Kootenai County, Idaho
Kootenai County is a county located in the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population was 138,494, making it the third-most populous county in Idaho; the county seat and largest city is Coeur d'Alene. The county was named after the Kootenai tribe. Kootenai County is coterminous with the Coeur d'alene metropolitan area, which along with the Spokane metropolitan area comprises the Spokane–Coeur d'Alene combined statistical area; the Coeur d'Alene region takes its name from that given the local natives by French fur trappers. The tribe consisted of three bands that inhabited the areas surrounding Coeur d'Alene Lake and the Coeur d'Alene River. Canadian fur trade came to the region starting in 1809, marking the tribe's first contact with Europeans. Christian missionaries would follow with the first Christian meeting officiated by Father Nicolas Pointe on the north bank of Coeur d'Alene Lake at its junction with the Spokane River on December 2, 1842; the St. Joseph mission was established northwest of St. Maries in 1844 before being renamed Mission of the Sacred Heart at its relocation to the Cataldo site in 1846.
Construction of Idaho's oldest structure commenced with construction of the mission church being completed by 1855. The mission headquarters was moved to DeSmet in 1877; the Mullan Road was constructed through the area in 1859 with the route running on the southern side of Coeur d'Alene Lake. A route on the northern side of Coeur D'Alene Lake commenced in 1861. Mullan's men celebrated Independence Day of 1861 at Fourth of July Canyon east of Coeur d'Alene; the Idaho Territorial Legislature created Kootenai County on December 22, 1864. A county government was not organized as a result of lack of significant settlement in the region. Kootenai County contained 81 residents at the 1864 Census of Idaho Territory. Rathdrum was the first of the present incorporated cities to experience settlement starting in 1861, it became a stagecoach stop and the Kootenai County seat. At the 1870 census, the region was reported under Nez Perce County as the Kootenai District with 31 residents. Post Falls was settled in 1871 while Camp Coeur d'Alene was established in 1878.
The camp became a Fort in the town of Coeur d'Alene grew up around the fort. Dalton Gardens and Hayden Lake were settled around this time. After 17 years of existence, Kootenai County organized on July 9, 1881; the county's importance grew as a result of completion of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1882 to Rathdrum as well as discovery of gold on the Coeur d'Alene River in neighboring Shoshone County in 1883. Existing settlements grew and new ones were established as a result. Settlement commenced on the railroad at Athol in 1882 and Harrison in 1890. Continued population growth led to the development of cities. In 1899, Harrison was the county's first city to incorporate. Coeur d'Alene, Spirit Lake, Athol followed in 1906, 1908, 1909. Incorporation of Rathdrum Post Falls, Worley occurred prior to 1920. Clarksville, Hayden Lake, State Line, Eddiville were all incorporated in 1947. Hayden, Dalton Gardens, Fernan Lake incorporated after 1950. Eddiville and Clarksville were dis-incorporated prior to 1970.
At the time of the Coeur d'Alene Mission's establishment, the territory of Kootenai County was claimed by both the United States and Britain. The government of Oregon Country established four districts on July 5, 1843 and Kootenai's territory was within the boundary of the Clackamas District that became Clackamas County under Oregon Territory. Washington Territory was established March 2, 1853. Kootenai's territory fell under Walla Walla County starting 1864, followed by Spokane County in 1858. Idaho Territory was established March 3, 1863, resulting in Kootenai County's territory not falling under any county's jurisdiction. On February 2, 1864, it was attached jurisdictionally to Nez Perce County, but remained outside of that county's boundary; the Counties of Kootenai and Lah-Toh were created on December 22, 1864 with Lah-Toh covering Kootenai's present territory. Both counties failed to organize and by 1867, Lah-Toh was abolished and its territory transferred to Kootenai County. Bonner was partitioned off in 1907 and Benewah partitioned in 1915 to give Kootenai its present boundary.
In 1905, the legislature attempted to abolish Kootenai County and create the counties of Lewis and Clark in its place. The act was declared unconstitutional by the Idaho Supreme Court. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,316 square miles, of which 1,244 square miles is land and 71 square miles is water; the vast majority of the water area is Lake Coeur d'Alene. Kootenai County is part of the Inland Empire in the Idaho Panhandle. Bonner County – north Shoshone County – east Benewah County – south Spokane County, Washington – west Coeur d'Alene National Forest Kaniksu National Forest I-90 I-90 Business Loop US 95 SH 3 SH 41 SH 53 SH 54 SH 97 As of the census of 2000, there were 108,685 people, 41,308 households, 29,659 families residing in the county; the population density was 87 people per square mile. There were 46,607 housing units at an average density of 37 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.84% White, 0.17% Black or African American, 1.23% Native American, 0.50% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.59% from other races, 1.60% from two or more races.
2.33% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 23.2% were of German, 11.9% English, 10.9% Irish, 9.4% American and 6.1% Norwegian ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.6% spoke English and 1.7% Spanish as the
Canyon County, Idaho
Canyon County is a county located in the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population was 188,923, making it the second-most populous county in Idaho; the county seat is Caldwell, its largest city is Nampa. Canyon County is part of the Boise Metropolitan Statistical Area. Hudson's Bay Company established Fort Boise in 1834 near what is now Parma, but abandoned it in 1855. Migrants traveled through Canyon County on the Oregon Trail. Discovery of gold in the Boise Basin in 1862 brought settlement to the region again; the lower Boise River was contained within Boise County from 1863 until the formation of Ada in 1864. Settlement of the lower Boise River west of Boise City was limited prior to the completion of the Oregon Shortline railroad. Middleton was the first settlement of Canyon County, starting in 1863; the 1870 Census for Ada County listed 76 residents of the Boise Valley, excluding Boise City and the 1880 Census listed 44 residents at Middleton. The arrival of the Railroad at Caldwell led to the establishment of a town there as of August, 1883.
Businessmen James A. McGee and Alexander Duffes filed the plat for nearby Nampa in 1886. Parma was settled around the same time with the Old Fort Boise post office being moved to the town's location, it was incorporated in 1904. Ada County established precincts for each of the settlements with a combined 1890 Census population of 2,311. Significant settlement of Greenleaf and Notus started around 1904 with the two settlements listed as precincts at the 1910 census. Notus was incorporated in 1921 while Greenleaf was incorporated prior to 1980. Melba was incorporated in 1912 while Wilder was incorporated in 1919; the City of Star annexed a portion of territory in northeast Canyon County prior to 2007, becoming the county's ninth incorporated city. The majority of Star is located within Ada County; the Idaho Legislature created Canyon County from Ada County in an act approved March 7, 1891, effective at the November 26, 1892 election. Caldwell was established as the county seat; the county contained all of Canyon and Payette Counties and part of Gem.
Gem County formed in 1915 and Payette County formed in 1917. Some sources attribute the name to the canyon of the Boise River near Caldwell, while western writers John Rees and Vardis Fisher believed it was named for the Snake River canyon, which forms a natural boundary with Owyhee County to the south and west. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 604 square miles, of which 587 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water. Payette County - north Gem County - northeast Ada County - east Owyhee County - south Malheur County, Oregon - west Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area At the 2000 census, there were 131,441 people, 45,018 households and 33,943 families residing in the county; the population density was 223/square mile. There were 47,965 housing units at an average density of 81/square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 83.10% White, 0.32% Black or African American, 0.85% Native American, 0.80% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 12.17% from other races, 2.62% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.61% of the population. 15.9% were of German, 12.7% English, 10.3% American and 7.6% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 45,018 households of which 39.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.70% were married couples living together, 10.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.60% were non-families. 19.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.28. 30.90% of the population were under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 28.30% from 25 to 44, 19.10% from 45 to 64, 11.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.30 males. The median household income was $35,884 and the median family income was $40,377. Males had a median income of $29,418 compared with $22,044 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $15,155. About 8.70% of families and 12.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.50% of those under age 18 and 10.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 188,923 people, 63,604 households, 47,481 families residing in the county; the population density was 321.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 69,409 housing units at an average density of 118.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 83.0% white, 1.1% American Indian, 0.8% Asian, 0.6% black or African American, 0.2% Pacific islander, 11.4% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 23.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 18.8% were American, 17.4% were German, 13.0% were English, 8.8% were Irish. Of the 63,604 households, 42.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.7% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.3% were non-families, 20.1% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.92 and the average family size was 3.36. The median age was 31.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $43,218 and the median income for a family was $48,219. Males had a median income of $38,132 versus $28,356 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,366. About 12.7% of families and 17.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.8% of those under age 18 and 8.5% of those age
Blaine County, Idaho
Blaine County is a county in the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 21,376; the county seat and largest city is Hailey. Blaine County was created by the territorial legislature on March 5, 1895, by combining Alturas and Logan counties, its present boundaries were set on February 8, 1917, when a western portion was partitioned off to form Camas County. Blaine County is part of ID Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is home to the Sun Valley ski resort, adjacent to Ketchum. The Wood River Valley in present-day Blaine County was organized as part of Alturas County by the Idaho Territorial Legislature in 1864. By the 1880s the valley supported a thriving mining commerce; the Blaine County boundaries described in its 1895 creation ordinance contained lands that soon were partitioned off to form other counties. Only thirteen days after the official formation date of Blaine, Lincoln County was formed from the county. Lincoln itself was partitioned to create Gooding and Jerome counties.
Blaine County was further reduced in 1917. The strong mining economy of the 1880s had declined by 1890, when Idaho Territory became a state; the county began to recast itself as a tourism destination in 1936 with the opening of the Sun Valley resort owned by the Union Pacific Railroad. The area soon attracted celebrity visitors, residents, most notably Ernest Hemingway, buried in the Ketchum Cemetery. Celebrities who have lived in Blaine County include Adam West, Demi Moore, John Kerry. Most Blaine County residents live in the Wood River Valley along State Highway 75 in the western half of the county; this area includes all of the county's incorporated cities and towns except Carey, located in the south-central part of the county at the junction of US 20 with US 26/93. The county's gerrymandered southeastern panhandle, known locally as the Yale area, is sparsely populated; as the home of a major ski resort, Blaine County has a higher cost of living than surrounding areas. As a result, many who work in Blaine County live in outlying areas in the city of Shoshone in neighboring Lincoln County.
It is estimated. Blaine County has gained a reputation as a Democratic Party enclave in Republican Idaho; the Democratic presidential candidate has won the county in every election since 1992, when George H. W. Bush finished third behind Bill Clinton and Ross Perot. Blaine was the only Idaho county carried by John Kerry in 2000 and 2004 respectively. In the 2008 election, Barack Obama carried the county by a 33.2% margin over John McCain, while McCain won statewide by a 25.3% margin. It was one of three counties in Idaho won by Obama in 2008, by far the highest margin. Obama carried Blaine County in 2012 with 58.8 percent of the vote, compared to Mitt Romney's 38.7 percent. During the 2012 election Blaine County was the only Idaho county in which Obama received over 50 percent of the vote, although he carried Latah County with 49.6 percent of the vote. From 1968 through 1988, a less-populated Blaine County was won by the Republican candidate in all six presidential elections, as was the state of Idaho.
Similar to other Idaho counties, an elected three-member county commission heads the county government. Other elected officials include clerk, sheriff and prosecutor. In 2006, Blaine County voted 66.3% against HJR 2, which amended the Idaho Constitution to outlaw same-sex marriage in Idaho. Latah County, which contains Moscow, was the only other county. At the state level Blaine County is located in Legislative District 25, which has an all-Democratic delegation in the Idaho Legislature. Michelle Stennett, the current minority leader of the Idaho Senate, Wendy Jaquet, a member of the Idaho House of Representatives and a former minority leader of that body, both live in Ketchum. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,661 square miles, of which 2,644 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 18,991 people, 7,780 households, 4,839 families in the county. The population density was 7 people per square mile. There were 12,186 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 90.73% White, 0.13% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 6.43% from other races, 1.57% from two or more races. 10.69% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 17.0 % were of 14.6 % German, 10.8 % Irish and 6.2 % American ancestry. There were 7,780 households out of which 31.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.20% were married couples living together, 7.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.80% were non-families. 27.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.96. The county population contained 24.00% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 32.60% from
Boundary County, Idaho
Boundary County is a county located in the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,972; the county seat and largest city is Bonners Ferry. Boundary County was created by the Idaho Legislature on January 23, 1915, it is so named because it borders the only county in Idaho with an international border. Boundary County was formed on January 1915 from Bonner County, it was named Boundary County because it lies on the border of Canada and Montana. Boundary County has 7 election precincts: Bonners Ferry, Kootenai, Naples, North Bonners Ferry, Valley View. All contain part of Bonners Ferry City except Copeland and Naples precincts. Moyie Springs was incorporated in 1947. Settlement of the area started with the establishment of Bonners Ferry on the Kootenai River in 1864. Settlement was limited to the ferry operation until about 1890; the town of Bonners Ferry was established in 1893. At that point settlement was still sparse with small ranching and mining operations, but an expanding timber economy.
By 1900, other areas started to develop with the Boulder and Naples precincts first listed in the U. S. Census of that year; the Moyie precinct first appeared in the 1910 census. In 1980, convicted spy Christopher John Boyce found refuge in Boundary County, for a few months, after his escape from the Lompoc Federal Correctional Complex, he stayed at the home of Gloria Ann White. Boyce sustained himself during his stay with a series of bank robberies in the surrounding area with technical assistance from Ms. White. In 1992, Boundary County was the scene of the infamous Ruby Ridge siege by 350–400 armed federal agents against Randy Weaver and his family. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,278 square miles, of which 1,269 square miles is land and 9.3 square miles is water. Lincoln County, Montana – east/Mountain Time Border Bonner County – south Pend Oreille County, Washington – west Regional District of Central Kootenay, British Columbia – north Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail Kaniksu National Forest Kootenai National Forest Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge US 2 US 95 SH-1 Boundary County Airport is a county-owned, public-use airport located two nautical miles northeast of the central business district of Bonners Ferry.
As of the census of 2000, there were 9,871 people, 3,707 households, 2,698 families residing in the county. The population density was 8 people per square mile. There were 4,095 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.24% White, 0.16% Black or African American, 2.02% Native American, 0.58% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.86% from other races, 1.07% from two or more races. 3.39% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 21.4% were of German, 12.9% American, 12.7% English, 9.9% Irish and 6.4% Norwegian ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 3,707 households out of which 34.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.40% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.20% were non-families. 23.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.07.
In the county, the population was spread out with 29.20% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 24.40% from 25 to 44, 26.20% from 45 to 64, 13.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 101.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,250, the median income for a family was $36,440. Males had a median income of $31,209 versus $18,682 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,636. About 11.50% of families and 20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.50% of those under age 18 and 11.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,972 people, 4,421 households, 2,976 families residing in the county; the population density was 8.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,175 housing units at an average density of 4.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.8% white, 1.7% American Indian, 0.6% Asian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.5% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 22.5% were German, 12.8% were English, 11.2% were Irish, 7.4% were American, 5.9% were Norwegian, 5.4% were Dutch, 5.1% were Scottish. Of the 4,421 households, 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.0% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.7% were non-families, 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.00. The median age was 42.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,712 and the median income for a family was $43,562. Males had a median income of $36,125 versus $26,076 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,011. About 15.7% of families and 18.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.0% of those under age 18 and 13.4% of those age 65 or over. In addition to a local translator district which provides broadcast television stations from Spokane, WA MSA, several additional television broadcast construction permits have been granted by the FCC.
Butte County, Idaho
Butte County is a rural county located in the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,891, its county seat and largest city is Arco. The county was established in 1917 from parts of Bingham and Jefferson counties; the county gained territory in the Clyde area from Custer County in 1937 to reach its present boundary. The first settlement in Butte County occurred about four miles south of the present town site of Arco in 1878; the settlement was known by the names of Kennedy Crossing and Lower Crossing of the Lost River and was located in eastern Alturas County. Once the post office was established in 1879, the settlement became known as Arco; the ghost town of Era was settled in 1885. Settlement of Antelope and Island occurred prior to 1890. Alturas county established precincts for all five Butte County settlements existing at the 1890 census containing a combined population of 389; the settlements became part of Blaine County in 1895. Blaine County created precincts for all of the settlements except Martin and added a precinct for Clyde.
At the 1900 census, the five precincts totaled 714 residents increasing to 1787 in 1910. Construction of a railroad from Blackfoot to Mackay resulted in relocation of the town of Arco to its present site in 1901. Butte County is included in ID Metropolitan Statistical Area. Much of the eastern part of the county is the vast Idaho National Laboratory, which extends eastward into neighboring counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,234 square miles, of which 2,232 square miles is land and 2.0 square miles is water. The Little Lost River is located in Butte County, its waters, along with the Big Lost River, disappear from the surface to flow underground into the Snake River Plain aquifer in Butte County. The county was named for the volcanic buttes, it was used as a landmark by pioneers. The southwestern portion of the county includes the visitor center at the Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve, which extends south & west into three other counties.
Clark County - northeast Jefferson County - east Bingham County - southeast Blaine County - southwest Lemhi County - northwest Custer County - northwest US 20 US 26 US 93 SH-22 SH-33 Caribou-Targhee National Forest Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve Salmon-Challis National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 2,899 people, 1,089 households, 802 families residing in the county. The population density was 1 people per square mile. There were 1,290 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.65% White, 0.28% Black or African American, 0.69% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 2.38% from other races, 1.76% from two or more races. 4.14% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 25.3% were of English, 13.4% American, 8.5% German, 6.3% Irish and 5.5% Swedish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 1,089 households out of which 32.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.20% were married couples living together, 7.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.30% were non-families.
23.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.14. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.00% under the age of 18, 6.30% from 18 to 24, 24.00% from 25 to 44, 25.70% from 45 to 64, 14.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 101.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,473, the median income for a family was $36,950. Males had a median income of $37,750 versus $20,962 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,948. About 14.70% of families and 18.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.70% of those under age 18 and 8.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 2,891 people, 1,129 households, 788 families residing in the county; the population density was 1.3 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 1,354 housing units at an average density of 0.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.5% white, 0.4% American Indian, 0.2% Pacific islander, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% black or African American, 2.0% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 33.4% were English, 18.5% were German, 10.6% were American, 9.1% were Irish, 7.6% were Danish, 7.2% were Scottish. Of the 1,129 households, 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.8% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families, 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.10. The median age was 41.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $39,413 and the median income for a family was $47,225. Males had a median income of $42,500 versus $26,563 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,414.
About 9.0% of families and 13.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.2% of those under age 18 and 5.0% of those age 65 or over. As of 2016 the largest self-reported ancestries/ethnicities in Butte County, Idaho were: Arco
Boise County, Idaho
Boise County is a rural mountain county in the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 7,028; the county seat is Idaho City, connected through a series of paved and unpaved roads to Lowman, Placerville, Star Ranch, Garden Valley, Horseshoe Bend. The elevated central basin area rises 1,700 feet higher than Horseshoe Bend for instance and thus receives more snow during the winter. Star Ranch and Centerville altitudes average 4,300 above sea level whereas Horseshoe Bend is 1,700 feet lower, Garden Valley is 1,157 feet lower, Idaho City is 400 feet lower. Snow volumes around the county are best illustrated by the county Snow Load Map. Placerville roofs must be designed to withstand 150 pounds per square foot of snow whereas Horseshoe Bend is 1/3 that amount at 52. Boise County is part of ID Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Bogus Basin ski area is in the southwestern part of the county. The county's eastern area contains the central section of the Sawtooth Wilderness, the western part of the Sawtooth National Recreation Area.
In 2010, the center of Idaho's population was in Boise County. The county was established on February 1864, with its county seat at Idaho City, it was named for the Boise River, named by French-Canadian explorers and trappers for the great variety of trees growing along its banks in the lower desert valley. The county is one of four Idaho counties that existed under Washington Territory. On January 12, 1863, The Washington territorial legislature established the county containing most of Idaho below 114° 30', excluding the territory lying west of the Payette River, they established its county seat at what would become Idaho City. The Boise Basin, which contains Idaho City, was one of the nation's richest gold mining districts. At its peak in the mid-1860s, Idaho City was the largest city in the Northwest, it was this rapid population influx that led to the establishment of the Idaho Territory in 1863; the lower–elevation communities of Horseshoe Bend and Boise were staging areas for the Boise Basin mines.
The county's boundaries changed several times during Idaho's territorial period. Owyhee County and a portion of Oneida County were carved from the southern and eastern portion of the county as it existed under Washington Territory in late December 1863 and January 1864; when Idaho Territory established the county in February 1864, it contained all of present Ada and Payette counties. It included most of present Boise and Gem Counties, the southern half of Washington County, small portions of Adams, Custer and Valley counties; when Ada County was created in December 1864, most of that territory was transferred to Ada County, leaving only small portions of Custer, Payette and Washington counties together with most of present-day Boise County. The Boise River portion of the current western boundary was established by 1866; the southern boundary common to present Ada County was defined the following year. The northern boundary was most volatile Between 1873 and 1887 with the boundary shifting further north into Valley County, back south below Cascade, again north to include the North Fork of Payette River Basin.
The county obtained its current boundary after Gem County was created in 1915 and Valley County in 1918. In March 2011, the county filed a Chapter 9 bankruptcy petition due to judgment against the county for violating the Fair Housing Act; the county's petition for Chapter 9 relief was denied. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,907 square miles, of which 1,899 square miles is land and 7.4 square miles is water. The highest point in the county is Thompson Peak at 10,751 feet, on its eastern border in the Sawtooth Wilderness; the county's lowest point is on the Payette River, on its western border with Gem County, at 2,500 feet. Boise National Forest Sawtooth National Recreation Area Sawtooth Wilderness SH 21 - Ponderosa Pine Scenic Byway SH 52 SH 55 - Payette River Scenic BywayThe county's two primary routes are scenic byways. Both are two-lane undivided highways for most of their length; the Ponderosa Pine Scenic Byway on State Highway 21 climbs northeast from Boise to Idaho City and Lowman, ends at Stanley in Custer County, at the junction with State Highway 75.
The Payette River Scenic Byway on State Highway 55 is a designated national scenic byway. It heads north from Eagle to Horseshoe Bend and climbs the whitewater of the Payette River to Cascade and McCall in Valley County, ends at New Meadows in Adams County, at the junction with US Route 95; the closest thing to a traffic signal in Boise County is a flashing red light for Hwy 52 where it meets Highway 55, in Horsehoe Bend. Highway 55 has a flashing yellow. Hwy 52 & Hwy 55 Horseshoe Bend As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 6,670 people, 2,616 households, 1,899 families in the county; the population density was 3.5 people per square mile. There were 4,349 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.23% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 0.93% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 1.30% from other races, 2.01% from two or more races. 3.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.4 % were of 14.8 % American, 13.8 % English and 9.8 % Irish ancestry.
There were 2,616 households out of which 30.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.50% were married couples living toget
John Adams was an American statesman, diplomat and Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. Before his presidency he was a leader of the American Revolution that achieved independence from Great Britain, served as the first vice president of the United States. Adams was a dedicated diarist and corresponded with many important figures in early American history including his wife and adviser and his letters and other papers are an important source of historical information about the era. A lawyer and political activist prior to the revolution, Adams was devoted to the right to counsel and presumption of innocence, he defied anti-British sentiment and defended British soldiers against murder charges arising from the Boston Massacre. Adams was a Massachusetts delegate to the Continental Congress and became a principal leader of the Revolution, he assisted in drafting the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and was its foremost advocate in Congress.
As a diplomat in Europe, he helped negotiate the peace treaty with Great Britain and secured vital governmental loans. Adams was the primary author of the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780, which influenced the United States' own constitution, as did his earlier Thoughts on Government. Adams was elected to two terms as vice president under President George Washington and was elected as the United States' second president in 1796. During his single term, Adams encountered fierce criticism from the Jeffersonian Republicans and from some in his own Federalist Party, led by his rival Alexander Hamilton. Adams signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts and built up the Army and Navy in the undeclared "Quasi-War" with France; the main accomplishment of his presidency was a peaceful resolution of this conflict in the face of public anger and Hamilton's opposition. During his term, he became the first president to reside in the executive mansion now known as the White House. In his bid for reelection, opposition from Federalists and accusations of despotism from Republicans led to Adams's loss to his former friend Thomas Jefferson, he retired to Massachusetts.
He resumed his friendship with Jefferson by initiating a correspondence that lasted fourteen years. He and his wife generated a family of politicians and historians now referred to as the Adams political family, which includes their son John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States. John Adams died on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, hours after Jefferson's death. Surveys of historians and scholars have favorably ranked his administration. John Adams was born on October 1735 to John Adams Sr. and Susanna Boylston. He had two younger brothers and Elihu. Adams was born on the family farm in Massachusetts, his mother was from a leading medical family of Massachusetts. His father was a deacon in the Congregational Church, a farmer, a cordwainer, a lieutenant in the militia. John Sr. supervised the building of schools and roads. Adams praised his father and recalled their close relationship. Adams's great-grandfather Henry Adams emigrated to Massachusetts from Braintree, England around 1638.
Though raised in modest surroundings, Adams felt pressured to live up to his heritage. His was a family of Puritans, who profoundly affected their region's culture and traditions. By the time of John Adams's birth, Puritan tenets such as predestination had waned and many of their severe practices moderated, but Adams still "considered them bearers of freedom, a cause that still had a holy urgency." Adams recalled that his parents "held every Species of Libertinage in... Contempt and horror," and detailed "pictures of disgrace, or baseness and of Ruin" resulting from any debauchery. Adams noted that "As a child I enjoyed the greatest of blessings that can be bestowed upon men – that of a mother, anxious and capable to form the characters of her children."Adams, as the eldest child, was compelled to obtain a formal education. This began at age six at a dame school for boys and girls, conducted at a teacher's home, was centred upon The New England Primer. Shortly thereafter, Adams attended Braintree Latin School under Joseph Cleverly, where studies included Latin, rhetoric and arithmetic.
Adams's early education included incidents of truancy, a dislike for his master, a desire to become a farmer. All discussion on the matter ended with his father's command that he remain in school: "You shall comply with my desires." Deacon Adams hired a new schoolmaster named Joseph Marsh, his son responded positively. At age sixteen, Adams entered Harvard College in 1751; as an adult, Adams was a keen scholar, studying the works of ancient writers such as Thucydides, Plato and Tacitus in their original languages. Though his father expected him to be a minister, after his 1755 graduation with an A. B. degree, he taught school while pondering his permanent vocation. In the next four years, he began to seek prestige, craving "Honour or Reputation" and "more defference from fellows", was determined to be "a great Man." He decided to become a lawyer to further those ends, writing his father that he found among lawyers "noble and gallant achievements" but, among the clergy, the "pretended sanctity of some absolute dunces."
His aspirations conflicted with his Puritanism, prompting reservations about his self-described "trumpery" and failure to share the "happiness of fellow men."As the French and Indian War began in 1754, Ada