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List of counties in Delaware

The U. S. state of Delaware is divided into only three counties: New Castle and Sussex, the fewest of any state in the United States. The origin of the county boundaries goes back to their former court districts; the powers of the counties' legislative bodies are limited to issues such as development. Each county elects a legislative body; the counties are able to borrow money. They have control over garbage disposal, water supply, zoning and building codes. Most functions which are handled on a county-by-county basis in other states—such as court and law enforcement—have been centralized in Delaware, leading to a significant concentration of power in the Delaware state government; the counties were divided into hundreds, which were used as tax reporting and voting districts until the 1960s. However, the hundreds now serve no administrative role. Following the English conquest of 1664, all of the land on the western side of the Delaware River and Delaware Bay was governed as part of the New York Colony and administered from the town of New Castle.

During the brief recapture of the colony by the Dutch in 1673, additional court districts were created around Upland and Whorekill. The latter was known as Hoornkill, is now the town of Lewes; the court at New Castle was left with the central portion of the colony. The jurisdiction left to the court at became New Castle County, the county seat remained at New Castle until 1881 when it was moved to Wilmington. In 1680, Whorekill District was divided into St. Jones County. After this division, Lewes became the county seat of Deale, renamed Sussex County; the former Upland District was named after the New Sweden settlement of Upland, was renamed Chester County in 1682. Chester County is now located within the present boundaries of Pennsylvania. Lord Baltimore, the Proprietor of Maryland, claimed all present-day Delaware, organized its northern and eastern portions as Durham County, Maryland. However, this county existed only on paper; the southern and western portions of present-day Sussex County were organized as portions of several adjacent Maryland counties and were not recognized as part of Delaware until the Mason-Dixon Survey was run in 1767.

In 1791, with the expansion of Sussex County to the south and west, the county seat was moved to Georgetown. The county seat of St. Jones is at Dover. After 2000, a fourth "Appoquinimink County" was proposed to be carved out of New Castle County; the effort intended to end the zoning restrictions of the Unified Development Code on the undeveloped farmland. The proposed boundaries extended beyond the Appoquinimink Hundred to include all land south of the C&D Canal, with Middletown as the proposed seat; the Federal Information Processing Standard code, used by the United States government to uniquely identify counties, is provided with each entry. The FIPS code for each county links to census data for that county. Kent County New Castle County Sussex County


Aue-Schwarzenberg is a former district in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. It was bounded by the Czech Republic and the districts of Vogtlandkreis, Zwickauer Land and Annaberg; the Ore Mountains were unsettled in the early Middle Ages. There was an isolated monastery as early as the 12th century. Most of the towns in the mountains were founded in the 16th century, after the discovery of deposits of silver and tin. At this time the region was purchased by the aspiring state of Saxony; the districts of Aue and Schwarzenberg were established in 1873. In 1994 both districts were merged in order to form a new district, called Westerzgebirgskreis and was one year renamed to the present name. On 1 August 2008 it was merged into the new district Erzgebirgskreis; the district was located in the western part of the Ore Mountains. The crest of this mountain range forms the southern border of the district, the German-Czech border; the highest peak in the district is the Auersberg, second highest mountain of Saxony after the Fichtelberg.

The source of the Zwickauer Mulde is located in the district. From here it runs northwards to Zwickau. Free Republic of Schwarzenberg Media related to Landkreis Aue-Schwarzenberg at Wikimedia Commons Official website Unofficial website

Eastney Barracks

Eastney Barracks was a military installation occupied by the Royal Marines and located at Eastney near Portsmouth. Eastney Barracks, designed by William Scamp, was built as headquarters for the Royal Marine Artillery, who moved in from Fort Cumberland in 1867. After the amalgamation of the Royal Marine Light Infantry and Royal Marine Artillery in 1923, Forton Barracks was closed and Eastney Barracks served as headquarters for the Portsmouth Division of the Corps; the series of seven linked blocks facing the sea forms the second longest barracks frontage in the country. The ensemble has been called "the best and most complete barracks of the post-Crimean War period". Eastney Barracks remained the Corps Headquarters until 1995, when it was sold and converted to private housing; the Royal Marines Museum, established there in 1958, was accommodated in the former officers' mess at Eastney Barracks from 1972 to 2017. The Barracks are home to two ghosts. One is a young girl, seen around the main steps to the entry, who according to local legend was crushed to death when she ran in front of a horse-drawn carriage.

The other is the smell of burning and a depressing atmosphere, experienced by staff in the attic, linked to the local legend of a 19th-century officer called Colonel Wolf who burnt his love letters and shot himself there after the end of a love affair. It was therefore the location for an episode of the Antix Productions series Most Haunted Live! Broadcast on 7 May 2006 as part of its Panic In Portsmouth strand, which included episodes from Wymering Manor and Southsea Castle. Ambler and Little, Matthew, 2008. Sea Soldiers of Portsmouth. A pictorial History of the Royal Marines at Eastney and Fort Cumberland, Somerset, ISBN 978-1841147437 Lane, Andrew, 1998; the Royal Marines Barracks Eastney. A pictorial history, Halsgrove Publishing, ISBN 1874448922


A burh or burg was an Old English fortification or fortified settlement. In the 9th century and invasions by Vikings prompted Alfred the Great to develop a network of burhs and roads to use against such attackers; some were new constructions. As at Lundenburh, many were situated on rivers: this facilitated internal lines of supply while aiming to restrict access to the interior of the kingdom for attackers in shallow-draught vessels such as longships. Burhs had a secondary role as commercial and sometimes administrative centres, their fortifications were used to protect England's various royal mints. Burh and burg were Old English developments of the Proto-Germanic word reconstructed as *burg-s, cognate with the verb *berg-an, they are cognate with German Burg, Dutch burcht and Scandinavian borg and, in English, developed variously as "borough", "burg", "burgh". Byrig was the plural form of burh and burg: "forts", "fortifications", it was the dative case: "to the fort" or "for the fort". This developed into "bury" and "berry", which were used to describe manor houses, large farms, or settlements beside the fortifications.

In addition to the English foundations described here, these names were sometimes used in Old English calques or variants of native placenames, including the Brittonic *-dunon and Welsh caer, as at Salisbury. Burhs were built as military defences. According to H. R. Loyn, the burh "represented only a stage, though a vitally important one, in the evolution of the medieval English borough and of the medieval town"; the boundaries of ancient burhs can still be traced to modern urban borough limits. Most of these were founded by Alfred the Great in a consciously planned policy, continued under his son Edward the Elder and his daughter, Æthelflæd, the'Lady of the Mercians', her husband Æthelred, Ealdorman of Mercia; the Mercian Register tells of the building of ten burhs by Æthelflæd, some as important as Tamworth and Stafford, others now unidentifiable. Some were based upon pre-existing Roman structures, some newly built, though others may have been built at a date. Æthelstan granted these burhs the right to mint coinage and in the tenth and eleventh centuries the firm rule was that no coin was to be struck outside a burh.

A tenth-century document, now known as the Burghal Hidage and so named by Frederic William Maitland in 1897, cites thirty burhs in Wessex and three in Mercia. At the time, Mercia was ruled by the West Saxon kings; these burhs were all built to defend the region against Viking raids. Only eight of the burhs achieved municipal status in the Middle Ages: Chester, Tamworth, Hertford, Warwick and Maldon; the largest were at Winchester and Warwick, whilst Wallingford and Wareham are the best-preserved examples, with substantial ditches and banks still visible. It has been estimated that construction of Wallingford's 9,000 feet of bank would have taken more than 120,000 man hours. Burh towns usually had regular street layouts, some of which are still preserved. Burhs are thought to have been the origins of urban life in England. In most cases, Alfred's rebuilding of a burh did not cause any change of name, as the sites chosen had been some sort of fortified structure; the burhs were made in a variety of different ways, depending on materials available locally, the size of the settlement or area it was intended to defend.

A burh was built on the site of pre-existing fortifications. Sometimes, the Anglo-Saxons would repair old Roman walls in towns such as Winchester, York, Burgh Castle and Dover. At other times, they would build on the site of old Iron Age forts, such as Dover, utilising the old ditches and ramparts. However, the Anglo-Saxons did not just use old fortifications. Many of the burhs built by the Saxons were new fortified sites, built on strategic sites on the coast, near ports or overlooking roads and trade routes. Substantial new towns were built on flat land with a rectangular layout, at for example Oxford, Wallingford and Wareham. Traditionally, burhs were constructed first with a massive series of banks fronted by a ditch; the bank was timber faced and timber revetted. This was topped by a wooden palisade of stakes, up to 10 feet high, with a walkway. At towns such as Tamworth, the ramparts would decay and push outwards over time, meaning that the ditch and bank would deteriorate. To solve this, Anglo-Saxon builders faced banks with stone, thus further reinforcing the defences and improving their life span.

The purpose of the burhs was to provide defence for a port or town, the surrounding farms and hamlets. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Alfred constructed a series of burhs, listed in the Burghal Hidage numbering over 30, it was Alfred's intention that no English farm or village be any more than 20 miles away from a burh. He built a network of well maintained army roads, known as herepaths, that interconnected the burhs, allowing the population quick access to shelter; the herepaths enabled Alfred's troops to move swiftly to engage the enemy. It meant that reinforcements could be called up from other burhs if needed. Ryan Lavelle believes that each burh would have had a mounted force that would be ready for action against the Vikings, it is probable that there was a system of beacons on the high hills of Wessex that gave advance warning of any invader. Thus with this integra

Mythical Museum Ramón Elías

The Mythical Museum Ramón Elías, called honoring its founder, is a mythology museum in Capiatá, Paraguay. This museum evokes memories from Paraguay ancestors and at the same time is a calling out to maintain in the Paraguayan culture the presence of myths. Ramón Elías was born November 10, 1929, his father was Don José Elías and his mother was Doña Francisca Fernández. His Elementary School was in Concepción, his Secondary School in the capital city Asunción. During his childhood, he was interested in sports basketball, he promoted basket in Capiatá and was one of the most popular players in Capiatà League. On September 25, 1954, he married Elsa Agueda, Salvador Céspedes Valdez and Petrona Gamarra Gaona's daughter, they had six children. He was good at painting so was given a scholarship at Escuela de Bellas Artes from Asunción, he restored antiquities, through researches and recompilations, one of his favorite activities. From 1967 to 1972 he was a teacher at Colegio Nacional de Capiatá, he made the seal office of the Municipalidad.

Ramón Elías made native masks combining different kinds of ingredients. His masks were put on view at the Dirección de Turismo in Paraguay on May 1966 and La Casa Paraguaya in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Since he was a curious person and had a researcher spirit, he travelled all the small towns in the interior of the country looking for antiquities which were bought and restored to be sold. During that time he met many elderly people, who knew a lot of historic memories about tales of magic characters; that was the time when he got into the world of mystery about myths and dedicated himself to interpret and make people know through fantastic sculptures. Don Ramón Elías is considered the father of the images of Paraguayan myths the same that long ago were found only in Paraguayan literature. Elías' had a great passion for the characters of the Paraguayan mythology, he put a lot of effort in his research, data collection and visits to different places to gather information and small pieces of the Paraguayan history.

Ramón Elías had the idea of a place to put together all the objects he found from long ago, objects from the Guaraníes, Jesuítas and from the Colonial period. The “Mythical Museum Ramón Elías” opened in 1979; the lighting of this place, the walls, the floor everything is the framework to be part of the magic monsters represented. The museum has three big rooms: in the first room one can find all the creatures of the Paraguayan mythology. In the third room and elements used during the Paraguayan War and the Chaco war. All the mythological creatures of the Paraguayan Culture are represented in the museum; each one has its own story mixed up with what people believe it happened, a bit of fantasy. Explanations of those mysteries mind can not solve but the ancestors made them part of Paraguayan literature. Inside glass boxes, human size the most popular characters of the Guaraní Mythology, they are Tau and Keraná, Ao Ao, Jasy Jateré, Kuarahy Ra’y, Mala Visión, Mboi Jagua, Jagua Ru, Kurupi, Moñái, Mbói Tu'ĩ, Teju Jagua and Plata Yvyguy.

The “Mythical Museum Ramón Elías” is important because it is a place where Paraguayan people find and transmit their culture and identity. Elías has worked a lot to give the portrait of time and characters that are part of the Paraguayan History, he worked with native people learning about facts from long ago and explaining the way Paraguayan people are and live. Elías worked during 20 years restoring images and objects from the past, he was travelling with his wife to Encarnación, on February 28, 1981. They wanted to present the mythological images in curved wood during the carnival, but he died in a car accident on their way in San Luis. In that place, as the Paraguayan Tradition states, there is a beauty and solemn cross made of bronze and big chains made of iron and pillars, it states: “Ramón Elías 1929–1981”. Doña Elsa de Elías, his wife continued working on his project: The Museo Mitológico, built with a lot of sacrifice and dedication, he could only enjoy the museum for a short time: some months.

Guaraní Raity MEC Bibliotecas

Lu Xie

Lu Xie, courtesy name Zisheng, was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving two terms as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xizong. Traditional historians blamed his blind trust in the general Gao Pian's ability to suppress Huang Chao's rebellion for the eventual fall of the Tang capital Chang'an to Huang and the subsequent disintegration of the Tang state, it is not known. His family claimed to be from Fanyang, but had settled at Zheng Prefecture by Lu Xi's time, his family was not otherwise traceable to the bloodlines of the other chancellors named Lu, his grandfather Lu Sun was not listed with any offices in the table of the chancellors' family trees in the New Book of Tang, while his biography in the Old Book of Tang referred to his father Lu Qiu as having passed the imperial examinations in the Jinshi class, having served on regional governor staffs, having served as a prefectural prefect, the table of the chancellors' family trees did not mention any of the titles.

However, given that Lu Xi's mother was a sister of the official Li Ao, it would appear that his father was, in fact, an official. Lu Xie himself passed the imperial examinations in the Jinshi class in 853, during the reign of Emperor Xuānzong, he thereafter was made an assistant scholar at the Jixian Institute, subsequently served on regional governors' staffs. In the middle of the Xiantong era of Emperor Xuānzong's son Emperor Yizong, he was recalled to the capital Chang'an to serve as You Shiyi, a low-level advisory official at the legislative bureau of government, an imperial censor with the title Dianzhong Shiyushi, he went through positions at the executive bureau, served as the magistrate of Chang'an County the prefect of Zheng Prefecture. He was recalled to Chang'an to serve as a mid-level advisory official. Early in the reign of Emperor Yizong's son Emperor Xizong, he was made an imperial scholar as well as Zhongshu Sheren, a mid-level official at the legislative bureau, he was subsequently made deputy minister of census as well as chief imperial scholar.

In 874, he submitted a petition to Emperor Xizong that pointed out that the people throughout the empire were being overwhelmed by the tax burden in light of the drought-caused famine, occurring in the central parts of the empire, advocated waiving the taxes and further taking food out of the imperial storage for famine relief. Emperor Xizong praised him for the petition and ordered that it be implemented, but it was not implemented. In winter 874, Lu Xie was given the designation Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangshi, making him a chancellor de facto — at the same time that Zheng Tian, a cousin of his was made chancellor. However, despite this relationship, it was said that Lu and Zheng did not get along, argued about policy proposals. In 877, with the imperial armies engaged in a campaign against the agrarian rebel Huang Chao, a dispute over whether the general Zhang Zimian should be under the command of the overall commander, Song Wei, boiled into a major dispute between Lu, their colleague Wang Duo — as Wang and Lu wanted to put Zhang under Song's command, but Zheng opposed, believing that the existing rivalry between Song and Zhang meant that Song would find excuses to have Zhang executed.

Wang and Lu offered to resign, Zheng offered to retire. Emperor Xizong did not approve any of these offers. After Wang was made the overall commander of the operations against Huang, Lu was displeased at this development, he opposed the subsequent proposal by the official Cui Qiu to pacify Huang by giving Huang the military governorship of Lingnan East Circuit. Instead, Huang was only offered a low officer position, which angered Huang more, there would be no peace talks thereafter. In 878, Lu and Zheng had another major dispute — over whether an imperial princess should be offered in marriage to Dali's emperor Long Shun to settle the long-standing border troubles. Lu, supporting the proposal, Zheng, opposing the proposal, argued so vehemently that Lu threw an inkstone on the ground, breaking it; when Emperor Xizong heard about this, he commented, "When the great officials curse each other like this, how can they govern the other officials?" As a result, both Zheng and Lu were removed from their chancellor posts and given the entirely-honorary titles as advisors to the Crown Prince, they were both further sent to the eastern capital Luoyang.

They were replaced with Cui Hang. Lu Xie was soon recalled to the imperial government to serve as minister of defense. By late 879, Gao Pian, the military Huainan Circuit, had sent his officer Zhang Lin to attack Huang and was having repeated victories; as a result, Lu, who had recommended Gao to be the overall commander of the operations against Huang, was in imperial favor again. He was thus made Menxia Shilang, the deputy head of the examination bureau, chancellor again with the designation Tong Zh