American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Essex County, New Jersey
Essex County is a county in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 808,285, making it the state's third-most populous county, an increase of 3.1% from the 2010 United States Census, when its population was enumerated at 783,969, in turn a decrease of 1.2% from the 793,633 enumerated in the 2000 Census. In 2010, the county dropped down to third-largest, behind Middlesex County, was one of only two counties in the state to see a decline between 2000 and 2010, its county seat is the most populous city in the state. It is part of the New York Metropolitan Area. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $60,030, the eighth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 153rd of 3,113 counties in the United States; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 94th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009. The county is named after a county in the East of England. Based on data from the 2010 census, Essex County is the 14th-most densely populated county in the United States, was ranked second in the state after Hudson County.
Newark, with a population density of 11,458.3 people/square mile, is the largest municipality in the county both in terms of land area and population, while Caldwell is the smallest in terms of land area and Essex Fells has the smallest population. Many of the county's smallest municipalities have population densities that are comparable to those of many big cities, are well above the state's average which in turn is the highest in the nation. Like many of the counties of Northern New Jersey near New York City—which tend to have sharp divides between rich suburban neighborhoods and less wealthy, more densely populated cities nearby—the eastern region of Essex County tends to be poorer and more urbanized, while the western parts tend to be more affluent and suburban; the wide area of Eastern Essex has significant pockets of high population, high building density, high poverty, high crime rates. Within this general area however are many stable and middle-income areas of diverse populations. For example and west sides of Newark have well-kept suburban areas such as Vailsburg and Forest Hill.
The east side of Newark is a working-class Brazilian and Portuguese community. East Orange has the Presidential Estate neighborhood full of large one family homes. Belleville and Bloomfield are suburbs with historic Italian communities that, in spite of retaining a core Italian-American population, now have many immigrants from Latin America and Asia; as of the 2000 Census, 36% of Nutley residents indicated that they were of Italian ancestry, the 12th-highest of any municipality in the nation and third-highest in New Jersey. Beginning at about the turn of the century, this region led the state in the rebuilding and rehab of its housing stock. In the 2000s, Newark led the state in the issuance of building permits. Many reasons were cited: citywide incentives to encourage construction development, an improving local economy, the rising demand of low-cost housing so close to Manhattan. Newark has since become one of the fastest growing cities in the entire Northeast, reported a gain in median income and drop in poverty rate.
This is a turnaround from the deterioration and abandonment experienced in the post-riot 1970s, 1980s and early part of the 1990s. Crime in this part of the county has traditionally been among the highest in the state and the country as well, but has seen significant declines, mirroring its large neighbor to the east, New York City. By 2006, crime in Newark had fallen 60% over the previous decade to its lowest levels in 40 years. Neighboring East Orange has experienced a decline in crimes, dropping 50% in the three years. While crime rates have fallen in these cities in recent years, they nonetheless remain high here compared to national crime statistics, as well as Irvington, Orange. In 2008, Newark had 67 homicides, down from 105 in 2007 and the record of 161 murders set in 1981. In contrast, Western Essex tends to be more affluent. Within this region are some of the most diverse and racially integrated municipalities in the state and nation, including Montclair, West Orange, South Orange and Maplewood.
Many neighborhoods are well-known magnets for people moving from New York City, such as Glen Ridge, Verona, Cedar Grove, South Orange and West Orange. The communities of Livingston, West Caldwell, South Orange, Millburn, North Caldwell, Essex Fells are some of the wealthiest towns in the county. Short Hills, South Orange and Livingston have large Jewish communities. Short Hills has a popular upscale shopping mall, The Mall at Short Hills located near affluent communities in Morris and Union counties; as the poorest place in the county, Newark has a median household income of $33,025 and a per capita income of $17,198. Essex County was the first county in the country to create a county park system, to ensure that it did not lose all its land to development; some of the county's municipalities Newark, The Oranges, The Caldwells were seen on episodes of the HBO mob drama The Sopranos, set in North Caldwell. There are various attractions in Essex County, such as the Newark Museum, Montclair Art Mus
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Middlesex County, New Jersey
Middlesex County is a county located in north- central New Jersey, United States. In 2017 the Census Bureau estimated the county's population at 842,798, making it the state's second-most populous county, an increase of 4.1% from 809,858 in the 2010 census. Middlesex is part of the New York metropolitan area, its county seat is New Brunswick; the center of population of the state of New Jersey is located in Middlesex County, in East Brunswick Township, just east of the New Jersey Turnpike. The 2000 Census showed that the county ranked 63rd in the United States among the highest-income counties by median household; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 143rd-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009. Middlesex County holds the nickname, "The Greatest County in the Land"; the county was settled due to its ideal location near the Raritan River and was established as of March 7, 1683, as part of the Province of East Jersey and was partitioned as of October 31, 1693, into the townships of Piscataway, Perth Amboy and Woodbridge.
Somerset County was established on May 1688, from portions of Middlesex County. The county's first court met in June 1683 in Piscataway, held session at alternating sites over the next century in Perth Amboy and Woodbridge before relocating permanently to New Brunswick in 1778. Middlesex County hosts an extensive park system totaling more than 6,300 acres. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 322.83 square miles, including 308.91 square miles of land and 13.91 square miles of water. The county is named after the historic English county of Middlesex. Bisected by the Raritan River, the county is topographically typical of Central Jersey in that it is flat; the elevation ranges from sea level to 300 feet above sea level on a hill scaled by Major Road/ Sand Hill Road near Route 1 in South Brunswick Township. Union County, New Jersey – north Monmouth County, New Jersey – southeast Mercer County, New Jersey – southwest Somerset County, New Jersey – northwest Richmond County, New York – northeast As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 809,858 people, 281,186 households, 203,016.292 families residing in the county.
The population density was 2,621.6 per square mile. There were 294,800 housing units at an average density of 954.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 58.60% White, 9.69% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 21.40% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 6.99% from other races, 2.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.40% of the population. There were 281,186 households out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.8 and the average family size was 3.29. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.2 years.
For every 100 females there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 94 males; as of the 2010 Census, there were 170,070 people of Asian descent in Middlesex County accounting for 21% of the county's total population. At 61.57% of the population of Asian descent, Indian Americans accounted for a majority of the county's Asian population or 12.93% of the county's total population in 2010, increasing to 119,579 by 2015, more than that of the other sub-groups combined. Middlesex County had the largest population of Asian Indians of all counties in New Jersey. In Middlesex County, election ballots are printed in English, Gujarati and Punjabi. Middlesex County has the largest and fastest growing population of Chinese Americans of all counties in New Jersey, in places such as East Brunswick. Edison is developing a sprawling suburban Chinatown, with other Chinese communities spread out over the county; as of the 2000 United States Census there were 750,162 people, 265,815 households, 190,855 families residing in the county.
The population density was 2,422 people per square mile. There were 273,637 housing units at an average density of 884 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.42% White, 9.13% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 13.89% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.71% from other races, 2.60% from two or more races. 13.59% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among residents listing their ancestry, 16.1% were of Italian, 13.8% Irish, 10.2% German and 9.8% Polish ancestry according to the 2000 Census. There were 265,815 households out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.00% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.20% were non-families. 22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.23. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.70% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 32.80% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 12.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age wa
Mercer County, New Jersey
Mercer County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. Its county seat is the state capital; the county constitutes the Trenton-Ewing, NJ Metropolitan Statistical Area and is considered part of the New York Metropolitan Area by the United States Census Bureau, but directly borders the Philadelphia metropolitan area and is included within the Federal Communications Commission's Philadelphia Designated Market Area and the greater Philadelphia-Reading-Camden Combined Statistical Area. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 374,733, making it the state's 12th-most populous county, an increase of 2.2% from the 2010 United States Census, when its population was enumerated at 366,513, in turn an increase of 15,752 from the 350,761 enumerated in the 2000 Census, retaining its position as the 12th-most populous county in the state. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $63,247, the sixth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 121st of 3,113 counties in the United States.
Mercer County stands among the highest-income counties in the United States, with the Bureau of Economic Analysis having ranked the county as having the 78th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009. The county was formed by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 22, 1838, from portions of Burlington County, Hunterdon County, Middlesex County; the former Keith Line bisects the county and is the boundary between municipalities, separated into West Jersey and East Jersey. It was named for Continental Army General Hugh Mercer, who died as a result of wounds received at the Battle of Princeton on January 3, 1777; the Mercer Oak, against which the dying general rested as his men continued to fight, appears on the county seal and stood for 250 years until it collapsed in 2000. Mercer County is home to Princeton University, Princeton Theological Seminary, the Institute for Advanced Study, Rider University, The College of New Jersey, Thomas Edison State University and Mercer County Community College.
Trenton-Mercer Airport, in Ewing Township, is a commercial and corporate aviation airport serving Mercer County and its surrounding vicinity. The official residence of the governor of New Jersey, known as Drumthwacket, is located in Princeton, is listed on both the U. S. National Register of Historic Places and the New Jersey Register of Historic Places. Founded February 22, 1838, from portions of surrounding counties, Mercer County has a historical impact that reaches back to the pivotal battles of the American Revolutionary War. On the night of December 25–26, 1776, General George Washington led American forces across the Delaware River to attack the Hessian barracks in Trenton on the morning of December 26 known as the First Battle of Trenton. Following the battle, Washington crossed back to Pennsylvania, he crossed a third time in a surprise attack on the forces of General Charles Cornwallis at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek, on January 2, 1777 known as the Second Battle of Trenton, at the Battle of Princeton on January 3.
The successful attacks built morale among the pro-independence colonists. Mercer County has the distinction of being the famed landing spot for a fictional Martian invasion of the United States. In 1938, in what has become one of the most famous American radio plays of all time, Orson Welles acted out his The War of the Worlds invasion, his imaginary aliens first "landed" at what is now West Windsor Township. A commemorative monument is erected at Grover's Mill park. There were 27 Mercer County residents killed during the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in Lower Manhattan. A 10-foot long steel beam weighing one ton was given to the county by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in March 2011 and is now displayed at Mercer County Park. According to the 2010 Census, Mercer County had a total area of 228.89 square miles, including 224.56 square miles of land and 4.33 square miles of water. The county is flat and low-lying on the inner coastal plain with a few hills closer to the Delaware River.
Baldpate Mountain, near Pennington, is the highest hill, at 480 feet above sea level. The lowest point is at sea level along the Delaware; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 366,513 people, 133,155 households, 89,480.160 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,632.2 per square mile. There were 143,169 housing units at an average density of 637.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 61.39% White, 20.28% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 8.94% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 6.24% from other races, 2.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.09% of the population. There were 133,155 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.2% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.8% were non-families. 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.16.
In the county, the population was spread out with 22.6% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 26.9% from 45 to 64, 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.8 years. For every 100 females there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females ages 18 an
Atlantic County, New Jersey
Atlantic County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2010 United States Census, the county had a population of 274,549, having increased by 21,997 from the 252,552 counted at the 2000 Census, As of the 2017 Census Bureau estimate, the county's population was 269,918, making it the 15th-largest of the state's 21 counties, its county seat is the Mays Landing section of Hamilton Township. The most populous place was Egg Harbor Township, with 43,323 residents at the time of the 2010 Census; this county forms the Atlantic City–Hammonton Metropolitan Statistical Area, part of the Delaware Valley Combined Statistical Area. Since the 6th millennium BC, Indigenous people have inhabited New Jersey. By the 17th century, the Absegami tribe of the Unalachtigo Lenape tribe – "people near the ocean" – stayed along the streams and back bays of what is now Atlantic County; the group referred to the broader area as Scheyichbi – "land bordering the ocean". European settlement by the Dutch and England contributed to the demise of the indigenous people.
In 1674, West Jersey was established, its provincial government designated the court of Burlington County in 1681, splitting off Gloucester County five years from the southern portion. This county was bounded by the Mullica River to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Great Egg Harbor River and Tuckahoe River to the south. Great Egg Harbour Township called New Weymouth and just Egg Harbor, was designated in 1693 from the eastern portions of Gloucester County; the region's early settlers, many of them Quakers, lived along the area's waterways. In 1695, John Somers purchased 300 acres of land on the northern shore of the Great Egg Harbor Bay in 1695, the same year he began ferry service across the bay to Cape May County, his son, built Somers Mansion between 1720 and 1726, the oldest home in existence in the county. Daniel Leeds first surveyed the coastal waters of Egg Harbor in 1698 finding Leeds Point. In 1735 according to folklore, Mother Leeds gave birth and cursed her 13th child in Leeds Point, which became known as the Jersey Devil.
In the early 18th century, George May founded Mays Landing. In 1774, the northern portion of Egg Harbor Township became Galloway Township. In 1785, residents in what is now Atlantic County requested to split from Gloucester County to the New Jersey legislature, wanting a local court. Mays Landing – the region's largest community at the time, had more saloons than churches. Criminals could escape custody before reaching Gloucester City on a four-day wagon ride. In 1798, the western portion split off to become Weymouth Township, in 1813, the northwestern portion partitioned to become Hamilton Township. On February 7, 1837, the New Jersey legislature designated Atlantic County from Galloway, Hamilton and Egg Harbor townships, choosing Mays Landing as the county seat. In the same year, the Board of Freeholders was established as the county government; as of the 1830 census, the townships making up Atlantic County only had a population of 8,164, making it the least populated New Jersey county. By that time, a continuous line of houses extended from Somers Point to Absecon.
Mullica Township was established from Galloway Township in 1837. In 1852, Dr. Jonathan Pitney recommended Absecon Island as a health resort, formed the Camden and Atlantic Railroad Company to construct the line from Camden to the coast; the company purchased land from Atlantic and Galloway Townships in 1853 promoted and sold the lots. Atlantic City formed on May 1854, in advance of the rail line opening on July 4 of that year. In 1858, Egg Harbor City was formed from portions of Mullica townships. In 1866, Hammonton was founded from Mullica townships. A year portions of Hamilton Township split off to become Buena Vista Township. In 1872, Absecon was split from portions of Egg Galloway townships. By 1885, more than half of the county's population lived in Atlantic City, by 1910 this more than two-thirds of the county lived there. With more people moving to the area in the late 1800s into the early 1900s, several municipalities were created in short succession – Margate in 1885, Somers Point in 1886, Pleasantville and Linwood in 1889, Brigantine in 1890, Longport in 1898, Ventnor in 1903, Northfield and Port Republic in 1905, Folsom in 1906.
On May 17, 1906, the eastern coastal boundary of Atlantic County was established. The final municipalities in the county to be created were Corbin City from Weymouth Township in 1922, Estell Manor from Weymouth Township in 1925, Buena from Buena Township in 1948. In 1938, the county's western border was clarified with Camden and Burlington counties using geographic coordinates. After a peak in prominence in the 1920s during the prohibition era, Atlantic City began declining in population in the 1950s as tourism declined; the county's growth shifted to the mainland. In 1973, the New Jersey Coastal Area Facilities Review Act required additional state permitting for construction in the eastern half of the county. In the same ballot as the 1976 presidential election, 56.8% of New Jersey voters approved an initiative to allow legalized gambling in Atlantic City. Two years Resorts Atlantic City opened as the first casino in the city, there were 15 by 1990. Since five have closed, including four in 2014, while two casinos – the Borgata and Ocean Resort Casino – have opened.
Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Atlantic City opened in 2018, refurbishing the
History of New Jersey
The story of the area of present-day New Jersey begins at the end of the Younger Dryas, about 15,000 years ago. Native Americans moved into New Jersey soon after the reversal of the Younger Dryas. European contact began with the exploration of the Jersey Shore by Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524. At the time of European contact, many tribes of the Lenape lived in the area. In the 17th century, the New Jersey region came under the control of the Swedes and the Dutch, resulting in a struggle in which the Dutch proved victorious. However, the English seized the Dutch colony of New Netherland in 1664. New Jersey became one of the Thirteen Colonies which broke away from Britain in the American Revolution, adopting the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Becoming a state upon the formation of the United States, New Jersey saw significant action during the American Revolutionary War. New Jersey's delegates signed the Articles of Confederation in 1779 and Princeton acted as the nation's capital for four months in 1783.
In 1787, New Jersey became the third state to ratify the United States Constitution. In the 19th century, New Jersey cities led the United States into the Industrial Revolution and provided soldiers for many of the wars the United States fought, including 88,000 men for the American Civil War; the state became a component of the Underground Railroad. The state's transportation system continued to improve with the construction of canals and more rail lines that helped industrialization develop further. During the early 20th century New Jersey prospered, but the economy weakened in the Great Depression of the 1930s. During World War II and the Cold War, New Jersey's shipyards and military bases played an important role in the defense of the United States. In the 1960s New Jersey became the site of several race riots and of the Glassboro Summit Conference, between American President Lyndon B. Johnson and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin. Paleo-Indians first settled in the area of present-day New Jersey after the Wisconsin Glacier melted around 13,000 B.
C. The Zierdt site in Montague, Sussex County and the Plenge site along the Musconetcong River in Franklin Township, Warren County, as well as the Dutchess Cave in Orange County, New York, represent camp sites of Paleo-Indians. Paleo Indians were hunter-gatherers, hunting gathering plants for eating, they moved as soon. The Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spans the time period from 1000 BCE to 1,000 CE in the eastern part of North America; the Hopewell tradition summarizes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern United States from 200 BCE to 500 CE. Other Native Americans settled in New Jersey. Around the year 1000, a Native American group known as the Lenape called Delaware Indians, settled in New Jersey, they came from the Mississippi valley. The Lenape formed loosely organized groups. With the advent of the bow-and-arrow and of pottery around the year 500 A. D. extended. They practiced small-scale agriculture, such as growing pole beans together and squash.
They were hunting and gathering, hunting with bow-and-arrow, using deadfall traps and snares. They gathered nuts in the autumn such as acorns, hickory nuts, butternuts, beech nuts and chestnuts; the Native Americans and Paleo-Indians fished in all rivers and streams using nets and fish hooks and by hand. They fished in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. Traces of their Algonquian language survive in many place-names throughout the state. In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazzano, sailing in the service of France, explored the Jersey Coast including Sandy Hook and The Narrows, now the site of the bridge which bears his name. In 1609, Sir Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company, explored the East Coast including the Delaware, Newark, New York bays and the Hudson Valley. During the next four years, on somewhat secretive missions, Adriaen Block explored and mapped the coast along Delaware, New Jersey, Long Island, New England, naming it for the first time New Netherlands.
Between 1611 and 1614, three Dutchmen, A. Block, H. Christiaensen and C. Mey surveyed land between the 40th and 45th parallels along the Atlantic coast and named the area they surveyed New Netherlands. Small out-posts were built for the fur trade. In May 1624, from a ship under the command of Cornelius Jacobsen Mey thirty families were required to spread themselves throughout the region including Fort Wilhelmus; the last was on the east bank of the Delaware River, the site of the first European settlement in what would become New Jersey. Another was built at Fort Nassau; the next European settlement was on the banks of the Upper New York Bay across the Hudson from Fort Amsterdam in 1630. Located at Paulus Hook it was part of the patroonship Pavonia, named for Micheal Pauw who had bought the tract from the Lenape. At the time it was Turtle Clan; the settlement grew impeded by mismanagement of the Dutch West India Company and conflicts with the indigenous population known as Kieft's War and The Peach Tree War.
In 1658, Director-General of New Netherland Peter Stuyvesant "re-purchased" the entire peninsula known as Bergen Neck, in 1661 granted a charter to the village at Bergen, establishing the oldest municipality in the state. The British take-over in 1664 was formalized in 1674, ending the province of the