Which? is a brand name used by the Consumers' Association, a registered charity and company limited by guarantee, based in the United Kingdom. It exists to promote informed consumer choice in the purchase of goods and services by testing products, highlighting inferior products or services, raising awareness of consumer rights and offering independent advice; the association owns several businesses, including Which? Financial Services Limited, Which? Legal Limited and Which? Limited, which publishes the Which? magazine. The vast majority of the association's income comes from the profit it makes on its trading businesses, for instance subscriptions to Which? magazine, which are donated to the campaigning part of the organisation to fund advocacy activity and inform the public about consumer issues. Which? magazine maintains its independence by not accepting advertising, the organisation receives no government funding. The Consumers' Association is the largest consumer organisation in the UK, with over 573,000 subscribers to its magazine.
Until 2006, the association used prize draws similar to those of Reader's Digest to attract subscribers, but following criticism they were discontinued. The Association now attracts subscribers to its publications with free mini-guides and trial offers; the organisation was set up in 1957 as a response to the changing values and concerns of the post-war era, at a time of rapid changes in product markets and consumer behaviour – and a corresponding growth in sharp trading practices. To combat this, Michael Young, research director for the Labour Party, proposed setting up a'Consumer Advisory Service' to be considered for the party's 1950 manifesto, only to be rejected by Harold Wilson. Encouraged by the efforts of Dorothy Bruchholz Goodman, of the United States, Ray Goodman, Young continued to push the idea and in October 1957 the first Which? magazine was published from a converted garage in Bethnal Green. Its central aim was to improve the standard of goods and services available to the public in the UK.
Under the editorship of Eirlys Roberts, the publication started as a small 32-page magazine that included reports on electric kettles, aspirin, cake-mixes, scouring powders, no-iron cottons and British cars. By 1959, membership reached a membership services office in Hertford. In 1960, Which? helped to found the International Organisation of Consumer Unions Consumers International. In 1962, coverage expanded with the launch of the first quarterly Which? car supplement, which becomes Motoring Which? in 1965, followed by Money Which? in 1968. In 1970, Which? bought a set of buildings in Harpenden, Hertfordshire, to set up labs to test products including domestic appliances, DIY equipment, consumer electronics. The work had been contracted out; the 1970s saw Which? taking a greater campaigning role, it began to adopt a more aggressive stance on issues such as lead poisoning and aircraft noise. In 1971, for example, Which? Published the first league table on the tar and nicotine content of cigarettes.
The organisation dabbled in high street consumer advice centres during the 1970s. More than 120 such centres were operating in 1977-8, many of them funded by local councils; the centres closed as funding was withdrawn by the government in 1980. Which? continued campaigning on consumer safety issues, with its car safety test results strengthening calls to legislate car manufacturers to fit seat belts in all new cars, helping to make it compulsory to Clunk Click Every Trip in 1983. In 1992, Which? launched another satellite publication, this one aimed at youngsters aged 11–15, called Check It Out!, but it failed to take off and closed in June 1994. In 1995 testing facilities were moved to Milton Keynes where they remained until 2002, when the majority of the Which? Testing activities were contracted out. Which? Online, the first incarnation of the Which? website, was launched in 1996 which incorporated its own ISP, email and content in addition to the Which Online Forum - an area accessible to members which offered unfettered access to members of the senior management within Which?
Including the Directors. The trading organisation was rebranded as Which? in 2004 and this is the brand promoted to the general public. However the charity the Consumers' Association continues to own Which? Ltd and retains its own name. Following the deregulation of the gas and electricity industry, Which? launched a free online energy comparison service called Switch with Which? in 2005, to compare energy tariffs. The service was awarded Energywatch Confidence Code accreditation in 2006. In the 2010 Superbrands index, Which? Ranked fifth in the "Media — Newspapers and Magazines" category and 256th overall. Which? carries out systematic testing of consumer products and financial services, the results of which are published in reports in Which? magazine and on the Which? website. Tests are carried out on goods and suppliers. Testing covers reliability, safety, energy efficiency and value-for-money, as relevant in different cases. Top-rated products are awarded the Which?'Best Buy' status logo, an accreditation recognised by industry and consumers.
Which? First used the phrase in its second magazine edition in 1958. Conversely, the worst-performing products are labelled'Don't Buys'. Which? Awards The Which? Awards is an annual event to'celebrate the UK's best products and services, from cars and restaurants to supermarkets and financial services'. Award winners are selected by Which? staff, based on test findings and feedback from Which? members throughout the year. Unusual test subjects As well as the usual household products, Which? has tested things such as: Bird seed for budgerigars in 1959 Contracept
Financial Services Authority
The Financial Services Authority was a quasi-judicial body responsible for the regulation of the financial services industry in the United Kingdom between 2001 and 2013. It was founded as the Securities and Investments Board in 1985, its board was appointed by the Treasury. It was structured as a company limited by guarantee and was funded by fees charged to the financial services industry. Due to perceived regulatory failure of the banks during the financial crisis of 2007–2008, the UK government decided to restructure financial regulation and abolish the FSA. On 19 December 2012, the Financial Services Act 2012 received royal assent, abolishing the FSA with effect from 1 April 2013, its responsibilities were split between two new agencies: the Financial Conduct Authority and the Prudential Regulation Authority of the Bank of England. Until its abolition, Lord Turner of Ecchinswell was the FSA's chairman and Hector Sants was CEO until the end of June 2012, having announced his resignation on 16 March 2012.
Its main office was in Canary Wharf, with another office in Edinburgh. When acting as the competent authority for listing of shares on a stock exchange, it was referred to as the UK Listing Authority, maintained the Official List; the Securities and Investments Board Ltd was incorporated on 7 June 1985 at the instigation of the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer, the sole member of the company and who delegated certain statutory regulatory powers to it under the Financial Services Act 1986. It had the legal form of a company limited by guarantee. After a series of scandals in the 1990s, culminating in the collapse of Barings Bank, there was a desire to bring to an end the self-regulation of the financial services industry and to consolidate regulatory responsibilities, split amongst multiple regulators; the SIB revoked the recognition of The Financial Intermediaries and Brokers Regulatory Association as a Self-Regulatory Organisation in the United Kingdom in June 1994, subject to a transitional wind-down period to provide for continuity of regulation, whilst members moved to the Personal Investment Authority, which in turn was subsumed.
The name of the Securities and Investments Board was changed to the Financial Services Authority on 28 October 1997 and it started to exercise statutory powers given to it by the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 that replaced the earlier legislation and came into force on 1 December 2001. At that time the FSA took over the role of the Securities and Futures Authority, a self-regulatory organisation responsible for supervising the trading in shares and futures in the UK. In addition to regulating banks, insurance companies and financial advisers, the FSA regulated mortgage business from 31 October 2004 and general insurance intermediaries from 14 January 2005. On 16 June 2010, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, announced plans to abolish the FSA and separate its responsibilities between a number of new agencies and the Bank of England; the Financial Conduct Authority would be responsible for policing the financial activities of the City and the banking system. A new Prudential Regulation Authority would carry out the prudential regulation of financial firms, including banks, investment banks, building societies and insurance companies.
On 19 December 2012 the Financial Services Act 2012 received royal assent and came into force on 1 April 2013. The act created a new regulatory framework for financial services and abolished the FSA; the Act gave the Bank of England responsibility for financial stability, bringing together macro and micro prudential regulation, created a new regulatory structure consisting of the Bank of England's Financial Policy Committee, the Prudential Regulation Authority and the Financial Conduct Authority. The Financial Capability division of the FSA broke away from the organisation in 2010, became known as the Money Advice Service. Companies involved in any of the following activities had to be regulated by the FSA. Accepting deposits Issuing e-money Effecting or carrying out contracts of insurance as principal Dealing in investments Arranging deals in investments, regulated mortgage contracts, Mortgage Conduct of Business rules home reversion plans, or home purchase plans Managing investments Assisting in the administration and performance of a contract of insurance Safeguarding and administering investments Sending dematerialised instructions Establishing etc. collective investment schemes, personal pension schemes, or stakeholder pension schemes Advising on investments, regulated mortgage contracts, regulated home reversion plans, or regulated home purchase plans Lloyd's insurance market activities Entering into and administering a funeral plan, regulated mortgage contract, home reversion plan or a home purchase plan Agreeing to do most of the above activitiesFrom 14 January 2005 the FSA regulated the motor industry, applicable when insurance products were sold in conjunction with the vehicle purchase.
This regulation, which covered around 5,000 motor dealers, focused on the FSA's "Treating Customers Fairly" principles that were supposed to be representative of the motor dealers' trading style. The Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 imposed four statutory objectives upon the FSA: market confidence: maintaining confidence in the financial system.
UL (safety organization)
UL LLC is a global safety certification company headquartered in Northbrook, Illinois. It maintains offices in 46 countries. Established in 1894 as the Underwriters' Electrical Bureau, it was known throughout the 20th century as Underwriters Laboratories and participated in the safety analysis of many of that century's new technologies. UL is one of several companies approved to perform safety testing by the U. S. federal agency Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA maintains a list of approved testing laboratories, which are known as Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories. Underwriters Laboratories Inc. was founded in 1894 by William Henry Merrill. Early in his career as an electrical engineer in Boston, a 25-year-old Merrill was sent by underwriters issuing fire insurance to assess risk, investigate the World Fair's Palace of Electricity. In order to determine and mitigate risk, Merrill found it necessary to conduct tests on building materials. Upon seeing a growing potential in his field, Merrill stayed in Chicago to found Underwriters Laboratories.
Merrill soon went to work developing standards, launching tests, designing equipment and uncovering hazards. Aside from his work at UL, Merrill served as the National Fire Protection Association's secretary-treasurer and president and was an active member of the Chicago Board and Union Committee. In 1916, Merrill became UL's first president. UL published its first standard, "Tin Clad Fire Doors", in 1903. In 1905, UL established a Label Service for certain product categories that require more frequent inspections. In 1906, UL introduced the UL Mark to indicate products. UL inspectors conducted the first factory inspections on labeled products at manufacturers' facilities. UL has expanded into an organization with 64 laboratories and certification facilities serving customers in 104 countries, it has evolved from its roots in electrical and fire safety to address broader safety issues, such as hazardous substances, water quality, food safety, performance testing and compliance education and environmental sustainability.
On January 1, 2012, Underwriters Laboratories transformed from a non-profit organization to a for-profit company in the U. S. A new subsidiary named UL LLC, a limited liability corporation, took over Underwriters Laboratories’ product testing and certification business. Sustainability Standards UL 106, Standard for Sustainability for Luminaires UL 110, Standard for Sustainability for Mobile PhonesStandards for Electrical and Electronic Products UL 153, Portable Electric Lamps UL 197, Commercial Electrical Cooking Appliances UL 796, Printed-Wiring Boards UL 1026, Electric Household Cooking and Food Serving Appliances UL 1492, Audio/Video Products and Accessories UL 1598, Luminaires UL 1642, Lithium Batteries UL 1995, Heating and Cooling Equipment UL 2267 Standard for Safety - Fuel Cell Power Systems for Installation in Industrial Electric Trucks UL 6500, Audio/Video and Musical Instrument Apparatuses for Household and Similar General Uses UL 60065, Audio and Similar Electronic Apparatuses: Safety Requirements UL 60335-1, Household and Similar Electrical Appliances, Part 1: General Requirements UL 60335-2-24, Household and Similar Electrical Appliances, Part 2: Particular Requirements for Motor Compressors UL 60335-2-3, Household and Similar Electrical Appliances, Part 2: Particular Requirements for Electric Irons UL 60335-2-34, Household and Similar Electrical Appliances, Part 2: Particular Requirements for Motor Compressors UL 60335-2-8, Household and Similar Electrical Appliances, Part 2: Particular Requirements for Shavers, Hair Clippers and Similar Appliances UL 60950, Information Technology Equipment UL 60950-1, Information Technology Equipment - Safety, Part 1: General Requirements UL 60950-21, Information Technology Equipment - Safety, Part 21: Remote Power Feeding UL 60950-22, Information Technology Equipment - Safety, Part 22: Equipment to be Installed Outdoors UL 60950-23, Information Technology Equipment - Safety, Part 23: Large Data Storage EquipmentLife Safety Standards UL 217, Single- and Multiple- Station Smoke Alarms UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems UL 268A, Smoke Detectors for Duct Application UL 1626, Residential Sprinklers for Fire Protection Service UL 1971, Signaling Devices for the Hearing ImpairedStandards for Building Products UL 10A, Tin-Clad Fire Doors UL 20, General-Use Snap Switches UL 486E, Equipment Wiring Terminals for Use with Aluminum and/or Copper Conductors UL 1256, Fire Test of Roof/Deck ConstructionsStandards for Industrial Control Equipment UL 508, Industrial Control Equipment UL 508A, Industrial Control Panels UL 508C, Power Conversion Equipment UL 61800-5-1, Adjustable Speed Electrical Power Drive SystemsStandards for Plastic Materials UL 94, Tests for Flammability of Plastic Materials for Parts in Devices and Appliances UL 746A, Polymeric Materials: Short-Term Property Evaluations UL 746B, Polymeric Materials: Long-Term Property Evaluations UL 746C, Polymeric Materials: Use in Electrical Equipment Evaluations UL 746D, Polymeric Materials: Fabricated Parts UL 746E, Polymeric Materials: Industrial Laminates, Filament Wound Tubing, Vulcanized Fiber and Materials Used in Printed-Wiring Boards UL 746F, Polymeric Materials: -– Flexible Dielectric Film Materials for Use in Printed-Wiring Boards and Flexible Materials Interconnect ConstructionsStandards for Wire and Cable UL 62, Flexible Cords and Cables UL 758, Appliance Wiring Material UL 817, Cord Sets and Power Supply Cords UL 2556, Wire and Cable Test MethodsStandards for Canada developed by ULC Standards, a member of the UL family of companies CAN/ULC-S101-07, Standard Methods for Fire Endurance Tests of Buil
Consumers International is the membership organisation for consumer groups around the world. Founded on 1 April 1960, it has over 250 member organisations in 120 countries, its head office is based in London, with regional offices in Latin America, Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa. Consumers International is a not-for-profit company limited by guarantee, company number 04337865 and registered charity number 1122155; the organisation was first established in 1960 as the International Organisation of Consumers Unions by national consumer organisations who wanted to create cross-border campaigns and share knowledge. IOCU was founded by Elizabeth Schadee, who would chair the board of the Netherlands' Consumentenbond, Caspar Brook, the first director of the United Kingdom's Consumers' Association; the two proposed an international conference to plan for consumer product testing organisations worldwide to work more together. The United States organization Consumers Union provided US$10,000 at the request of Colston Warne to help fund the event.
In January 1960, these three organisations sponsored the First International Conference on Consumer Testing in The Hague. Thirty-four people representing seventeen consumer organisations in fourteen countries attended to discuss product testing and founding the International Organisation of Consumers Unions as an international organisation. Belgium's Association des Consommateurs and the Australian Consumers' Association joined the three conference sponsors as the five founding organisations who became the international organisation's initial council. Consumers International has over 250 member organisations in 120 countries; these members are independent consumer organisations. About two-thirds of member organisations are in economically developing countries, the other third in industrialised countries. Consumers International works with and hosts the Transatlantic Consumer Dialogue a forum of US and EU consumer organisations that develops and agrees on consumer policy recommendations to the US government and European Union to promote the consumer interest in EU and US policy making – at its office in London.
On 15 March 1962 former US President John F. Kennedy said: Consumers by definition include us all, they are the largest economic group and affected by every public and private economic decision. Yet they are the only important group… whose views are not heard. Consumer rights activist Anwar Fazal working for Consumers International at the time proposed the observance of a'World Consumer Rights Day' marking that date, on 15 March 1983 consumer organisations started observing that date as an occasion to promote basic rights of consumers. World Consumer Rights Day is an annual occasion for celebration and solidarity within the international consumer movement. Participants observe the day by promoting the basic rights of all consumers, demanding that those rights are respected and protected, protesting about the market abuses and social injustices which undermine them. World Consumer Rights Day is celebrated on 15 March every year; the theme for 2018 is Fairer Digital Marketplaces. Consumers International is calling for: 1.
Access to fair and secure internet as half of the world is still offline. 2. Action against scams and fraud. 3. Better general consumer protection online. Consumers International seek to achieve changes in government policy and corporate behaviour, whilst raising awareness of consumer rights and responsibilities, its campaigns fall under the themes of consumer justice and protection, food policy, digital consumer rights and sustainability. Consumers International has campaigned on issues like junk food marketing and unethical drug promotion, corporate social responsibility and unethical or unsustainable behaviour by corporations and governments. In 1979, IOCU and other citizens’ groups formed the International Baby Food Action Network to eradicate the death and disease affecting millions of babies in economically developing countries as a result of consuming bottle-fed formula milk. After intense campaigning by IBFAN, including organising consumer boycotts against the likes of Nestlé, whose subtle yet effective campaigns were undermining breast feeding, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization, adopted the International Code of Marketing on Breast Milk Substitutes the first such code designed to control widespread marketing abuses by baby food companies.
In 1981, Consumers International co-founded the Health Action International, an informal network of some 120 consumer and public interest groups, HAI engaged in worldwide campaigns for the safe and economic use of pharmaceuticals. At the 41st World Health Assembly in 1987, HAI organised a large lobby of delegates to urge stronger controls on advertising by the drugs industry. Consumers International works with the International Organization for Standardization to create Standards that provide solutions to global challenges, it holds General Consultative Status to the United Nations Social Council. This is the highest status granted by the United Nations to non-governmental organizations, allowing them to participate in the work of the United Nations. Consumers International has staff working in five areas of the world: London, CI Global Office Chile, Latin America and the Caribbean South Africa, Africa Malaysia, Asia Pacific Oman, Middle East Sim, Foo Gaik. IOCU on record: a documentary history of the International Organization of Consumers Unions, 1960-1990.
Yonkers, N. Y.: Consumers Union. ISBN 0890435316. Official website Official website
Campaign for Real Ale
The Campaign for Real Ale is an independent voluntary consumer organisation headquartered in St Albans, which promotes real ale, real cider and the traditional British pub. With over 191,000 members, it is now the largest single-issue consumer group in the UK, is a founding member of the European Beer Consumers Union; the organisation was founded in 1971 in Kruger's bar in Dunquin, Ireland by Michael Hardman, Graham Lees, Jim Makin, Bill Mellor, who were opposed to the growing mass production of beer and the homogenisation of the British brewing industry. The original name was the Campaign for the Revitalisation of Ale. Following the formation of the Campaign, the first annual general meeting took place in 1972, at the Rose Inn in Coton Road, Nuneaton. Early membership consisted of their friends, yet interest in CAMRA and its objectives spread with 5,000 members signed up by 1973. Other early influential members included Christopher Hutt, author of Death of the English Pub, who succeeded Hardman as chairman, Frank Baillie, author of The Beer Drinker's Companion, the many times Good Beer Guide editor, Roger Protz.
On 31 March 2016, founder Michael Hardman returned to chair a Revitalisation Project Steering Group. The aim of the Revitalisation Project was to review the organisation's future direction. Consultation meetings took place in the spring and summer of 2016, further discussion took place at the Bournemouth AGM and Conference in spring 2017 leading to possible refinement of proposals subject to a final vote of all members at spring 2018's AGM and Conference. At that 2018 meeting all but one of the proposed special resolutions were passed by voting, which all members could participate in; the failed special resolution related to a proposal for the Campaign to act as the voice and represent the interests of all pub-goers and beer and perry drinkers. CAMRA's stated aims are: To secure the long term future of real ale, real cider and real perry by increasing their quality and popularity To promote and protect pubs and clubs as social centres as part of the UK's cultural heritage To increase recognition of the benefits of responsible, moderate social drinking To play a leading role in the provision of information and training to all those with an interest in beer and perry of any type To ensure, where possible, that producers and retailers of beer and perry act in the best interests of the customer.
CAMRA's campaigns include promoting small brewing and pub businesses, reforming licensing laws, reducing tax on beer, stopping continued consolidation among local British brewers. It makes an effort to promote less common varieties of beer, including stout and mild, as well as traditional cider and perry. CAMRA does not support the promotion and sale of keg based craft beer in the UK. CAMRA's Internal Policy document states that real ale can only be served without the use of additional carbonation; this policy means that "any beer brand, produced in both cask and keg versions" is not admitted to CAMRA festivals if the brewery's marketing is deemed to imply an equivalence of quality or character between the two versions. In 2009, CAMRA announced that it had reached the 100,000 members mark and subsequently went on to pass the 150,000 members mark in 2013. Member benefits include a monthly newspaper, What's Brewing and a quarterly BEER magazine, free or reduced price admission to CAMRA-organised beer festivals.
In recent times CAMRA has obtained benefits for its members from some commercial organisations and some licensed premises offer members price reductions on real ale. CAMRA is organised on a federal basis, with numerous independent local branches, each covering a particular geographical area of the UK, that contribute to the central body of the organisation based in St Albans, it is governed by a voluntary unpaid national executive, elected by the membership. The local branches are grouped into 16 regions such as the West Midlands or Wessex. CAMRA publishes the Good Beer Guide, an annually compiled directory of its recommended pubs and brewers. CAMRA members receive a monthly newspaper called What's Brewing and a quarterly colour magazine called Beer, it runs the Great British Beer Festival, a yearly event held in London at which a large selection of cask ales and ciders are tasted. It maintains a National Inventory of Historic Pub Interiors to help bring greater recognition and protection to Britain's most historic pubs.
In 2013 CAMRA launched public access to a national pub database website called Whatpub.com. CAMRA supports and promotes beer and cider festivals around the country, which are organised by local CAMRA branches; each festival charges an entry fee which either covers entry only or includes a commemorative glass showing the details of the festival. A festival programme is also provided, with a list and description of the drinks available. Members get discounted or free entrance to CAMRA festivals; the Campaign organises the annual Great British Beer Festival in August. It is now held in the Great, National & West Halls at the Olympia Exhibition Centre, in Kensington, having been held for a few years at Earl's Court as well as regionally in the past at venues such as Brighton and Leeds. CAMRA presents awards for beers and pubs, such as the National Pub of the Year, in which 4,000 active CAMRA members from 200 local branches vote for their favourite pub of the year; the branch winners are entered into 16 regional c
AARP is a United States-based interest group whose stated mission is "to empower people to choose how they live as they age." According to the organization, it had more than 38 million members as of 2018. AARP was founded in 1958 by Ethel Percy Andrus and Leonard Davis, it is an influential lobbying group in the United States focusing on seniors issues. AARP sells paid memberships, markets insurance and other services to its members, its "Fraud Watch" includes write-ups by FBI advisor Frank Abagnale. According to the group's official history, Dr. Ethel Percy Andrus founded AARP in 1958. AARP evolved from the National Retired Teachers Association, which Andrus had established in 1947 to promote her philosophy of productive aging, to promote health insurance for retired teachers. After ten years, she opened the organization to all Americans over 50, creating AARP. Today, the NRTA is a division within AARP. Critics of AARP offer an alternative version of the group's origins. 60 Minutes reported in a 1978 exposé that AARP had been established as a marketing device by Leonard Davis, founder of the Colonial Penn Group insurance companies, after he met Ethel Percy Andrus.
According to critics, until the 1980s AARP was controlled by Davis, who promoted its image as a non-profit advocate of retirees in order to sell insurance to members. As a result of this report, AARP conducted a competitive bidding process, and, in 1980, shifted the insurance contracts available to members to Prudential Financial. In the 1990s, the United States Senate investigated AARP's non-profit status, with Republican Senator Alan K. Simpson chairman of the United States Senate Finance Subcommittee on Social Security and Family Policy, questioning the organization's tax-exempt status in congressional hearings. According to Charles Blahous, the investigations did not reveal sufficient evidence to change the organization's status, though in an interview years by The Des Moines Register, Senator Simpson remained "troubled by AARP's practices", calling AARP "the biggest marketing operation in America and money-maker" and an organization whose practices are "the greatest abuse of American generosity I witnessed in my time in the U.
S. Senate"; the organization was named the American Association of Retired Persons, but in 1999 it changed its name to "AARP" to reflect that its focus was no longer American retirees. For a full membership, AARP no longer requires that members be retired, but they must be at least age 50. AARP offers associate memberships for anyone age 18 or older, that automatically converts to full membership on the individual's 50th birthday. AARP addresses issues affecting older Americans through lobbying efforts at the state and national governmental level, an activity permitted by its 501 status; the organization says that it is non-partisan and does not support, oppose or give money to any candidates or political parties. The total revenue for 2006 was $1 billion and it spent $23 million on lobbying. Middle-class security has been a major focus for the organization in recent years. AARP provides extensive consumer information, volunteer opportunities, events including the annual National Event & Expo.
AARP launched Life Reimagined in May 2013, calling it a "first-of-its-kind series of online and offline experiences that guide people through life transitions by helping them discover new possibilities and connect with a community of people pursuing similar passions and goals". USA Today called the iniative "the latest step for the AARP... as it continues to rebrand itself and become the go-to address for feeling good about aging." AARP has several affiliated organizations, including: AARP Foundation, a 501c3 non-profit charity that helps people over age 50 who are at social and economic risk. C. AARP Financial Services Corporation, a for-profit corporation that holds AARP's real estate. According to its 2015 Consolidated Financial Statement, the largest sources of income were: royalties for the rights to use AARP's intellectual property paid by commercial providers of products and discounts for AARP members. AARP Services, Inc. founded in 1999, is a wholly owned taxable subsidiary of AARP that manages the range of products and services offered as benefits to members.
Its offers include Medicare supplemental insurance. AARP Services founded AARP Financial Incorporated, a subsidiary that
In regulatory jurisdictions that provide for it, consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers as well as fair trade and accurate information in the marketplace. The laws are designed to prevent the businesses that engage in fraud or specified unfair practices from gaining an advantage over competitors, they may provide additional protection for those most vulnerable in society. Consumer protection laws are a form of government regulation that aim to protect the rights of consumers. For example, a government may require businesses to disclose detailed information about products—particularly in areas where safety or public health is an issue, such as food. Consumer protection is linked to the idea of consumer rights and to the formation of consumer organizations, which help consumers make better choices in the marketplace and get help with consumer complaints. Other organizations that promote consumer protection include government organizations and self-regulating business organizations such as consumer protection agencies and organizations, the Federal Trade Commission in America and Better Business Bureaus in America and Canada, etc.
A consumer is defined as someone who acquires goods or services for direct use or ownership rather than for resale or use in production and manufacturing. Consumer interests can be protected by promoting competition in the markets which directly and indirectly serve consumers, consistent with economic efficiency, but this topic is treated in competition law. Consumer protection can be asserted via non-government organizations and individuals as consumer activism. Consumer protection law or consumer law is considered as an area of law that regulates private law relationships between individual consumers and the businesses that sell those goods and services. Consumer protection covers a wide range of topics, including but not limited to product liability, privacy rights, unfair business practices, misrepresentation, other consumer/business interactions. It's a way of preventing frauds and scams from service and sales contracts, eligible fraud, bill collector regulation, utility turnoffs, personal loans that may lead to bankruptcy.
The following lists consumer legislation at the nation-state level. In the EU member states Germany and the United Kingdom there is the applicability of law at the EU level to be considered. In Australia, the corresponding agency is the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission or the individual State Consumer Affairs agencies; the Australian Securities and Investments Commission has responsibility for consumer protection regulation of financial services and products. However, in practice, it does so through run EDR schemes such as the Financial Ombudsman Service. In Brazil, consumer protection is regulated by the Consumer's Defense Code, as mandated by the 1988 Constitution of Brazil. Germany, as a member state of the European Union, is bound by the consumer protection directives of the European Union. A minister of the federal cabinet is responsible for protection. In the current cabinet of Angela Merkel, this is Katarina Barley; when issuing public warnings about products and services, the issuing authority has to take into account that this affects the supplier's constitutionally protected economic liberty, see Bundesverwaltungsgericht Case 3 C 34.84, 71 BVerwGE 183).
In India, consumer protection is specified in The Consumer Protection Act, 1986. Under this law, Separate Consumer Dispute Redress Forums have been set up throughout India in each and every district in which a consumer can file his complaint on a simple paper with nominal court fees and his complaint will be decided by the Presiding Officer of the District Level; the complaint can be filed by both the consumer of a goods as well as of the services. An appeal could be filed to the State Consumer Disputes Redress Commissions and after that to the National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission; the procedures in these tribunals are less formal and more people friendly and they take less time to decide upon a consumer dispute when compared to the years long time taken by the traditional Indian judiciary. In recent years, many effective judgment have been passed by some state and National Consumer Forums. Indian Contract Act, 1872 lays down the conditions in which promises made by parties to a contract will be binding on each other.
It lays down the remedies available to aggregate party if the other party fails to honor his promise. The Sale of Goods Act of 1930 act provides some safeguards to buyers of goods if goods purchased do not fulfill the express or implied conditions and warranties; the Agriculture Produce Act of 1937 act provides grade standards for agricultural commodities and live stock products. It specifies the conditions which govern the use of standards and lays down the procedure for grading and packaging of agricultural produce; the quality mark provided under the act is known as AGMARK-Agricultural Marketing. The Nigerian government has a duty to protect its people from any form of harm to human health through the use and purchase of items to meet daily needs. In light of this, the Nigerian Consumer Protection Council, whose aim is to protect and enhance consumers' interest through information and enforcement of the rights of consumers was established by an Act of Parliament to promote and protect the interest of consumers over all pro