sea between Continental Europe. NordöLink runs Germany. FinnLink operates between Naantali and Kapellskär, Sweden. TransRussiaExpress runs a regular direct liner service between Russia.
Finnlines was founded in 1947 as a subsidiary of Merivienti Oy, founded earlier the same year by Enso-Gutzeit and Kansaneläkelaitos, to operate Merivienti's liner service from Finland to the United States. Merivienti Oy was founded on 18 April 1947 by the Finnish forest industry giant Enso-Gutzeit and Kansaneläkelaitos —both or state-owned companies—to ensure transportation of forest industry products from Finland to Western block countries. According to the 1947 Paries Peace Treaty with the Soviet Union, Finland had to pay US$300 million worth of war reparations to the Soviet Union in industrial goods. With only 30% of the Finnish merchant fleet having survived the war, 2/3 of the surviving ships being used by the Allied forces or under forced charter to the Soviet Union, new tonnage was needed. In May and June 1947, Merivienti acquired three second-hand steamers for traffic into Europe. During the same year, Merivienti decided to start liner traffic from Finland to the east coast of the United States.
With this in mind, Merivienti acquired three larger second-hand steamships, named SS Hamina, SS Pankakoski and SS Tornator. To operate these ships, a new company Oy Finnlines Ltd, was founded in November 1947. Finnlines was a 100% subsidiary of Merivienti and owned no ships of its own—instead the Merivienti ships were operated by and marketed as Finnlines. In subsequent years, vessels owned by other companies, such as Enso-Gutzeit, Outokumpu, Yhtyneet Paperitehtaat, Amer-Tupakka and Thomesto. Finnlines' traffic into the United States begun in 1948; the used ships were soon found to be too small and during the 1950s seven new freighters were delivered to various owners to be operated by Finnlines. At this time the company started using names with the "Finn" prefix that has become characteristic of their fleet. A line to the United Kingdom was opened in 1955; the company first begun carrying passengers in 1962, when the car ferry MS Hansa Express opened a new service linking Hanko, Finland to Travemünde, Germany via Visby in Sweden.
The ship was found to be too small from the start, Hanko a poor choice for the Finnish terminus of the line. The route was altered to Helsinki–Kalmar–Travemünde in 1963, two large new ferries were delivered for the route in 1966. MS Finnhansa was the larger of the two sister ships, surpassing MS Finnpartner by ten centimeters. Having two ferries year-round proved to be unprofitable and the Finnpartner was sold in 1969. In the late 60s Finnlines developed the Finnflow cargo-handling system, which resulted in the building of the company's first RORO freighters MS Finncarrier, MS Hans Gutzeit and MS Finnfellow. In 1973 Finnlines purchased MS Stena Atlantica from Stena Line and renamed her MS Finnpartner, for service to Germany alongside the Finnhansa. During the winter season the second Finnpartner was sent cruising to the Mediterranean. In the same year Finnlines placed an order at the Wärtsilä Helsinki shipyard for a new gas turbine-powered ferry for the Finland-Germany service, to be the largest and fastest in the world.
Before the new ferry was delivered several changes occurred to Finnlines: in 1975 Finnlines and their rival Finland Steamship Company began collaborating in freight and passenger traffic. Finncarriers was formed as a joint freight operator, while the Finland Steamship Company's Finland-Germany passenger services were merged into Finnlines' services, bringing MS Finlandia to Finnlines' fleet; this meant. With the Finlandia and Finnhansa, Finnlines maintained a year-round service to Germany, while MS Bore Star was chartered from Bore Line for cruising for the winter seasons of 1975–76 and 76–77; the new, fast GTS Finnjet was delivered to Finnlines in May 1977, replacing both of the old ferries on the route. With her 31-knot top speed the Finnjet was able to cross the Baltic in a mere 22 hours, her accommodations were superior to those of any ferry of the day, she had been designed before the oil crisis, meaning her operational costs were much higher than planned. After delivery of the Finnjet, the Finlandia was rebuilt into the cruise ship MS Finnstar, becoming Finnlines' first genuine cruise ship.
The Finnstar's service was cut short by the Finnish maritime worker's strike of 1980, as result o
Finnair is the flag carrier and largest airline of Finland, with its headquarters in Vantaa on the grounds of Helsinki Airport, its hub. Finnair and its subsidiaries dominate both international air travel in Finland, its major shareholder is the government of Finland. Finnair is a member of the Oneworld airline alliance. In 2017, it transported about 12 million passengers to over 100 European, 20 Asian and 7 North American destinations. At the end of 2017, the airline employed 5,918 people. Finnair is the sixth oldest airline in continuous operation. With no fatal or hull-loss accidents since 1963, Finnair is listed as one of the safest airlines in the world. In 1923, consul Bruno Lucander founded Finnair as Aero O/Y; the company code, "AY", stands for Aero Yhtiö. Lucander had run the Finnish operations of the Estonian airline Aeronaut. In mid-1923 he concluded an agreement with Junkers Flugzeugwerke AG to provide aircraft and technical support in exchange for a 50% ownership in the new airline; the charter establishing the company was signed in Helsinki on 12 September 1923, the company was entered into the trade register on 11 December 1923.
The first flight was on 20 March 1924 from Helsinki to Tallinn, Estonia on a Junkers F.13 aircraft equipped with floats. The seaplane service ended in December 1936 following the construction of the first aerodromes in Finland. Air raids on Helsinki and other Finnish cities made World War II a difficult period for the airline. Half the fleet was requisitioned by the Finnish Air Force and it was estimated that, during the Winter War in 1939 and 1940, half of the airline's passengers from other Finnish cities were children being evacuated to Sweden; the Finnish government wanted longer routes, so it acquired a majority stake in the company in 1946 and re-established services to Europe in November 1947 using the Douglas DC-3. In 1953, the airline began branding itself as Finnair; the Convair 440 twin-engined pressurised airliner was acquired from January 1953 and these faster aircraft were operated on the company's longer routes as far as London. In 1961, Finnair joined the jet age by adding Rolls-Royce Avon-engined Caravelles to its fleet.
These were exchanged with the manufacturer for Pratt & Whitney JT8D-engined Super Caravelles. In 1962, Finnair acquired a 27 % controlling interest in Kar-Air. Finnair Oy became the company's official name on 25 June 1968. In 1969, it took possession of its first U. S. made jet, a Douglas DC-8. The first transatlantic service to New York was inaugurated on 15 May 1969. In the 1960s, Finnair's head office was in Helsinki. Finnair received its first wide-body aircraft in two DC-10-30 planes; the first of these arrived on 4 February 1975, entered service on 14 February 1975, flying between Helsinki and New York, between Helsinki and Las Palmas. Finnair created Finnaviation was established in 1979, it was formed from the reorganisation of Wihuri OY Finnwings and its merging with Nordair OY. Scheduled domestic services began in October 1979. In the early 1980s Finnair held a 60% shareholding. Finnaviation was completely merged into Finnair. In 1981, Finnair opened routes to Los Angeles. Finnair became the first operator to fly non-stop from Western Europe to Japan operating Helsinki-Tokyo flights with a McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30ER in 1983.
Until flights had to go via Moscow or Anchorage due to Soviet airspace restrictions, but Finnair circumvented these by flying directly north from Helsinki, over the North Pole and back south through the Bering Strait, avoiding the Soviet airspace. However, Finnair did not have to make a roundabout because of the Soviet regulation on this route, but the Japanese authorities demanded it; the aircraft was fitted with extra fuel tanks. The routes through Soviet airspace and with a stopover in Moscow took 13 hours, but flights with a stopover at Anchorage took up to 16 hours, giving Finnair a competitive edge. In the spring of 1986, Soviet regulators cleared the way for Air France and Japan Airlines to fly nonstop Paris-Tokyo services over Soviet airspace, putting Finnair at a disadvantage. Finnair launched a Helsinki-Beijing route in 1988, making Finnair the first Western European carrier to fly non-stop between Europe and China. In 1989, Finnair became the launch customer for the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, the first of, delivered on 7 December 1990.
The first revenue service with the MD-11 took place on 20 December 1990, with OH-LGA operating a flight from Helsinki to Tenerife in the Canary Islands. In 1997, the subsidiaries Kar-Air and Finnaviation became wholly owned by Finnair, were integrated into the mainline operations. On 25 September 1997, the company's official name was changed to Finnair Oyj. In 1999, Finnair joined the Oneworld airline alliance. In 2001, Finnair reused the name "Aero" when establishing Aero Airlines, a subsidiary airline based in Tallinn, Estonia. In 2003, Finnair acquired ownership of the Swedish low-cost airline, FlyNordic, which operated within Scandinavia. In 2007, Finnair sold all its shares in FlyNordic to Norwegian Air Shuttle; as part of the transaction, Finnair acquired 4.8% of the latter company, becoming its third largest shareholder. Finnair sold their shares in 2013. On 8 March 2007, Finnair became the first airline to order the Airbus A350 XWB aircraft, placing an order for 11 Airbus A350 XWB, with delivery to start in 2015.
Finnair has suffered from many labour disputes in this pe
Synopsys is an American company. Synopsys' first and best-known product is a logic-synthesis tool. Synopsys offers a wide range of other products used in the design of an application-specific integrated circuit. Products include logic synthesis, behavioral synthesis and route, static timing analysis, formal verification, hardware description language simulators as well as transistor-level circuit simulation; the simulators include development and debugging environments which assist in the design of the logic for chips and computer systems. In recent years Synopsys has expanded into the application security market. Founded in 1986 by Aart J. de Geus and engineers from General Electric's Microelectronics Center in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, Synopsys was first established as "Optimal Solutions" with a charter to develop and market synthesis technology developed by the team at General Electric. 1994: acquired Cadis, Germany. Through this acquisition Synopsys got the communication systems and DSP design tool suit named COSSAP.
COSSAP stood for Communication System Application Processor. Synopsys carried out various communication consulting activities using this tool; the Cadis group was a spin-off development initiative from Institute for Integrated Signal Processing Systems, RWTH Aachen, spearheaded by Professor Heinrich Meyr and Professor Gerd Ascheid. COSSAP was a competing product to SPW from Cadence. Synopsys stopped support on COSSAP since 2003 and promoted the enhanced tool Concentric System Studio. 1997: acquired EPIC Design Technology Inc. USA 1997: acquired Viewlogic Systems, Inc. USA 1998: acquired Inc.. June 6, 2002: merger with Avanti Corporation, USA. Avanti was founded when several ex-Cadence employees bought the startup ArcSys, which had merged with ISS, gaining Avanti its DRC/LVS tool Hercules bought Compass Design Automation, which had integrated IC Design Flow and ASIC Libraries its place and route tool, which Avanti reworked to create Saturn and Apollo II; this was, by far, Synopsys' most controversial acquisition.
At the time Avanti was the #4 company in the EDA industry, was struggling with a major lawsuit from Cadence for software theft. September 12, 2002: acquired Co-Design Automation, Inc. USA. Co-Design pioneered the Superlog language, a superset of the popular Verilog hardware description language, extending its capabilities into verification and system design. Superlog formed the basis of The SystemVerilog language standardized by Accelera in 2003. September 20, 2002: acquired inSilicon Inc. USA March 3, 2003: acquired Inc.. USA, a pioneer in design for manufacturing software which included CATS mask fracturing. Synopsys paid about $250 million in cash. February 23, 2004: acquired Accelerant Networks, USA February 26, 2004: acquired assets of Analog Design Automation, Inc. USA October 2004: acquired assets of Monterey Design Systems, Inc. USA October 18, 2004: acquired Cascade Semiconductor Solutions Inc. USA November 2, 2004: acquired Switzerland, a TCAD company. November 2, 2004: acquired assets of LEDA Design, Inc.
USA, a developer of mixed-signal intellectual property. 2004: After acquiring Monterey Arset and Leda Design, Opened Synopsys Armenia. Home to 8% of the company's worldwide engineering force. December 1, 2004: agreement to acquire Nassda Corp. USA, an integrated circuit simulator company and settle the litigation between the two companies December 7, 2005: Acquired HPL Technologies, a semiconductor analysis software manufacturer that makes software specializing in wafer design analysis and yield enhancement for wafer process. May 16, 2006, announced expanding its presence in electronic system-level design by acquiring Virtio Corporation, creator of virtual platforms for embedded software development. June 21, 2006: Santiago Chile, Synopsys R&D Center Chile Opening. August 16, 2006: Acquired Sigma-C a Munich-based lithography simulation company. June 18, 2007: Acquired ArchPro Design Automation Inc. July 30, 2007: Purchased certain semiconductor IP assets from MOSAID Technologies. October 2, 2007: Acquired Sandwork Design.
March 30, 2008: Announced acquisition of Synplicity, the leader in FPGA synthesis and rapid prototyping technology. December 18, 2008: Acquired ChipIT Business Unit from ProDesign Electronic GmbH, Germany May 8, 2009: Acquired Analog Business Group from MIPS Technologies Feb 2, 2010: Acquires VaST Systems Technology Corporation. Feb 8, 2010: Announces an acquisition of Coware Inc. June 10, 2010: Announces an acquisition of Synfora Inc. June 10, 2010: Announces definitive agreement to acquire Virage Logic Sep 2, 2010: Announces an acquisition of Virage Logic Corporation. Oct 7, 2010: Announces an acquisition of Optical Research Associates. Sep 2, 2011: Announces an acquisition of nSys Design Systems. Oct 7, 2011: Announces an acquisition of Extreme DA. Nov 2011: Announces an acquisition of Magma Design Automation for $7.35/Share In Cash. Feb 15, 2012: Completes acquisition of the mask patterning business of Luminescent Technologies, Inc. thus adding Inverse Lithography Technology to its manufacturing product line.
Feb 22, 2012: Completes acquisition of Magma Design Automation with the cash value of transaction of about $523 million, or $7.35 per Magma share. May 8, 2012: Announces an acquisition of RSoft Design Group. July 30, 2012: Announces acquisition of Ciranova. Au
Vantaa is a city and municipality in Finland. It is part of the inner core of the Finnish Capital Region along with Helsinki and Kauniainen. With a population of 228,678, Vantaa is the fourth most populated city of Finland. Vantaa is bordered by the Finnish capital, to the south; the city encompasses 240.35 square kilometres. The largest airport in Finland, the main airport and airline hub of Greater Helsinki, the Helsinki Airport, is located in Vantaa. Companies with headquarters in Vantaa include Finnair, Finavia, R-kioski, Tikkurila Oyj, Veikkaus Oy, Metsähallitus; the city hosts a science center, Heureka. The city of Vantaa is bilingual, both Finnish and Swedish being official languages. 88.6 % of the population are Finnish speakers. 8.4 % of the population speak a native language other than Swedish. Vantaa has a rich history; the area was inhabited by Tavastians and Finns proper until the so-called second crusade to Finland and Swedish colonisation of the area. Prior to the name Vantaa being taken into use in 1974, the area was known as Helsingin Pitäjä.
The earliest record of the area is as Helsinge in 1351 when king Magnus II of Sweden granted salmon fishing rights on the river Vantaa to the Estonian Padise monastery. The rapids of river Vantaa were known as Helsingfors, from which the current Swedish name of Helsinki derives. Early settlement in Vantaa was centered around the river, in Helsingin pitäjän kirkonkylä, from it the city's current coat of arms derived its imagery. Since the 14th century, the road between Turku and Vyborg, King's Road, has run through Vantaa; the road brought significant attention to the city, its location on the salmon rich river led to a permanent population. Ore deposits in Helsingin Pitäjä had been discovered in the 1700s, but weren't utilized until Finland transferred to Russian control in the early 1800s. Ore extraction and processing lead to rapid industrialization in the area, with communities forming around locations like Tikkurila and Kerava; the industrial community in Tikkurila included an expeller pressing plant, which operates in the area as the paint manufacturer Tikkurila Oyj.
In 1862, the railway between Helsinki and Hämeenlinna was constructed, one of its seven stations was built in Tikkurila, on its intersection with King's Road. The Swedish architect Carl Albert Edelfelt designed a Renaissance Revival styled station building, the oldest extant station building in Finland and has been adapted into the Vantaa City Museum; the railway brought industry and induced population growth. Helsingin Pitäjä gained municipality rights in 1865, after which it was named Helsingin maalaiskunta. In 1952, the new international airport of Helsinki opened in Vantaa for the 1952 Summer Olympics. In 1972, the municipality was promoted to a köping. In 1974, the town got full city rights as Vantaan kaupunki/Vanda stad or "City of Vantaa"; the city grew starting from 1960's and a railway line was built to the western side of the city in 1970's. On October 11, 2002, a bomb exploded in the mall of Myyrmanni in Myyrmäki district, killing 7 and injuring 166 people. In 2015, an extension to the existing railway line, the Ring Rail Line opened, providing service to the airport and new residential and working districts.
Vantaa is located in the region of Uusimaa and the Helsinki sub-region. It is separated from the Gulf of Finland by Helsinki. Prior to the abolition of Finnish provinces in 2009, Vantaa was a part of the Southern Finland Province; the city borders Helsinki, the Finnish capital, to the south and southwest. Other neighbouring municipalities are Espoo to the west. Vantaa is a part of the Finnish Capital Region, the inner core of the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area. Vantaa is divided into seven major regions: Tikkurila, Koivukylä, Aviapolis, Myyrmäki, Kivistö; these major regions are divided into a total of 60 city districts, the most populated of which are Myyrmäki, Martinlaakso and Pakkala. Vantaa encompasses 240.35 square kilometres. The city is suburban and urban area with some rural landscape, notably in the districts of Sotunki and Seutula. Average population density is 959.34/km2, which rises above 5,000 inhabitants per square kilometre in concentrated urban districts like Myyrmäki and Tikkurila.
The river Vantaa runs through western Vantaa, its tributary Keravanjoki runs through eastern Vantaa. For its area, Vantaa has few lakes; the city encompasses two natural lakes: Kuusijärvi in Kuninkaanmäki and Lammaslampi Pähkinärinne, Hämeenkylä. In addition to these, there is Silvolan tekojärvi. Vantaa shares two lakes with Espoo: Pitkäjärvi. Vantaa exhibits frequent exposed granite bedrock ground, common in Finland. Resulting from erosion in the last glacial period, elevated surfaces lack soil, revealing bare stone unsuitable for most plant life. Other geological impacts of the last Ice Age include a series of eskers running through c
Lahti is a city and municipality in Finland. Lahti is the capital of the region of Päijänne Tavastia, it is situated on a bay at the southern end of lake Vesijärvi about 100 kilometres north-east of the capital Helsinki. In English, the Finnish word Lahti means bay; the Lahti region is one of the main economic hubs of Finland. The coat of arms of the city depicts a train wheel surrounded by flames. Lahti was first mentioned in documents in 1445; the village belonged to the parish of Hollola and was located at the medieval trade route of Ylinen Viipurintie, which linked the towns of Hämeenlinna and Viipuri. The completion of the Riihimäki – St. Petersburg railway line in 1870 and the Vesijärvi canal in 1871 turned Lahti into a lively station, industrial installations began to spring up around it. For a long time, the railway station at Vesijärvi Harbour was the second busiest station in Finland. Craftsmen, merchants, a few civil servants and a lot of industrial workers soon mixed in with the existing agricultural peasantry.
On 19 June 1877 the entire village was burned to the ground. However, the accident proved to be a stroke of luck for the development of the place, as it led to the authorities resuming their deliberations about establishing a town in Lahti; the village was granted market town rights in 1878 and an empire-style, grid town plan was approved, which included a large market square and wide boulevards. This grid plan still forms the basis of the city center. Most of the buildings were low wooden houses bordering the streets. Lahti was founded during a period of severe economic recession; the Russian Empire was encumbered by the war against Turkey. The recession slowed down the building of the township: land would not sell and plots were not built on for some time. In its early years, the town with its meagre 200 inhabitants was too small to provide any kind of foundation for trade. At the end of the 1890s, Lahti's Township Board increased its efforts to enable Lahti to be turned into a city. In spring 1904, the efforts bore fruit as the Senate approved of the application, although it was another eighteen months before Tsar Nicholas II gave his blessing and issued an ordinance for establishing the city of Lahti.
At the end of 1905, the area that now comprises Lahti accommodated around 8,200 people of whom just under 3,000 lived in the city itself. All essential municipal institutions were built in just ten years, including a hospital and a city hall. At the same time, a rapid increase in brick houses was taking place in the centre of the city; the Battle of Lahti was fought in the 1918 Finnish Civil War as the German Detachment Brandenstein took the town from the Reds. In the early 1920s the city gained possession of the grounds of the Lahti Manor, an important piece of land blocking the city from the lake. Large-scale industrial operations grew in the 1930s as did the population. Through the addition of new areas in 1924, 1933 and 1956, Lahti grew, both in terms of population and surface area. Strong was the growth after the wars, when Lahti accepted about 10,000 immigrants from Karelia, after the region was surrendered to the Soviet Union, later in the 1960 and 1970s as a result of mass urbanization.
The population growth came to a sharp end in 1975 and the city has since grown little, with the latest notable growth in population happening in 2016 when the municipality of Nastola became a part of Lahti. Under the Köppen climate classification, Lahti is right on the boundary between being a humid continental climate and a subarctic climate. Lahti harbors cultural ambitions, recent years saw the building of a large congress and concert center, the Sibelius Hall. Lahti has one of Finland's most known symphony orchestras, the Lahti Symphony Orchestra, which performs both classical and popular music, notably concentrating on music by Jean Sibelius. Lahti's annual music festival programme includes such events as Lahti Organ Festival, a jazz festival at the market square and Sibelius Festival. Lahti has a rich sporting tradition in various wintersports; the city is well known for the annually held Lahti Ski Games and the Finlandia-hiihto cross-country skiing contest. It is the only city to host the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships seven times, doing so in 1926, 1938, 1958, 1978, 1989, 2001 and 2017.
The Pelicans have competed in the top level of Finnish ice hockey, the Liiga, since 1999. Before the new millennium Reipas represented Lahti in top-flight hockey for 50 years. Many former NHL players, such as Janne Laukkanen, Toni Lydman and Pasi Nurminen, have started their careers in Reipas; the city's most successful association football club has been Kuusysi. In their golden years lasting from the early 1980s to the 1990s they won five Finnish championships as well as two Finnish Cup titles, with appearances in European competitions each year, their greatest rivals, won a total of three championships and seven cup titles from 1963 to 1978 but diminished in the early 1980s as Kuusysi got stronger. In the 1990s both clubs ended up in such massive financial difficulties that a merger was executed in 1996, with the newly formed club adopting a new name and colours. FC Lahti has played in the Veikkausliiga since 1999, excluding a season-long visit to the first division in 2011, placing third and appearing in Europe twice.
The 1997 World Games and the 2009 World Masters Athletics Championships were held in Lahti. For the 1952 Summer Olympics, some of the football
Espoo is the second largest city and municipality in Finland. It is part of the Finnish Capital Region, most of its population lives in the inner urban core of the Helsinki metropolitan area, along with the cities of Helsinki and Kauniainen. Espoo shares its eastern border with Vantaa, while enclosing Kauniainen; the city is located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, in the region of Uusimaa and has a population of 284,444. Other bordering municipalities of Espoo are Nurmijärvi and Vihti in the north, Kirkkonummi in the west; the national park of Nuuksio is situated in northwestern Espoo. Espoo encompasses 528 square kilometres. Espoo does not have a traditional city center, having instead several local regional centers. Espoo is thus divided into seven major areas: Vanha-Espoo, Suur-Espoonlahti, Pohjois-Espoo, Suur-Kauklahti, Suur-Leppävaara, Suur-Matinkylä, Suur-Tapiola. Aalto University is based in Otaniemi, along with a thriving science community that includes numerous startups and organizations such as VTT – the Technical Research Center of Finland.
Several major companies are based in Espoo, including Nokia, HMD Global, Tieto, KONE, Fortum, Orion Corporation, Outokumpu, as well as video game developers Rovio and Remedy Entertainment. The city of Espoo is bilingual; the majority of the population, 83.6%, speaks Finnish as their mother tongue, while a minority of 8.3% speaks Swedish. 8 % of Espoo's population has a first language other than Swedish. The name Espoo comes from the Swedish name for the River Espoo, Espå, which in turn comes from the old Swedish word äspe, meaning a border of aspen, the Swedish word for "river", å, thus "a river bordered by aspen"; the name was first mentioned in 1431. The banks of the River Espoo are today populated with aspen; the first inhabitants in the area arrived about 9,000 years ago. Physical evidence indicates agriculture from ca. 1000 AD. Up to the 13th century, the area was a borderland between the hunting grounds of Finnish Proper and Tavastian Finns, with a sparse population. Immigrants from Sweden established permanent agricultural settlements to the area from late 13th century onwards after the so-called Second Crusade to Finland.
Espoo was a subdivision of the Kirkkonummi congregation until 1486-7. The oldest known document referring to Kirkkonummi is from 1330; the construction of the Espoo Cathedral, the oldest preserved building in Espoo, marks the independence of Espoo. Administratively, Espoo was a part of Uusimaa; when the province was split to Eastern and Western provinces governed from the Porvoo and Raasepori castles the eastern border of the Raasepori province was in Espoo. The 13th century road connecting the most important cities in Finland at that time, the King's Road, passes through Espoo on its way from Stockholm via Turku and Porvoo to Viipuri. In 1557, King Gustaf Wasa decided to stabilize and develop the region by founding a royal mansion in Espoo; the government bought the villages of Espåby and Mankby and transferred the population elsewhere, built the royal mansion in Espåby. The royal mansion housed the king's local plenipotentiary, collected royal tax in kind paid by labor on the mansion's farm.
The administrative center Espoon keskus has grown around the church and the Espoo railway station, but the municipality has retained a network-like structure to the modern day. In 1920, Espoo was only a rural municipality of about 9,000 inhabitants, of whom 70% were Swedish speaking. Agriculture was the primary source of income, with 75% of the population making their living from farming. Kauniainen was separated from Espoo in 1920, it gained city rights the same year as Espoo, in 1972. Espoo started to grow in the 1940s and'50s, it developed from a rural municipality into a fully-fledged industrial city, gaining city rights in 1972. Due to its proximity to Helsinki, Espoo soon became popular amongst people working in the capital. In the fifty years from 1950 to 2000, the population of Espoo grew from 22,000 to 210,000. Since 1945, the majority of people in Espoo have been Finnish speaking. In 2006, the Swedish speaking inhabitants represented 9% of the total population; the population growth is still continuing, but at a slower rate.
Espoo is located in southern Finland, along the shore of the Gulf of Finland, in the region of Uusimaa and the Helsinki sub-region. Prior to the abolition of Finnish provinces in 2009, Espoo was a part of the Southern Finland Province; the city borders Helsinki, the Finnish capital, to the east. Other neighbouring municipalities are Vantaa to the east and northeast, Nurmijärvi to the north, Vihti to the northwest, Kirkkonummi to the west and southwest. Espoo is a part of the Finnish Capital Region, the inner core of the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area. Espoo is divided into seven major areas: Vanha-Espoo, Suur-Espoonlahti, Pohjois-Espoo, Suur-Kauklahti, Suur-Leppävaara, Suur-Matinkylä, Suur-Tapiola; these major areas are divided into a total of 56 districts. Although Espoo is highly populated, it has large amounts of natural wilderness in the city's western and northern portions; the city has a total of 71 lakes, the largest of which are Lake Bodom, Nuuksion
Mariehamn is the capital of Åland, an autonomous territory under Finnish sovereignty. Mariehamn is the seat of the Government and Parliament of Åland, 40% of the population of Åland live in the city. Like all of Åland, Mariehamn is unilingually Swedish-speaking and around 88% of the inhabitants speak it as their native language; the town was named after the Russian empress Maria Alexandrovna. Mariehamn was founded in 1861, around the village of Övernäs, in what was at the time part of the municipality of Jomala; the city has since incorporated more of Jomala territory. Mariehamn was built according to a regular scheme, well-preserved. One of the oldest streets is Södragatan where many wooden houses dating from the 19th century can be seen; the city is located on a peninsula. It has two important harbours, one located on the western shore and one on the eastern shore, which are ice-free for nearly the whole year, have no tides; the Western Harbour is an important international harbour with daily traffic to Sweden and mainland Finland.
A powerful incentive for Baltic ferries to stop at Mariehamn is that, with respect to indirect taxation, Åland is not part of the EU customs zone and so duty-free goods can be sold aboard. Åland and Mariehamn have a reputable heritage in shipping. The Flying P-Liner Pommern museum ship is anchored in the Western Harbour; the Eastern Harbour features one of the largest marinas in Scandinavia. The famous Dutch steamer Jan Nieveen can be found here. Mariehamn airport serves the city; the city is an important centre for Åland media. The islanders are traditionally fond of reading, had public libraries before 1920. A printing works was established in the town in 1891; the municipal library, built in 1989, is one of the most interesting modern buildings. Mariehamn features several buildings drawn by Finnish architect Lars Sonck, who moved to Åland as a child. Buildings drawn by him include the church of Mariehamn, the main building of the Åland Maritime College and the town hall. Hilda Hongell designed several buildings, although only a few are still standing.
A chart on population increase. Mariehamn has a transitional climate between humid continental climate with certain maritime influence as a result of the strong maritime moderation from being an island in the Baltic Sea; this renders summers to be cooler than both the Swedish and Finnish mainlands, with winters being similar in cold to the adjacent coastal part of Sweden but milder than Finland's mainland. Mariehamn is twinned with: Kópavogur, Iceland Kragerø, Norway Kuressaare, Estonia Lomonosov, Russia Slagelse, Denmark Tórshavn, Faroe Islands Valkeakoski, Finland Visby, Sweden Oberursel, Germany Anders Överström, professional footballer Official website Official Tourist Gateway of Mariehamn - Maarianhamina Mariehamn travel guide from Wikivoyage Map of Mariehamn Mariehamn. Tourist route