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List of counties in Maryland

There are twenty-four counties and county-equivalents in the U. S. state of Maryland. Though an independent city rather than a county, the City of Baltimore is considered the equal of a county for most purposes and is a county-equivalent. Many of the counties in Maryland were named for relatives of the Barons Baltimore, who were the proprietors of the Maryland colony from its founding in 1634 through 1771; the Barons Baltimore were Catholic, George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore intended that the colony be a haven for English Catholics, though for most of its history Maryland has had a majority of Protestants. The last new county formation in Maryland occurred when Garrett County was formed in 1872 from portions of Allegany County. However, there have been numerous changes to county borders since that time, most when portions of the city of Takoma Park, part of Prince George's County were absorbed into Montgomery County in 1997. Outside of Baltimore the county is the default unit of local government.

Under Maryland law, counties exercise powers reserved in most other states at the municipal or state levels, so there is little incentive for a community to incorporate. Many of the state's most populous and economically important communities, such as Bethesda, Silver Spring and Towson are unincorporated and receive their municipal services from the county. In fact, there are no incorporated municipalities at all in Howard County; the county-equivalent is the provider of public schools—school districts as a separate level of government do not exist in Maryland. The City of Baltimore possesses the same powers and responsibilities as the counties within the state, it is an entity nearly surrounded by but separate from the County of Baltimore, which has its county seat in Towson. The Federal Information Processing Standard code, used by the United States government to uniquely identify states and counties, is provided with each entry. Maryland's code is 24, which when combined with any county code would be written as 24XXX.

The FIPS code for each county links to census data for that county

Polysorbate

Polysorbates are a class of emulsifiers used in some pharmaceuticals and food preparation. They are used in cosmetics to solubilize essential oils into water-based products. Polysorbates are oily liquids derived from ethoxylated sorbitan esterified with fatty acids. Common brand names for polysorbates include Scattics, Canarcel. Polysorbate 20 Polysorbate 40 Polysorbate 60 Polysorbate 80 The number 20 following the'polyoxyethylene' part refers to the total number of oxyethylene -- groups found in the molecule; the number following the'polysorbate' part is related to the type of fatty acid associated with the polyoxyethylene sorbitan part of the molecule. Monolaurate is indicated by 20, monopalmitate is indicated by 40, monostearate by 60, monooleate by 80. Sorbitan monolaurate Sorbitan monostearate Sorbitan tristearate NIH PEG-60 Household Products Database

Barkat Ali Khan

Ustad Barkat Ali Khan was a Pakistani classical singer, younger brother of Bade Ghulam Ali Khan and elder brother of Mubarak Ali Khan, belonged to the Patiala gharana of music. Barkat Ali Khan was born in Kasur in the Punjab province of British India, he had his initial training from his father, Ali Baksh Khan Kasuri, by his elder brother Bade Ghulam Ali Khan. After 1947 Partition of British India, Barkat Ali Khan, with his family, migrated to Pakistan and focused on the lighter aspects of Hindustani classical music, he was acknowledged as one of the great exponents of Thumri, Dadra and Ghazal, was well known for both Purab and Punjab Ang Thumris. The great Mohammad Rafi was a shagird of Barkat Ali Khan. Many still consider him a superior thumri singer than his elder brother, though he didn't receive acknowledgement to the extent Bade Ghulam Ali Khan did, he taught noted ghazal singer Ghulam Ali. Many people in Pakistan say that humility were the hallmark of his personality, he started a new trend of ghazal-singing in Pakistan.

Before Mehdi Hassan became known as the'King of ghazals' in the 1970s, Barkat Ali Khan and Begum Akhtar were considered the stalwarts of ghazal-singing during the 1950s and 1960s. Barkat Ali Khan, in a rare live radio interview to Radio Pakistan, had said," My forefathers, at one time, lived in the hilly tracts of Jammu and Kashmir, so they used to sing'songs of the hills'. I learned to sing those Pahari Geets from them". "Woh jo hum main tum main qaraar tha tumhe yaad ho ke na yaad ho"Ghazal sung by Barkat Ali Khan, lyrics by the famous poet Momin Khan Momin "Donaun Jahan Teri Mohabbat Mein Haar Ke, Woh Jaa Raha Hai Shab-e-Gham Guzaar Ke"Ghazal sung by Ustad Barkat Ali Khan, lyrics by the renowned poet Faiz Ahmad Faiz "Baghon Mein Paray Jhoolay, Tum Bhool Gaey Humko, Hum Tumko Nahin Bhoolay"Sung by Ustad Barkat Ali Khan, a folk'Mahia' geet. This same song made more popular by his grandson Sajjad Ali "Abb Kay Sawan Ghar Aa Ja" A Thumri Pahari geet Sung by Barkat Ali Khan "Uss Bazm Mein Mujhe Nahin Banti Haya Kiyyay"Ghazal sung by Barkat Ali Khan, lyrics by Mirza Ghalib He died a premature death at the age of 55 on 19 June 1963 in Lahore, Pakistan

Harry T. Jones House

The Harry T. Jones House is a historic house in Seward, Nebraska, it was built in 1889 for the president of the Jones National Bank. It was designed in the Queen Anne style by George A. Berlinghof. According to historian Joni Gilkerson of the Nebraska State Historical Society, "The main wrap-a-round porch displays classical support colonettes grouped together in units of two or three, a balustrade, pediments with decorated tympanums, a distinctive corner turret with a conical roof of patterned shingles; the second story wrap-a-round porch exhibits similar detailing, including ornamental latticework." The house has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since November 28, 1990

Everyday Rapture

Everyday Rapture is a musical with a book written by Sherie Rene Scott and Dick Scanlan and music by various composers. It ran Off-Broadway in 2009 and opened on Broadway in 2010; the musical is a loose autobiography of Scott herself, showing her travels from her half-Mennonite Kansas childhood to a life in show business. The show is called a "stage memoir disguised as fiction", a "mixed jukebox musical". Songs by singers and songwriters include David Byrne, Sharon Jones & The Dap-Kings, the Johnny Mercer-Harry Warren "On the Atchison and the Santa Fe." The Judy Garland standards "Get Happy" and "You Made Me Love You" are sung, the "latter amusingly illustrated with a series of cheeky images of Jesus." Songs from Mister Rogers' Neighborhood are sung. Scanlan described the show as "'a one-person show with four people in it.' The other three, besides Scott, are a younger actor who has an extended YouTube sequence and two women who serve as backup singers—'The Mennonettes'—and share other scenes with her."

Everyday Rapture debuted Off-Broadway at the Second Stage Theatre on April 7, 2009 in previews, opening on May 3, closed on June 13, 2009. It starred Sherie Rene Scott with direction by Michael Mayer, choreography by Michele Lynch and orchestrations and arrangements by Tom Kitt. Featured in the cast were Eamon Foley, Lindsay Mendez and Betsy Wolfe. Scott was nominated for the Lucille Lortel Award for Outstanding Lead Actress, the show was nominated as Best Musical. Scott presented an earlier form of the show titled You May Now Worship Me on March 31, 2008 as a one-night benefit for the Phyllis Newman Women’s Health Initiative of The Actors’ Fund; the show began previews on Broadway at the American Airlines Theatre on April 19, 2010 and opened on April 29, 2010. Following a limited engagement of 85 performances the show closed on July 11, 2010; the original cast reprised their performances in the Broadway production, Lynch returned as choreographer, Mayer returned as director despite being caught up in rehearsals for the production of Green Day's American Idiot, which he directed.

During its run, Scott was nominated for the 2010 Tony Award for Best Leading Actress in a Musical as well as Best Book of a Musical, the latter with co-writer Dick Scanlan. In the summer of 2012, the first production of the musical outside of New York City will be in Kansas City, Missouri, at the Unicorn Theatre. From the original cast recording: "The Other Side of This Life" "Got a Thing on My Mind" "Elevation" "On the Atchison and the Santa Fe" "Get Happy" "You Made Me Love You" Mr. Rogers Medley "It's You I Like" "I Guess the Lord Must Be in New York City" "Life Line" "The Weight" "Rainbow Sleeves" "Why" "Won't You Be My Neighbor?" "Up the Ladder to the Roof"Bonus Tracks: "Remember" "Give Me Love" The original cast recording has been released by Sh-K-Boom Records on their Ghostlight label. Scott is a co-founder of Sh-K-Boom/Ghostlight Records with Kurt Deutsch; the cast album is now available to download on iTunes. Ben Brantley's review in The New York Times of the 2009 off-Broadway production stated that "it qualifies as one of the year’s most extravagantly entertaining new musicals."

Eric Grode, in The Village Voice, commented that "Gifts like when packaged and delivered this shrewdly, deserve a kind of worship." Everyday Rapture at the Internet Broadway Database Everyday Rapture at the Internet Off-Broadway Database New Yorker article on Everyday Rapture Backstage Review of Everyday Rapture, May 4, 2009 Bloomberg News Review of Everyday Rapture, May 4, 2009

The Method of Mechanical Theorems

The Method of Mechanical Theorems referred to as The Method, is considered one of the major surviving works of the ancient Greek polymath Archimedes. The Method takes the form of a letter from Archimedes to Eratosthenes, the chief librarian at the Library of Alexandria, contains the first attested explicit use of indivisibles; the work was thought to be lost, but in 1906 was rediscovered in the celebrated Archimedes Palimpsest. The palimpsest includes Archimedes' account of the "mechanical method", so-called because it relies on the law of the lever, first demonstrated by Archimedes, of the center of mass, which he had found for many special shapes. Archimedes did not admit the method of indivisibles as part of rigorous mathematics, therefore did not publish his method in the formal treatises that contain the results. In these treatises, he proves the same theorems by exhaustion, finding rigorous upper and lower bounds which both converge to the answer required; the mechanical method was what he used to discover the relations for which he gave rigorous proofs.

To explain Archimedes' method today, it is convenient to make use of a little bit of Cartesian geometry, although this of course was unavailable at the time. His idea is to use the law of the lever to determine the areas of figures from the known center of mass of other figures; the simplest example in modern language is the area of the parabola. Archimedes uses a more elegant method, but in Cartesian language, his method is calculating the integral ∫ 0 1 x 2 d x = 1 3, which can be checked nowadays using elementary integral calculus; the idea is to mechanically balance the parabola with a certain triangle, made of the same material. The parabola is the region in the x-y plane between the x-axis and y = x2 as x varies from 0 to 1; the triangle is the region in the x-y plane between the x-axis and the line y = x as x varies from 0 to 1. Slice the parabola and triangle into vertical slices, one for each value of x. Imagine that the x-axis is a lever, with a fulcrum at x = 0; the law of the lever states that two objects on opposite sides of the fulcrum will balance if each has the same torque, where an object's torque equals its weight times its distance to the fulcrum.

For each value of x, the slice of the triangle at position x has a mass equal to its height x, is at a distance x from the fulcrum. Since each pair of slices balances, moving the whole parabola to x = −1 would balance the whole triangle; this means that if the original uncut parabola is hung by a hook from the point x = −1, it will balance the triangle sitting between x = 0 and x = 1. The center of mass of a triangle can be found by the following method due to Archimedes. If a median line is drawn from any one of the vertices of a triangle to the opposite edge E, the triangle will balance on the median, considered as a fulcrum; the reason is that if the triangle is divided into infinitesimal line segments parallel to E, each segment has equal length on opposite sides of the median, so balance follows by symmetry. This argument can be made rigorous by exhaustion by using little rectangles instead of infinitesimal lines, this is what Archimedes does in On the Equilibrium of Planes. So the center of mass of a triangle must be at the intersection point of the medians.

For the triangle in question, one median is the line y = x/2, while a second median is the line y = 1 − x. Solving these equations, we see that the intersection of these two medians is above the point x = 2/3, so that the total effect of the triangle on the lever is as if the total mass of the triangle were pushing down on this point; the total torque exerted by the triangle is its area, 1/2, times the distance 2/3 of its center of mass from the fulcrum at x = 0. This torque of 1/3 balances the parabola, at a distance -1 from the fulcrum. Hence, the area of the parabola must be 1/3 to give it the opposite torque; this type of method can be used to find the area of an arbitrary section of a parabola, similar arguments can be used to find the integral of any power of x, although higher powers become complicated without algebra. Archimedes only went as far as the integral of x3, which he used to find the center of mass of a hemisphere, in other work, the center of mass of a parabola. Consider the parabola in the figure to the right.

Pick two points on the parabola and call them A and B. Suppose the line segment AC is parallel to the axis of symmetry of the parabola. Further suppose that the line segment BC lies on a line, tangent to the parabola at B; the first proposition states: The area of the triangle ABC is three times the area bounded by the parabola and the secant line AB. Proof:Let D be the midpoint of AC. Construct a line segment JB through D, where the distance from J to D is equal to the distance from B to D. We will think of the segment JB as a "lever" with D as its fulcrum; as Archimedes had shown, the center of mass of the triangle is at the point I on the "lever" where DI:DB = 1:3. Therefore, it suffices to show that if the whole weight of the interior of the triangle rests at I, the whole weight of the section of the parabola at J, the lever is in equilibrium. Consider