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List of counties in Minnesota

This is a list of counties in Minnesota. There are 87 counties in the U. S. state of Minnesota. There are several historical counties. On October 27, 1849, nine counties were established: Benton, Itasca, Mahkahta, Wabasha and Wahnata. Six of these names still exist. With the foundation of Kittson County on March 9, 1878, Pembina County no longer existed; when Minnesota was organized as a state, 57 of the present 87 counties were established. The last county to be created was Lake of the Woods County in 1923; the names of many of the counties allude to the long history of exploration. Over ten counties are named for Native American groups residing in parts of. Another fifteen counties are named after physical geographic features, the remainder for politicians; the FIPS county code is the five-digit Federal Information Processing Standard code which uniquely identifies counties and county equivalents in the United States. The three-digit number is unique to each individual county within a state, but to be unique within the entire United States, it must be prefixed by the state code.

This means that, for example, the number 001 is shared by Aitkin County, Adams County and Adair County, Iowa. To uniquely identify Aitkin County, one must use the state code of 27 plus the county code of 001; the links in the column FIPS. St. Clair County, Indiana St. Charles County, Louisiana Madison County Formed from St. Clair County Michilimackinac County, Michigan Territory Crawford County and Wisconsin Territories Chippewa County, Michigan Territory Dubuque County Fayette County St. Croix County, Wisconsin Territory La Pointe County, Wisconsin Territory Formed from St. Croix Mahkatah County Dissolved to Pembina and Cass Wahnata County Dissolved to Pembina and Cass Buchanan County Formed from Pine County, Dissolved back to Pine Pierce County Formed from Dakota County Superior County Name change to Saint Louis County to Lake. Davis County Formed from Cass and Sibley Counties Toombs County Formed from Pembina. Name Changed to Andy Johnson. Newton County Formed from Itasca Un-Organized. Name Changed from Doty County to Saint Louis County.

Monroe County merged with Mille Lacs. Lincoln County Formed from Renville County Lac qui Parle County Formed from Davis Manomin County Formed from Ramsey County, Merged into Anoka County. Monongalia County Formed from Pierce County and un-Organized. Dissolved to Kandiyohi County. Aiken County Formed from Pine and Ramsey Counties, Change name to Aitkin County Pembina County Name Change to Kittson County Saint Louis County. Name change from Superior to Lake. Breckenridge County Formed from Pembina. Name Change to Clay in 1862 Andy Johnson County Formally Toombs county. Named changed to Wilkin. Midway County Area created from Brown county, overlapped Pipestone county. Dissolved in 1858 when the State of Minnesota was formed and the rest of the territory not added to the state became unorganized. List of Minnesota county name etymologies List of Minnesota county seats Map of the Organized Counties of Minnesota, 1850

René Doynel de Saint-Quentin

René Doynel de Saint-Quentin was a French diplomat, French ambassador to the United States from 1938 to 1940. His parents were Jeanne Marie Adélaïde Liégeard, Louis Eugène Jules Doynel Count de Saint-Quentin, his maternal grandfather was the poet Stephen Liégeard. His cousin was the aviator Georges Guynemer. De Saint-Quentin graduated from École libre des sciences politiques, joined the Foreign Ministry in 1907. During World War I, he was drafted and wounded twice, he receiving several decorations, he was stationed at the General Secretariat of the Berlin Peace Conference, to the Protectorate of Morocco, he became in 1926 deputy director of African-Levant. De Saint-Quentin served as the ambassador to the United States from March 1938 to September 1940. In 1940, he made the statement: If any other country is attacked by Russia... we will move against the Soviets at once. He returned to Vichy and took his new post on 27 January 1941. Two years he resigned from the Vichy government, first joining General Henri Giraud, he joined Charles de Gaulle in Algiers.

From 1946 to 1961, he was president of the Valentin Haüy charity Association for the Blind. De Saint-Quentin died on 15 March 1961 in France. Media related to René Doynel de Saint-Quentin at Wikimedia Commons

Bharat Aggarwal

Bharat B. Aggarwal is an Indian-American biochemist, his research has been in the areas of cytokines, the role of inflammation in cancer, the anti-cancer effects of spices and herbs those of curcumin. He was a professor in the Department of Clinical Immunology and Experimental Therapeutics at University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas. In 2012, MD Anderson launched a review of Aggarwal's research after the federal government notified them of allegations of fraud by academic whistleblowers in as many as 65 of Aggarwal's published papers, he retired at the end of 2015. As of 2019, 28 papers published by Aggarwal have been retracted, ten others have received an expression of concern, 17 others have been corrected. Aggarwal holds a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Delhi, a Master of Science degree from Banares Hindu University and a Doctor of Philosophy degree from the University of California, all in biochemistry, he completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of California, San Francisco and was employed as a scientist at Genentech from 1980 to 1989, where his team characterized the cytokines TNF-alpha and TNF-beta.

Aggarwal served as Chief of the Cytokine Research Section, Department of Clinical Immunology, Experimental Therapeutics at MD Anderson Cancer Center of the University of Texas in Houston from 1989 to 2015. Aggarwal's research has focused on potential anti-cancer properties of herbs and spices curcumin, found in the spice turmeric. Aggarwal co-founded a company in 2004 called Curry Pharmaceuticals, based in Research Triangle Park, N. C., seeking to develop drugs based on synthetic analogs of curcumin. SignPath Pharma, a company seeking to develop liposomal formulations of curcumin, in 2013 licensed three patents from Aggarwal related to that approach. In 2012, MD Anderson initiated a review of Aggarwal's research after the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Research Integrity notified the institution that academic whistleblowers had found evidence of image manipulation in 65 published papers by Aggarwal. Aggarwal's lawyer proposed in 2013 legal action against the blog Retraction Watch after they reported several of Aggarwal's article corrections and retractions.

In February 2016, the journal Biochemical Pharmacology retracted seven of Aggarwal's research articles, six of which had Aggarwal as senior or first author, because "the data integrity has become questionable." In February 2016, MD Anderson Cancer Center confirmed that Aggarwal had retired from the Center on December 31, 2015. In June 2016, following an investigation by MD Anderson Cancer Center, the journal Molecular Pharmacology retracted two papers coauthored by Aggarwal, citing “inappropriate” or “unacceptable” image manipulation. By April 2018, 19 of Aggarwal's articles, published in 7 research journals, were retracted. In September 2018, an additional nine articles by Aggarwal were retracted in journals published by the American Association for Cancer Research. In February 2018, a cancer conference in Chennai, India co-organized by Aggarwal was promoted with the false claim that it was co-sponsored by MD Anderson Cancer Center; as of April 2018, 19 papers had been retracted. Aggarwal, BB.

"Curcumin induces the degradation of cyclin E expression through ubiquitin-dependent pathway and up-regulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27 in multiple human tumor cell lines". Biochemical Pharmacology. 73: 1024–32. Doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2006.12.010. PMID 17240359. Tharakan, ST. "Curcumin potentiates the antitumor effects of gemcitabine in an orthotopic model of human bladder cancer through suppression of proliferative and angiogenic biomarkers". Biochemical Pharmacology. 79: 218–28. Doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2009.08.007. PMC 3181149. PMID 19682434. Anand, P. "Design of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles formulation with enhanced cellular uptake, increased bioactivity in vitro and superior bioavailability in vivo". Biochemical Pharmacology. 79: 330–8. Doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2009.09.003. PMC 3181156. PMID 19735646. Ravindran, J. "Thymoquinone poly nanoparticles exhibit enhanced anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, chemosensitization potential". Biochemical Pharmacology. 79: 1640–7. Doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2010.01.023.

PMC 2846982. PMID 20105430. Yadav, VR. "Cyclodextrin-complexed curcumin exhibits anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities superior to those of curcumin through higher cellular uptake". Biochemical Pharmacology. 80: 1021–32. Doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2010.06.022. PMC 2923254. PMID 20599780. Park, B. "Triptolide, histone acetyltransferase inhibitor, suppresses growth and chemosensitizes leukemic cells through inhibition of gene expression regulated by TNF-TNFR1-TRADD-TRAF2-NIK-TAK1-IKK pathway". Biochemical Pharmacology. 82: 1134–44. Doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2011.07.062. PMC 3191321. PMID 21820422. Anand, P. "Suppression of pro-inflamma

Antares MA-32

The Antares MA-32 is the first model in a large family of Ukrainian ultralight trikes, designed and produced by Antares Aircraft and at one time marketed by Leading Edge Air Foils as the LEAF Antares. The aircraft are supplied as kits for amateur construction; the MA-32 is a two-seat design, developed for European microlight competition flying. The aircraft has a standard empty weight of 321 lb, it features a cable-braced hang glider-style high-wing, weight-shift controls, an open cockpit, tricycle landing gear and a single engine in pusher configuration. The aircraft is made from bolted-together aluminum tubing, with titanium used on the carriage structure and wing attachment; the wing is covered in Dacron sailcloth. Its 33.8 ft span wing uses an "A" frame control bar. A number of single or double surface purpose-designed trike wings are optional, including the Aeros Still-17, Aeros Stream-16, Aeros Stranger 2, Aeros Profi, Aerossa Sprinter-15, Aerossa Stratos and the Aerossa Stratos-13; the landing gear uses a unique curved, slab-sided, main gear leg design made from fiberglass that reduces aerodynamic drag.

All wheels have suspension and the steerable nose wheel features a drum brake. A fiberglass cockpit fairing is optional. Series engines include the Rotax 447 two-stroke powerplant of 40 hp, Rotax 503 of 50 hp, the liquid-cooled Rotax 582 of 64 hp, the Rotax 912 and 912S four-stroke powerplants of 80 hp and 100 hp and the HKS 700E of 60 hp; the aircraft can all be folded for storage or ground transportation. A-10 R503 Solo Base single-seat model with Rotax 503 of 50 hp and gross weight of 450 kg; the model has the same undercarriage and other features of the MA-32. Wings that can be fitted include the Aero Stranger 2, Aeros Stranger 2M, Aeros Still 17, Aeros Stream 16 or the Aeros Profi. MA-32 Base two-seat model with Rotax 447 two-stroke powerplant of 40 hp MA-32 R503 Two-seat model with Rotax 503 of 50 hp MA-32 R582 G Two-seat model with Rotax 582 of 64 hp, with optional twin floats MA-33 and MA-33M R582 Two-seat model with Rotax 582 two-stroke powerplant of 64 hp MA-33M R912 Two-seat model with Rotax 912 four-stroke powerplant of 80 hp or HKS 700E of 60 hp MA-34 R912 Ranger Two-seat model with Rotax 912 four-stroke powerplant of 80 hp and a 15 U.

S. gallons fuel tank MA-34R912S Beaver Two-seat model with Rotax 912ULS four-stroke powerplant of 100 hp MA-34 Open Country Two-seat model with Rotax 912ULS four-stroke powerplant of 100 hp, tundra tires and an Aeros Stratos 15.5 wing MA-34 R582XB Crop Duster Two-seat model with Rotax 582 two-stroke powerplant of 64 hp and spray equipment for aerial application LEAF Antares 503 Base model marketed by Leading Edge Air Foils, with the Aeros Stream-16 wing, circa 2000. Two-seat model with Rotax 503 of 50 hp LEAF Antares 582 Model marketed by Leading Edge Air Foils, with the Aeros Stranger-15 wing, circa 2000. Two-seat model with Rotax 582 of 64 hp Data from ClicheGeneral characteristics Crew: one Capacity: one passenger Wingspan: 10.3 m Wing area: 15.5 m2 Empty weight: 146 kg Gross weight: 250 kg Fuel capacity: 19 litres Powerplant: 1 × Rotax 447 twin cylinder, two-stroke aircraft engine, 30 kW Propellers: 6-bladed compositePerformance Maximum speed: 124 km/h Cruise speed: 64 km/h Stall speed: 45 km/h Range: 320 km Service ceiling: 6,000 m Official website


Roshen Confectionery Corporation is a Ukrainian leading confectionery manufacturing group. It operates facilities in the Ukrainian cities of Kiev and Kremenchuk, as well as in Budapest and Klaipėda, Lithuania; the name of the company was derived from the last name of Poroshenko. In 2012, the Roshen Corporation was ranked 18th in the "Candy Industry Top 100" list of world's largest confectionery companies, it has a total annual production volume of 410,000 tonnes. It exports to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Moldova, Hungary, Latvia, the United States, Germany and Israel, it exported to Russia, with 40 percent of the company's grosses came from there until Russia stopped importing from the company in July 2013. In early 2017 Candy Industry put ROSHEN on 24th place in "2017 Global Top 100" of confectionery producers and estimated its annual revenue at $800 million. Participating in the 2014 presidential election in Ukraine, Petro Poroshenko announced his intention to sell Roshen after the victory.

At a press conference on June 5, 2015 in Kiev, Petro Poroshenko assured that he intends to transfer his stake in the confectionery corporation "Roshen" in the management of a private investment banking company N M Rothschild & Sons, owned by the Rothschild family. In January 2016, he announced the signing of an agreement on the transfer of these shares in the management of an independent trust fund Rothschild Trust, due to which before the end of the presidential term he will not be able to influence the business. In July 2013, Russia banned all Roshen imports due to dissatisfaction with the packaging labelling. Soon after Roshen products were checked in Kazakhstan, Belarus and Moldova but this did not lead to complaints. On 21 October 2013, Russia's ambassador to Ukraine Mikhail Zurabov said, "There are no problems with the quality of products, they are safe, but there are problems associated with the production technology, using some ingredients that are not certified in accordance with the law."

According to the 17 December 2013 Ukrainian-Russian action plan by 1 March 2014 Roshen products should have been back in Russian stores. But on 12 March 2014, acting head of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare Anna Popova stated that Ukraine had not yet fulfilled their requirements to return Roshen products to the Russian market. Late March 2014 the Roshen factory in Lipetsk was closed down and its local manager director charged with "conspiring with unnamed others to use a registered trademark illegally to extract additional profits". Ukraine and the factory workers suspected the factory was closed because of Roshen's owner Petro Poroshenko involvement in Euromaidan and his participation in the 2014 Ukrainian presidential election. According to Reuters some of the Roshen factory workers in Lipetsk felt embarrassed to work for Ukrainians "swept up in a wave of Russian patriotism since Moscow annexed Crimea" and gossiped about rumours of how the management "paid Ukrainians more money and were cheating the Russians".

On 13 May 2014 Russia banned the sale of Roshen products in Crimea. In April 2017 full production stopped in the Lipetsk factory; as noted, the seizure of property of the Lipetsk confectionery factory, imposed by the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation under a criminal case, made it impossible to sell the factory. During the election campaign of the 2014 Ukrainian presidential election Roshen owner Poroshenko pledged to sell all his shares in Roshen if elected President; because of this in January 2016 Poroshenko transferred his share of the corporation to an independent blind trust. The Bank Ruling Trust has a four-year-old proxy to negotiate the sale of assets. Roshen has closed down its confectionery factory in Mariupol in 2015 after the Donbass war in the vicinity and export ban by Russia deemed the production there unviable; the corporation was earlier reported to operate facility in the town of Bershad, but it's not listed on the corporate web site. Since March 2013, Roshen began co-production with a contract manufacturer in Hungary named "Bonbonetti".

"ROSHEN" is the umbrella brand of all of the corporation's products. The name is a truncated version of the last name of its owner. ROSHEN produces more than 350 kinds of confectionery products; the product line includes chocolate and jelly sweets, toffee, chocolate bars, wafers, sponge rolls and cakes. The total volume of production reaches around 300 thousand tons per year. They're most well known for their "Kyiv Vechirniy" chocolate candy and Kiev cakes, produced by the flagship Kiev Roshen Factory in Kiev; the corporation has a wide range of more affordable and less sophisticated products famous for high chocolate content. In 2013 the company manufactured about 200 types of confectionery products and in total produced 410,000 tonnes of products that year. Official website

Lake County, Colorado

Lake County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,310; the county seat and the only municipality in the county is Leadville. The highest natural point in Colorado and the entire Rocky Mountains is the summit of Mount Elbert in Lake County at 14,440 feet elevation. Lake County was one of the original 17 counties created by the Colorado legislature on November 1, 1861; as defined, Lake County included a large portion of western Colorado to the south and west of its present boundaries. The county was named for Twin Lakes. Placer gold was found at Colorado Gulch in 1863 as part of the Colorado Gold Rush. Lake County lost territory over the succeeding decades, losing land in its southeast to Saguache County in 1866 and Hinsdale County in 1874. With its many reductions in size, Lake County's designated county seat changed multiple times within just a few years, residing successively in Oro City, Lourette and Granite. By 1878, Lake County had been reduced to an area including only present-day Lake and Chaffee counties.

On February 8, 1879, the Colorado legislature renamed Lake County as Carbonate County, although this designation name only lasted for two days, until Chaffee County was split off from Carbonate's southern section on February 10 and the remaining northern portion was redesignated Lake County with its current county seat of Leadville. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 384 square miles, of which 377 square miles is land and 7.0 square miles is water. It is the fourth-smallest county in Colorado by area. Eagle County – north Summit County – northeast Park County – east Chaffee County – south Pitkin County – west Outlast is set in a fictional asylum in Lake County; as of the census of 2000, there were 7,812 people, 2,977 households, 1,914 families living in the county. The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 3,913 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.60% White, 0.18% Black or African American, 1.25% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 17.99% from other races, 2.62% from two or more races.

36.14 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 2,977 households out of which 33.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.70% were married couples living together, 8.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.70% were non-families. 26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.90% under the age of 18, 12.80% from 18 to 24, 33.10% from 25 to 44, 20.60% from 45 to 64, 6.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 115.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,691, the median income for a family was $41,652. Males had a median income of $30,977 versus $24,415 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,524.

About 9.50% of families and 12.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.60% of those under age 18 and 6.30% of those age 65 or over. Leadville Leadville North Twin Lakes Climax Oro City Healy House Museum and Dexter Cabin Leadville National Historic District Arkansas Headwaters Recreation Area San Isabel National Forest Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Collegiate Peaks Wilderness Holy Cross Wilderness Mount Massive Wilderness Leadville National Fish Hatchery American Discovery Trail Colorado Trail Continental Divide National Scenic Trail Mineral Belt National Recreation Trail Top of the Rockies National Scenic Byway Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles Colorado census statistical areas National Register of Historic Places listings in Lake County, Colorado Lake County Government website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society Lake County Visitor Center