Ambrose Everett Burnside was an American soldier, railroad executive, inventor and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a United States Senator. His distinctive style of facial hair became known as sideburns, derived from his last name and he was the first president of the National Rifle Association. Burnside was born in Liberty and was the fourth of nine children of Edghill and Pamela Brown Burnside and his great-great-grandfather Robert Burnside was born in Scotland and settled in the Province of South Carolina. His father was a native of South Carolina, he was an owner who freed his slaves when he relocated to Indiana. Ambrose attended Liberty Seminary as a boy, but his education was interrupted when his mother died in 1841, he was apprenticed to a local tailor. He graduated in 1847, ranking 18th in a class of 47 and he traveled to Veracruz for the Mexican–American War, but he arrived after hostilities had ceased and performed mostly garrison duty around Mexico City. In 1849, he was wounded by an arrow in his neck during a skirmish against Apaches in Las Vegas and he was promoted to 1st lieutenant on December 12,1851.
In 1852, he was assigned to Fort Adams, Rhode Island, the marriage lasted until Marys death in 1876, but it was childless. In October 1853, Burnside resigned his commission in the United States Army and he devoted his time and energy to the manufacture of the famous firearm that bears his name, the Burnside carbine. President Buchanans Secretary of War John B, Floyd contracted the Burnside Arms Company to equip a large portion of the Army with his carbine, mostly cavalry, and induced him to establish extensive factories for its manufacture. The Bristol Rifle Works were no sooner complete than another gunmaker allegedly bribed Floyd to break his $100,000 contract with Burnside, Burnside ran as a Democrat for one of the Congressional seats in Rhode Island in 1858 and was defeated in a landslide. The burdens of the campaign and the destruction by fire of his contributed to his financial ruin. He went west in search of employment and became treasurer of the Illinois Central Railroad, McClellan, who became one of his commanding officers.
At the outbreak of the Civil War, Burnside was a general in the Rhode Island Militia. He raised the 1st Rhode Island Volunteer Infantry Regiment, and was appointed its colonel on May 2,1861, two companies of this regiment were armed with Burnside Carbines. Within a month, he ascended to command in the Department of Northeast Virginia. He commanded the brigade without distinction at the First Battle of Bull Run in July, and took over division command temporarily for wounded Brig. Gen. David Hunter. His 90-day regiment was mustered out of service on August 2 and he conducted a successful amphibious campaign that closed more than 80% of the North Carolina sea coast to Confederate shipping for the remainder of the war
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House
Elements of Lees army beat the Union army to the critical crossroads of Spotsylvania Court House and began entrenching. Fighting occurred on and off from May 8 through May 21,1864, in the end, the battle was tactically inconclusive, but with almost 32,000 casualties on both sides, it was the costliest battle of the campaign. On May 8, Union Maj. Gens, on May 10, Grant ordered attacks across the Confederate line of earthworks, which by now extended over 4 miles, including a prominent salient known as the Mule Shoe. Although the Union troops failed again at Laurel Hill, an innovative assault attempt by Col. Emory Upton against the Mule Shoe showed promise. Grant used Uptons assault technique on a larger scale on May 12 when he ordered the 15,000 men of Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancocks corps to assault the Mule Shoe. Hancock was initially successful, but the Confederate leadership rallied and repulsed his incursion, supporting attacks by Warren and by Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside were unsuccessful. Grant repositioned his lines in another attempt to engage Lee under more favorable conditions and launched an attack by Hancock on May 18.
A reconnaissance in force by Confederate Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell at Harris farm on May 19 was a costly and pointless failure. On May 21, Grant disengaged from the Confederate Army and started southeast on another maneuver to turn Lees right flank, in March 1864, Grant was summoned from the Western Theater, promoted to lieutenant general, and given command of all Union armies. He chose to make his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac and he left Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman in command of most of the western armies. This was the first time the Union armies would have an offensive strategy across a number of theaters. Grants campaign objective was not the Confederate capital of Richmond, Lincoln had long advocated this strategy for his generals, recognizing that the city would certainly fall after the loss of its principal defensive army. Grant ordered Meade, Wherever Lee goes, there you will go also, although he hoped for a quick, decisive battle, Grant was prepared to fight a war of attrition.
Both Union and Confederate casualties could be high, but the Union had far greater resources to replace lost soldiers and equipment. On May 5, after Grants army crossed the Rapidan and entered the Wilderness of Spotsylvania, although Lee was outnumbered, about 60,000 to 100,000, his men fought fiercely and the dense foliage provided a terrain advantage. After two days of fighting and almost 29,000 casualties, the results were inconclusive and neither army was able to obtain an advantage, Lee had stopped Grant, but had not turned him back, and Grant had not destroyed Lees army. As of May 7, Grants Union forces totaled approximately 100,000 men and they consisted of the Army of the Potomac, under Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, and the IX Corps. The five corps were, II Corps, under Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock, John Gibbon, and Gershom Mott
Siege of Petersburg
The Richmond–Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, fought from June 9,1864, to March 25,1865, during the American Civil War. Numerous raids were conducted and battles fought in attempts to cut off the Richmond, many of these battles caused the lengthening of the trench lines, overloading dwindling Confederate resources. Lee finally gave in to the pressure and abandoned cities in April 1865, leading to his retreat and surrender at Appomattox Court House. The Siege of Petersburg foreshadowed the trench warfare that was common in World War I and it featured the wars largest concentration of African American troops, who suffered heavy casualties at such engagements as the Battle of the Crater and Chaffins Farm. In March 1864, Ulysses S. Grant was promoted to lieutenant general and was given command of the Union Army. He devised a strategy to apply pressure on the Confederacy from many points. Grant put Maj. Gen. William T, George Crook and William W. Averell to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia, and Maj.
Gen. Nathaniel P. Most of these failed, often because of the assignment of generals to Grant for political rather than military reasons. Butlers Army of the James bogged down against inferior forces under Gen. P. G. T, Beauregard before Richmond in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign. Sigel was soundly defeated at the Battle of New Market in May, banks was distracted by the Red River Campaign and failed to move on Mobile. However and Averell were able to cut the last railway linking Virginia and Tennessee, on May 4, Grant and Meades Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River and entered the area known as the Wilderness of Spotsylvania, beginning the six-week Overland Campaign. Grant spent the remainder of May maneuvering and fighting battles with the Confederate army as he attempted to turn Lees flank. Grant knew that his army and base of manpower in the North could sustain a war of attrition better than Lee. This theory was tested at the Battle of Cold Harbor when Grants army once again came into contact with Lees near Mechanicsville and he chose to engage Lees army directly, by ordering a frontal assault on the Confederate fortified positions on June 3.
This attack was repulsed with heavy losses, Cold Harbor was a battle that Grant regretted more than any other and Northern newspapers thereafter frequently referred to him as a butcher. On the night of June 12, Grant again advanced by his left flank and he planned to cross to the south bank of the river, bypassing Richmond, and isolate Richmond by seizing the railroad junction of Petersburg to the south. While Lee remained unaware of Grants intentions, the Union army constructed a pontoon bridge 2,100 feet long, what Lee had feared most of all—that Grant would force him into a siege of Richmond—was poised to occur. This represented a change of strategy from that of the preceding Overland Campaign, Lee at first believed that Grants main target was Richmond and devoted only minimal troops under Gen. P. G. T
Fredericksburg is an independent city in Virginia, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,286, the city population was estimated at 28,118 in 2015. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Fredericksburg with neighboring Spotsylvania County for statistical purposes, located near where the Rappahannock River crosses the Fall Line, Fredericksburg was a prominent port in Virginia during the colonial era. Fredericksburg is home to major commercial centers including Central Park and Spotsylvania Towne Centre. Major employers include the University of Mary Washington, Mary Washington Healthcare, many Fredericksburg-area residents commute to work by car and rail to Washington and Richmond, as well as Fairfax, Prince William, and Arlington counties. At the time of European encounter, the inhabitants of the area that became Fredericksburg were a Siouan-speaking tribe called the Manahoac, english colonists recorded the name of the Manahoac village there as Mahaskahod.
Located on the Rappahannock River near the head of navigation at the fall line, the land on which the city was founded was part of a tract patented in 1671. The Virginia General Assembly established a fort on the Rappahannock in 1676, in 1714, Lt. Gov. Named for Frederick, Prince of Wales, son of King George II, the colonial towns streets bore the names of members of the royal family. The county court was moved to Fredericksburg in 1732, and the served as county seat until 1780. In 1781, Fredericksburg was incorporated as a town, with its own court, council and it received its charter as a city in 1879, and under Virginia law was separated from Spotsylvania County. The city adopted its present city manager/council form of government in 1911, the city has close associations with George Washington, whose family moved to Ferry Farm in Stafford County just off the Rappahannock River opposite Fredericksburg in 1738. Washingtons mother Mary moved to the city, and his sister Betty lived at Kenmore, other significant early residents include the Revolutionary War generals Hugh Mercer and George Weedon, naval war hero John Paul Jones, and future U. S.
president James Monroe. Thomas Jefferson wrote the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom in Fredericksburg, during the 19th century, Fredericksburg sought to maintain its sphere of trade, but with limited success. It promoted the development of a canal on the Rappahannock and construction of a turnpike, by 1837, a north-south railroad, which became the Richmond and Potomac Railroad, linked the town to Richmond, the state capital. A much-needed railroad joining the town to the region to the west was not finished until after the Civil War. During the Civil War, Fredericksburg gained strategic importance due to its location midway between Washington and Richmond, the capitals of the Union and the Confederacy. During the Battle of Fredericksburg, December 11–15,1862, the town sustained significant damage from bombardment, a Second Battle of Fredericksburg was fought in and around the town on May 3,1863, in connection with the Chancellorsville campaign. The battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House were fought nearby in May 1864, after the war, Fredericksburg recovered its former position as a center of local trade and slowly grew beyond its prewar boundaries
Bragg, a native of North Carolina, was educated at West Point and became an artillery officer. He served in Florida and received three brevet promotions for distinguished service in the Mexican-American War, most notably the Battle of Buena Vista. After a series of posts in the Indian Territory, he resigned from the U. S. Army in 1856 to become a plantation owner in Louisiana. During the Civil War, Bragg trained soldiers in the Gulf Coast region and he was a corps commander at the Battle of Shiloh and subsequently was named to command the Army of Mississippi. He and Edmund Kirby Smith attempted an invasion of Kentucky in 1862, in December, he fought another inconclusive battle at Murfreesboro, the Battle of Stones River, but once again withdrew his army. In 1863, he fought a series of battles against Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, in June, he was outmaneuvered in the Tullahoma Campaign and retreated into Chattanooga. In November, Braggs army was routed in turn by Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in the Battles for Chattanooga.
The defeat at Chattanooga was the last straw, and Bragg was recalled in early 1864 to Richmond, near the end of the war, he defended Wilmington, North Carolina, and served as a corps commander in the Carolinas Campaign. After the war Bragg worked as the superintendent of the New Orleans waterworks, a supervisor of improvements at Mobile, Alabama. Bragg is generally considered among the worst generals of the Civil War, although his commands often outnumbered those he fought against, most of the battles in which he engaged ended in defeats. The only exception was Chickamauga, which was due to the timely arrival of Lieutenant General James Longstreets corps. Most historians fault Bragg for impatience and poor treatment of others, Braxton Bragg was born in Warrenton, North Carolina, one of the six sons of Thomas and Margaret Crosland Bragg. One of his brothers was future Confederate Attorney General Thomas Bragg. He was often ridiculed as a child because of rumors about his mothers prison sentence for murdering an African American freeman.
Grady McWhiney, the biographer of Braggs early life and career, states that despite these rumors. He was descended from Thomas Bragg, who was born in England, in the thousands of letters that Bragg wrote during his lifetime, he spoke fondly of his father, but never mentioned his mother. When Bragg was only ten old, his father decided on a military career for him. Eventually the oldest Bragg son, recently elected as a state legislator, senator Willie P. Mangum and West Point admitted Braxton at the age of 16
Battle of Shiloh
The Battle of Shiloh, known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, was a major battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought April 6–7,1862, in southwestern Tennessee. A Union force known as the Army of the Tennessee under Major General Ulysses S. T. Beauregard, launched an attack on Grants army from its base in Corinth. Johnston was killed in action during the fighting, who succeeded to command of the army. Overnight Grant was reinforced by one of his own divisions stationed further north and was joined by three divisions from another Union army under Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell. This allowed them to launch a counterattack the next morning which completely reversed the Confederate gains of the previous day. On April 6, the first day of the battle, the Confederates struck with the intention of driving the Union defenders away from the river, Johnston hoped to defeat Grants army before the anticipated arrival of General Buells Army of the Ohio. The Confederate battle lines became confused during the fighting, and Grants men instead fell back to the northeast.
A Union position on a sunken road, nicknamed the Hornets Nest. Benjamin Prentisss and William H. L. Wallaces divisions, provided critical time for the remainder of the Union line to stabilize under the protection of artillery batteries. Wallace was mortally wounded when the position collapsed, while several regiments from the two divisions were surrounded and surrendered. General Johnston was shot in the leg and bled to death while leading an attack. Beauregard, his second in command, acknowledged how tired the army was from the days exertions, Confederate forces were forced to retreat from the area, ending their hopes of blocking the Union advance into northern Mississippi. Smiths orders were to lead raids intended to capture or damage the railroads in southwestern Tennessee, Brig. Gen. William T. Shermans troops arrived from Paducah, Kentucky, to conduct a similar mission to break the railroads near Eastport, Mississippi. Halleck ordered Grant to advance his Army of West Tennessee on an invasion up the Tennessee River, Grant left Fort Henry and headed upriver, arriving at Savannah, Tennessee, on March 14, and established his headquarters on the east bank of the river.
Grants troops set up camp farther upriver, five divisions at Pittsburg Landing, meanwhile, Hallecks command was enlarged through consolidation of Grants and Buells armies and renamed the Department of the Mississippi. With Buells Army of the Ohio under his command, Halleck ordered Buell to concentrate with Grant at Savannah, Buell began a march with much of his army from Nashville and headed southwest toward Savannah. The railroad was a supply line connecting the Mississippi River at Memphis, Tennessee to Richmond. Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant developed a reputation during the war for being concerned with his own plans than with those of the enemy
Petersburg is an independent city in the U. S. state of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 32,420, the Bureau of Economic Analysis combines Petersburg with Dinwiddie County for statistical purposes. It is located on the Appomattox River and 21 miles south of the capital of Richmond. The citys unique industrial past and its location as a transportation hub combined to create wealth for Virginia and it connected commerce as far inland as Farmville, Virginia to shipping on the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean. For similar reasons, Fort Henry was built at Petersburg to protect the river, as railroads were constructed in the state in the 1830s, Petersburg was developed as a major transfer point for both north-south and east-west competitors. The Petersburg Railroad was one of the earliest predecessors of the modern-day CSX Transportation system, several of the earliest predecessors of the areas other major Class 1 railroad, Norfolk Southern, met at Petersburg. Access to railroads stimulated industry in the city, which was established because of the water power available at the fall line.
During the American Civil War, because of the railroad network, nine months of trench warfare were conducted by Union forces during the 1864–65 Siege of Petersburg. Battlefield sites are located throughout the city and surrounding areas, partly preserved as Petersburg National Battlefield, the city is significant for its role in African-American history. Petersburg had one of the oldest free black settlements in the state at Pocahontas Island, two Baptist churches in the city, whose congregations were founded in the late 18th century, are among the oldest black congregations and churches in the United States. In the 20th century and other churches were leaders in the national Civil Rights Movement. In the post-bellum period, a black college which developed as Virginia State University was established nearby in Ettrick in Chesterfield County. Richard Bland College, now a college, was originally established here as a branch of Williamsburgs College of William. Petersburg remains a hub, with the network of area highways including Interstate Highways 85,95, and 295, and U. S. highways 1,301.
Both CSX and NS rail systems maintain transportation centers at Petersburg, amtrak serves the city with daily Northeast Corridor trains to Norfolk and long-distance routes from states to the south. In the early 21st century, Petersburg leaders were highlighting the historical attractions for heritage tourism. Archaeological excavations at Pocahontas Island have found evidence of a prehistoric Native American settlement dated to 6500 BCE and this is in the early third of the Archaic Period. Varying cultures of indigenous peoples lived in the area for thousands of years, when the English arrived in Virginia in 1607, the region was occupied by the Appamatuck, a significant tribe of the Powhatan Confederacy
Second Battle of Petersburg
The Second Battle of Petersburg, known as the Assault on Petersburg, was fought June 15–18,1864, at the beginning of the Richmond–Petersburg Campaign. Union forces under Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant attempted to capture Petersburg, the four days included repeated Union assaults against substantially smaller forces commanded by Gen. P. G. T. Beauregards strong defensive positions and poorly coordinated actions by the Union generals made up for the disparity in the sizes of the armies, by June 18, the arrival of significant reinforcements from Lees army made further assaults impractical. The failure of the Union to defeat the Confederates in these actions resulted in the start of the ten-month Siege of Petersburg, the Confederates, under the overall command of Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard, numbered only 2,500, many of whom were teenage boys and elderly men. Timid leadership on the part of Union Maj. Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore and Brig. Gen. August Kautz led to the failure of the assault, Butlers men returned to their positions in Bermuda Hundred.
After the Battle of Cold Harbor in Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grants 1864 Overland Campaign, Grant knew that Lee could not protect Richmond if Petersburg fell and he would be forced to battle Grant in the open. He knew from the unsuccessful first assaults on June 9 how weak the Petersburg defenses actually were, speed was essential to Grants plan, requiring success before Lee realized Grants objective and could reinforce Petersburg. Lee was not in fact fully cognizant of Grants moves until June 18, however, had been loudly warning of the danger to Petersburg since June 9. Inexplicably, Grant selected Butlers Army of the James, which had performed poorly in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign, the II Corps of the Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock, would follow Smith. Grant wrote in his memoirs, I believed then, and still believe. Even with his concentration, infantrymen were spaced an unacceptable 10 feet apart and his remaining 3,200 men were facing Butlers army at Bermuda Hundred.
Baldy Smith and his men crossed the Appomattox shortly after dawn on June 15 and his force consisted of the infantry divisions of Brig. William T. H. Brooks, John H. Martindale, and Edward W. Hinks, the transport vessels delivered these divisions almost at random to landing sites on the opposite shore, confusing Smiths plans and wasting time reorganizing. Kautzs cavalry division was ordered to clear the line of advance for the infantry and Martindale would march down the City Point Railroad, colored Troops would approach on the Jordan Point Road. Delays in the advance continued after the landing, the cavalry encountered an unexpected stronghold at Baylors farm northeast of Petersburg. Hinkss men launched two attacks on the Confederates and captured a cannon, but the advance was delayed until early afternoon. Smith performed a reconnaissance and, despite his sense of nervousness about the strength of the enemy position and he was delayed again when his artillery commander allowed all of the horses to be watered simultaneously, making it impossible to bring up his guns until about 7 p. m
The Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B, McClellan, was an amphibious turning movement against the Confederate States Army in Northern Virginia, intended to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond. McClellan landed his army at Fort Monroe and moved northwest, up the Virginia Peninsula, Magruders defensive position on the Warwick Line caught McClellan by surprise. His hopes for a quick advance foiled, McClellan ordered his army to prepare for a siege of Yorktown, just before the siege preparations were completed, the Confederates, now under the direct command of Johnston, began a withdrawal toward Richmond. The first heavy fighting of the campaign occurred in the Battle of Williamsburg, in which the Union troops managed some tactical victories, an amphibious flanking movement to Elthams Landing was ineffective in cutting off the Confederate retreat.
In the Battle of Drewrys Bluff, an attempt by the U. S. Navy to reach Richmond by way of the James River was repulsed. As McClellans army reached the outskirts of Richmond, a battle occurred at Hanover Court House. The battle was inconclusive, with casualties, but it had lasting effects on the campaign. On August 20,1861, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan formed the Army of the Potomac, with himself as its first commander. During the summer and fall, McClellan brought a degree of organization to his new army. It was an achievement, in which he came to personify the Army of the Potomac. He created defenses for Washington that were almost impregnable, consisting of 48 forts and strong points, on November 1,1861, Gen. Winfield Scott retired and McClellan became general in chief of all the Union armies. The president expressed his concern about the vast labor involved in the role of army commander and general in chief. On January 27, Lincoln issued an order that all of his armies to begin offensive operations by February 22.
On January 31, he issued an order for the Army of the Potomac to move overland to attack the Confederates at Manassas Junction. Although Lincoln believed his plan was superior, he was relieved that McClellan finally agreed to begin moving, on March 8, doubting McClellans resolve, Lincoln called a council of war at the White House in which McClellans subordinates were asked about their confidence in the Urbanna plan. They expressed their confidence to varying degrees, after the meeting, Lincoln issued another order, naming specific officers as corps commanders to report to McClellan. McClellan retooled his plan so that his troops would disembark at Fort Monroe, Virginia, in the Battle of Hampton Roads, Virginia defeated wooden U. S
Joseph Hooker was a career United States Army officer, achieving the rank of major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Although he served throughout the war, usually with distinction, Hooker is best remembered for his defeat by Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville in 1863. After graduating from the United States Military Academy in 1837, Hooker served in the Seminole Wars, resigning from the Army in 1853, he pursued farming, land development, and politics in California. After the start of the Civil War he returned to the Army as a brigadier general and he distinguished himself as an aggressive combat commander leading a division in the Battle of Williamsburg, May 5,1862, resulting in his promotion to major general. As a corps commander, he led the initial Union attacks at the Battle of Antietam, at the Battle of Fredericksburg, he commanded a Grand Division of two corps, and was ordered to conduct numerous futile frontal assaults that caused his men to suffer serious losses.
Throughout this period, he conspired against and openly criticized his army commanders, following the defeat at Fredericksburg, he was given command of the Army of the Potomac. Hooker planned a campaign against Robert E. Lee. Hooker suddenly lacked the nerve to marshal the strength of his army against Lee. Hooker became known as Fighting Joe following a journalists clerical error reporting from the Battle of Williamsburg, Hooker was born in Hadley, the grandson of a captain in the American Revolutionary War. He was of entirely English ancestry, all of which had been in New England since the early 1600s and his initial schooling was at the local Hopkins Academy. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1837, ranked 29th out of a class of 50 and his initial assignment was in Florida fighting in the second of the Seminole Wars. He served in the Mexican-American War in staff positions in the campaigns of both Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott and he received brevet promotions for his staff leadership and gallantry in three battles, National Bridge, and Chapultepec.
His future Army reputation as a man began in Mexico. Hooker settled in Sonoma County, California, as a farmer and land developer and his house still exists in the city of Sonoma. When living in Sonoma, he stood unsuccessfully for election to represent the region in the California legislature and he was obviously unhappy and unsuccessful in his civilian pursuits because, in 1858, he wrote to Secretary of War John B. Floyd to request that his name be presented to the president Buchanan as a candidate for a lieutenant colonelcy, from 1859 to 1861, he held a commission as a colonel in the California militia. He had to borrow money to make the trip east from California and he was appointed, in August 1861, as brigadier general of volunteers to rank from May 17. He commanded a brigade and division around Washington, D. C. as part of the effort to organize and train the new Army of the Potomac and he distinguished himself at the Battle of Williamsburg and throughout the Seven Days Battles
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Locust Grove, Orange County, Virginia
Locust Grove, named after the Black Locust trees common to the area, is an unincorporated community in eastern Orange County, United States. While Locust Grove has historically been centered on the intersection of State Routes 20 and 611, established by Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood in 1714 as a German settlement, the area was considered the westernmost frontier of Virginia. Spotswood built a home on a portion of the Rapidan River he referred to as Porto Bella, the home was nicknamed in 1732 by the founder of the city of Richmond, William Byrd II, as Spotwoods Enchanted Castle. Spotswood died in 1740 and shortly thereafter residents of the area burned the original structure to salvage building materials for their own homes, during the American Civil War the Rapidan River served as a portion of the front line between the Confederacy and the Union. The Old Plank Road connected Fredericksburg with Culpeper and crossed the Rapidan River at a location referred to as Germanna Ford and this ford was used extensively by the Union leading up to the battles of Chancellorsville, Mine Run, the Wilderness, and Spotsylvania Court House.
The Battle of the Wilderness occurred from May 5 to May 7,1864 in portions of current day Locust Grove. Union Army Commander Ulysses S. Grants headquarters were located 5 miles southeast of Germanna Ford on a hill near the modern day intersections of Route 3, there are five distinct hamlets comprising the town of Locust Grove. Germanna, Outlined by the Rapidan River the area is bordered by Flat Run and this area includes Germanna Ford, the Germanna Visitor Center, the remains of Spotswoods Enchanted Castle, and the Locust Grove campus of the Germanna Community College. It is accessible along the Route 3 corridor between the river and Flat Run Road, Flat Run, Lies between the Wilderness and Germanna areas along the Route 3 corridor. S. Gold Dale, Located to the west of Route 611, and south of Route 20 and it is bordered by the town of Mine Run and Spotsylvania County. It is the home of the Locust Grove Primary School, Comprises the greatest total area of Locust Grove but is largely undeveloped.
It is bordered by the Rapidan River to the north, by Flat Run to the East, the area is primarily wooded and bisected by Indiantown Road. The modification of the tax code has left local residents disappointed with both the county and WalMart, which was initially sold to the public as a source of tax revenue. Public comment was solicited in three half-hour sessions only after the dinner break during three monthly board meetings. Despite the public outcry, the plan was passed by the Board of Supervisors on December 17,2013, on December 9,2014, Orange County supervisors Lee Frame and James White, planning commission member P. While the plan was created over 570 days, residents have only provided a 24-day window, during the holiday season. Locust Grove Middle School National Park Service battle description of Battle of Mine Run National Park Service battlefield site