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List of counties in Illinois

There are 102 counties in the American state of Illinois. The largest of these by population is Cook County, home to Chicago and the second-most populous county in the United States, while the smallest is Hardin County; the largest by area is McLean County. Illinois's FIPS state code is 17 and its postal abbreviation is IL. What is now Illinois was claimed as part of Illinois County, between 1778 and 1782. Modern-day county formation dates to 1790. Clair and Knox—were created at that time. Knox would become a county in Indiana and is unrelated to the current Knox County in Illinois. 15 counties had been created by the time Illinois achieved statehood in 1818. The last county, Ford County, was created in 1859. Cook County, established in 1831 and named for the early Illinois Attorney General Daniel Pope Cook, contained the absolute majority of the state's population in the first half of the 20th century and retains more than 40% of it as of the 2010 Census. Most counties in Illinois were named after early American leaders of the American Revolutionary War, as well as soldiers from the Battle of Tippecanoe and the War of 1812.

Some are named after natural counties in other states. Some are named for early Illinois leaders. Two counties are named for Native American tribes, one bears the name of a plant used as a food source by Native Americans. While it does have a Lincoln city, Illinois does not have county named after its favorite son, Abraham Lincoln, it has Calhoun County, named after John C. Calhoun, outspoken for his pro-slavery and pro-southern views in the years preceding the American Civil War. Several of the counties are named after Southerners, reflecting the fact that Illinois was for a short time part of Virginia, settled in its early years by many Southerners. No counties are named after heroes of the Civil War because the counties were all named before that war; the state does have a Lee County named after the family of Robert E. Lee, who at one time served in Illinois. Illinois has two counties named after the same person, New York governor DeWitt Clinton. Information on the FIPS county code, county seat, year of establishment, etymology, population and map of each county is included in the table below.

Note: the links in the FIPS County Code column are to the Census Bureau info page for that county. Dane County was renamed in 1840 to the current Christian County; the original Knox County, became extinct with the formation of the Illinois Territory in 1809 - or, more it became Knox County, Indiana. The modern Knox County, Illinois was formed much and was not a part of the original Knox County. List of census-designated places in Illinois List of cities in Illinois List of Illinois townships List of precincts in Illinois List of towns and villages in Illinois List of unincorporated communities in Illinois National Association of Counties National Register of Historic Places listings in Illinois Hébert, Michael L.. "Illinois County Boundaries: 1790 - Present". ILGenWeb. White, Jesse. "Origin and Evolution of Illinois Counties". Illinois Secretary of State. Census 2000 U. S. Gazetteer Files Illinois Association of County Board Members Illinois Association of County Officials Illinois City/County Management Association


Electropodagrion is an extinct species of damselfly in the family Megapodagrionidae known from a fossil found in Europe. The genus contains. Electropodagrion is known from a solitary fossil, an inclusion in a transparent chunk of Baltic amber; the amber was recovered from fossil bearing rocks in the Baltic Sea region of Europe. Estimates of the age date between 37 million years old, for the youngest sediments and 48 million years old; this age range straddles the middle Eocene, ranging from near the beginning of the Lutetian to the beginning of the Pribonian. At the time of study, the holotype was part of the paleoentomology collections housed by the Museum of Amber Inclusions, University of Gdańsk, in Gdańsk, Poland, it was first studied by paleoentomologists Dany Azar of the Lebanese University and André Nel of the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Their 2008 type description of the genus and species was published in the natural sciences journal Annales de la Société Entomologique de France.

The genus name was coined as a combination of the Greek elektron meaning "amber" and podagrion the root of Megapodagrion, type genus of Megapodagrionidae. The specific epithet szwedoi was coined as a patronym honoring paleoentomologist Jacek Szwedo; the E. szwedoi fossil is fragmentary, with only the upper half of one wing, one leg and the thorax with three wing bases preserved. All the wings are similar in structure and appearance, having an approximate length of 20 mm and a maximum width of about 4.8 mm. The nodus, notch on the leading edge of the forewings, is placed 7.2 mm from the base, the pterostigma is 10.1 mm further up the wing. The postnodal veins and the postsubnodal veins are aligned, a feature seen in Coenagrionomorpha damselflies, while the square and shortened pterostigma preclude the genus belonging to Hypolestidae. Data related to Electropodagrion at Wikispecies

Jack Gentry

Jack Sydney Bates Gentry CBE, CIE was an English first-class cricketer. Gentry was a right-handed batsman. Gentry was educated at Christ's Hospital. Gentry made his first-class debut for Hampshire, playing a single match for the county against Essex in 1919. In 1922 Gentry joined Surrey County Cricket Club, making his debut for the county against a touring Scotland side. Gentry played eight first-class matches for Surrey in 1922 and followed that up with two further appearances for Surrey in 1923, with his final appearance for the county coming against Leicestershire. During the 1922 season, Gentry took 31 wickets at a bowling average of 21.54 and coming second in Surrey's averages that season. In 1925 Gentry played a single first-class match for Essex against Yorkshire at Leyton Cricket Ground. In Gentry's first-class career he took 36 wickets at a bowling average of 22.05, with best figures of 4/36. Gentry was renowned as being accurate with his slow left-arm orthodox spin, but lacked the spin of the great bowlers and was in fact more effective on hard wickets than on soft.

Gentry died at Sussex on 16 April 1978 following a long illness. Jack Gentry at Cricinfo Jack Gentry at CricketArchive

Chichewa tenses

Chichewa is the main lingua franca of central and southern Malawi and neighbouring regions. Like other Bantu languages it has a wide range of tenses. In terms of time, Chichewa tenses can be divided into present, recent past, remote past, near future, remote future; the dividing line between near and remote tenses is not exact, however. Remote tenses cannot be used of events of today, but near tenses can be used of events earlier or than today; the Chichewa tense system incorporates aspectual distinctions. Except for the Present Simple, nearly every tense in Chichewa is either perfective or imperfective in aspect. In the imperfective tenses for the most part there is no distinction between habitual and progressive aspect. Another aspectual distinction in Chichewa is that between past. A perfect tense is one which carries an implication that the result of a past action still holds at the present time; the past tenses in Chichewa carry the opposite implication, namely that the result of the past action no longer holds.

This kind of tense is known in modern linguistics as discontinuous past. It differs from the English Past Simple, neutral in implication; the distinction between one tense and another in Chichewa is made by changing the tense-marker, an infix such as -ku-, -na-, -ma- etc. added to the verb, by the use of tone. Two different tenses, such as ndimapíta "I was going" and ndímapíta "I go", have the same tense-marker but are distinguished by their tonal pattern. Compound tenses are found in Chichewa to express more complex meanings, such as ndimatí ndipité "I was about to go" or ndakhala ndíkúpíta "I have been going". In addition to ordinary tenses, Chichewa has tenses to express obligation and persistence, participle-like tenses with meanings such as "while going", "having gone", "before going", a number of tenses meaning "when..." or "if..." such as akapita "when he goes", átápíta "if he were to go", ákadapíta "if he had gone". Chichewa verbs in their basic form are made with a subject-marker, followed by a tense-marker, the verb stem.

The Present Continuous tense, which has tense-marker -ku-, goes as follows: ndi-ku-thándiza "I am helping" u-ku-thándiza "you are helping" a-ku-thándiza "he or she is helping" ti-ku-thándiza "we are helping" mu-ku-thándiza "you are helping" a-ku-thándiza "they are helping"Other subject-markers are possible, e.g. chi-, i-, zi- and so on. Freestanding pronouns such as ine "I", iwe "you", iyé "he, she" are available and may be added for emphasis: ine ndikuthándiza "I am helping"; the Present Simple, Present Subjunctive, Basic Imperative have no tense-marker. In modern standard Chichewa except in the Perfect tense there is no difference between the 3rd person singular "he/she" and the 3rd person plural "they", although there are some dialects such as the Town Nyanja spoken in Lusaka, Zambia where the 3rd person plural is still βa- and thus different from the singular; the Perfect tense is exceptional in that the subject-marker is shortened when followed by the tense-marker -a-. It is exceptional in that the 3rd person singular has w- instead of a-, is thus different from the 3rd person plural: nd-a-thandiza "I have helped" w-a-thandiza "you have helped" w-a-thandiza "he/she has helped" t-a-thandiza "we have helped" mw-a-thandiza "you have helped" a-thandiza "they have helped" Other elements can be added between the tense-marker and the verb-stem, such as aspect-markers and object-markers.

So for example the object-marker -mu- "him" or "her" can be added to any of the above verbs: nd-a-mú-thandiza "I have helped him". The main tenses used in independent clauses in Chichewa are as follows: Certain tenses in Chichewa, such as those with -ná-, -nká- and -dzá-, are used for events remote in time, while others are used for events of today. However, although the remote tenses are never used for events of today, the opposite is not true; as one scholar Jack Mapanje puts it: "Although traditional and other grammarians have latched on to the idea of immediate, near or remote past or future time, this is not a hard and fast rule for our languages. The decision as to how immediate, near or remote past or future time is from the speech time is dependent on subjective factors." The Remote Perfect tense can be made with either -na- or -da-. The difference is regional, since -da- is heard in parts of the Central Region in the area around Lilongwe. -da- was chosen by the first President of Malawi, Hastings Kamuzu Banda, in his wish to standardise the language and to make the Central Region variety the basis of that standard, as the correct form to be used in written Chichewa for this tense.

Banda is said to have declared: "The real Chichewa is what is spoken by the villagers in Dowa, Lilon

Carlo Fonseka

Carlo Fonseka was a Sri Lankan physician and political activist. He is a former dean of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya and a former president of the Sri Lanka Medical Council. Fonseka was born on 4 March 1933 in Ceylon, his family were Roman Catholics. He was educated at Negombo and St. Joseph's College, Colombo. After school he joined the University of Ceylon's Faculty of Medicine in Colombo in 1955, graduating in 1960 with a first class MBBS degree. After graduating Fonseka joined the Colombo General Hospital as an intern under professor K. Rajasuria and senior surgeon Dr. Noel Bartholomeusz, he joined the base hospital in Mirigama, near his home village of Divulapitiya, as a medical officer. In 1962 Fonseka joined the University of Ceylon's Department of Physiology as a lecturer, he joined the University of Edinburgh's Department of Physiology in 1964 to pursue his doctoral studies, obtaining a Ph. D. in 1966. Fonseka returned to the University of Ceylon's Department of Physiology in 1967.

He was a professor at the department from 1982 and 1989. The North Colombo Medical College, a private medical school, was nationalised in 1989 and in 1991 became the Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya with Fonseka as its first dean, he served as dean until 1997. He was chairman of the Board of Management of the University of Colombo's Postgraduate Institute of Medicine from 1996 to 1997 and from 1998 to 2001; the University of Colombo appointed Fonseka as an emeritus professor in July 2000. He was appointed emeritus professor by the University of Kelaniya. Fonseka was appointed president of the Sri Lanka Medical Council in January 2012; the appointment was opposed by the Sri Lanka Medical Faculty Students' Action Committee alleged that it had been made under political influence. Fonseka's tenure at the SLMC was to end in December 2016 but the government extended it by six months. Fonseka resigned at the end of June 2017. Fonseka was a prominent member of the Trotskyist Lanka Sama Samaja Party.

He lead its branch in Kotte. Fonseka is a vocal critic of private medical education and campaigned against the NCMC in the early 1980s. Whilst president of the SLMC he was critical of the South Asian Institute of Technology and Medicine, a private medical school. After leaving the SLMC Fonseka claimed. Fonseka received a M. A. degree from the University of Kelaniya in 1999. He is a fellow of the Ceylon College of Physicians and the Sri Lanka College of General Practitioners, he has served as president of the Arts Council of Sri Lanka, chairman of the Vijaya Kumaratunga Memorial Hospital, chairman of the National Authority on Tobacco and Alcohol and was a member of the University Grants Commission. Fonseka was one of six South-East Asia Region awardees of the World No Tobacco Day 2012 Awards, he is a lyricist and composer and has produced a number of albums including Carlochita Gee, Raththaran Duwe and Koida Kiya

Gandhidham–Ahmedabad main line

The Gandhidham–Ahmedabad main line belongs to Western Railway of Ahmedabad Division in Gujarat State. Gandhidham–Ahmedabad main line passes through beautiful Creeks and Salt dunes of Kutch; the railway line is about 300 km in length. This line is known in detail different sections: Gandhidham–Samakhiali section Samakhiali–Maliya Miyana section Maliya Miyana–Viramgam section Viramgam–Ahmedabad section Between 1850 and 1950 Gandhidham-Ahmedabad line was owned by different Princely States like Cutch State Railway, Bombay and Central India Railway, Morvi State Railway. Ahmedabad–Viramgam section was laid in 1871 by BB&CI. BB&CI line was extended to Wadhwan; the Cutch State Railway was financed by the Maharao Khengarji Bawa of Cutch, the initial section to Anjar was opened in 1905. An extension from Anjar to the state capital of Bhuj was made and lines opened in 1908. Varshamedi to Bhachau was opened in 1910. 15 miles from Anjar to Kandla was opened in 1930. After the formation of Gandhidham, Kandla station was renamed in 1947.

Another line was laid from Kandla to Disa in 1950. Cutch State Railway was merged into the Western Railway on 5 November 1951, at which time the total length was 72 miles; the foundation stone was laid on 7 April 1955 to Gandhidham Bg Railway Station. The Gandhidham-Ahmedabad line was complete in the year 1969. Gauge conversion of Viramgam–Wankaner–Gandhidham section was completed in the earlier 1980s; the first train from Gandhidham to Mumbai was introduced on 2 October 1984. This line passes through Samakhiali, Maliya Miyana railway station and Viramgam. Passengers of Kutch are benefited through this line to go to rest of the parts of India. There are trains to some important cities like Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Nagercoil, Delhi, Kolkata, Vijayawada and Puri