The Southern Tier is a geographic subregion of the broader Upstate New York region of New York State, consisting of counties west of the Catskill Mountains in Delaware County and geographically situated along or near the northern border of Pennsylvania. Definitions of the region vary but encompass localities in counties surrounding the Binghamton and Elmira-Corning metropolitan areas; this region is bordered to the south by the Northern Tier of Pennsylvania and both these regions together are known as the Twin Tiers. The eight counties always included in the Southern Tier are: Less included in the "Southern Tier" designation are Schuyler County, Yates County, Cortland County, Tompkins County. At least one definition used by the state Department of Transportation includes Sullivan County, which isn't included in other definitions; the National Weather Service office in Buffalo includes Wyoming County and Southern Erie County in its definition. The Encyclopedia of New York State lists only Chautauqua, Cattaraugus and Steuben Counties as part of the Southern Tier, with anything east of that being considered Central New York.
Other definitions define it as comprising the combined Corning-Elmira-Binghamton Metropolitan Statistical Areas, which includes Steuben, Chemung and Broome Counties but not Chautauqua, Cattaraugus or Allegany, which are considered Western New York. The New York State Division of Local Government Services presently classifies the following fourteen counties as members of the Southern Tier: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chemung, Cortland, Otsego, Schuyler, Steuben and Tompkins; this definition corresponds to the same 14 counties in New York State that are members of the Appalachian Regional Commission formed in 1963. Much of the Southern Tier is in area code 607, with the exception of Allegany and Cattaraugus Counties, which are in area code 716 or area code 585; as of 2013, the westernmost portion of the Southern Tier is located in New York's 23rd congressional district. The Southern Tier is hilly without being mountainous; this can range from low rolling hills to more steep and rugged valleys. Both the Delaware and Susquehanna rivers flow through the Southern Tier in their upper reaches, as does the Allegheny River in the western Southern Tier.
The Southern Tier lies on the Allegheny Plateau. It is defined on its western boundary by the Chautauqua Ridge in Chautauqua County, including this ridge and extending eastward across the northern bounds of the region, the continental divide between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watersheds exists; the Eastern Continental Divide runs directly in Steuben County. The Southern Tier has long been home to the people of the Iroquois Confederacy. There were major settlements along the Allegheny River in Cattaraugus County, at Painted Post in Steuben County, at what is today the northeast side of Corning, New York; the Seneca Nation has a headquarters at Salamanca. There are Indian lands on Cuba Lake in Allegany County; the colonies that became the states of New York and Pennsylvania all laid claim to the Southern Tier at various points in the 17th and 18th Centuries, while not making any significant attempt to settle the territory. The region was settled by whites after the Revolutionary War, when settlers were again allowed west of the Appalachian divide.
The Southern Tier shared in the economic growth of the early 19th century, but its hilly terrain made it less suitable to canal-building, railroading, than the more level corridor to the north between Albany and Buffalo. There was an attempt at a Genesee Valley Canal in the western half, in the eastern half, the Chemung and Chenango Canals did connect the Erie Canal to Elmira and Binghamton respectively. Beset by financial and technical difficulties, the latter two canals nonetheless were important catalysts for economic growth, indeed for the construction of the railroads that would supplant them. Plans to connect these canals to the Pennsylvania Canal system, thus making them much more than feeders to the Erie Canal, never came to fruition. Railroads did arrive and the Erie Railroad, which followed the water-level of the Allegheny and Delaware watersheds accelerated industrial progress in the region about the time of the American Civil War; the railroad and available fuel from the region's dense forests attracted Corning Glass Works to Steuben County in 1868.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government and to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states, local government comprises the third tier of government, whereas in unitary states, local government occupies the second or third tier of government with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions; the question of municipal autonomy is a key question of public governance. The institutions of local government vary between countries, where similar arrangements exist, the terminology varies. Common names for local government entities include state, region, county, district, township, borough, municipality, shire and local service district.
Local government traditionally had limited power in Egypt's centralized state. Under the central government were twenty-six governorates; these were subdivided into villages or towns. At each level, there was a governing structure that combined representative councils and government-appointed executive organs headed by governors, district officers, mayors, respectively. Governors were appointed by the president, they, in turn, appointed subordinate executive officers; the coercive backbone of the state apparatus ran downward from the Ministry of Interior through the governors' executive organs to the district police station and the village headman. Before the revolution, state penetration of the rural areas was limited by the power of local notables, but under Nasser, land reform reduced their socioeconomic dominance, the incorporation of peasants into cooperatives transferred mass dependence from landlords to government; the extension of officials into the countryside permitted the regime to bring development and services to the village.
The local branches of the ruling party, the Arab Socialist Union, fostered a certain peasant political activism and coopted the local notables—in particular the village headmen—and checked their independence from the regime. State penetration did not retreat under Mubarak; the earlier effort to mobilize peasants and deliver services disappeared as the local party and cooperative withered, but administrative controls over the peasants remained intact. The local power of the old families and the headmen revived but more at the expense of peasants than of the state; the district police station balanced the notables, the system of local government integrated them into the regime. Sadat took several measures to decentralize power to the towns. Governors acquired more authority under Law Number 43 of 1979, which reduced the administrative and budgetary controls of the central government over the provinces; the elected councils acquired, at least formally, the right to approve or disapprove the local budget.
In an effort to reduce local demands on the central treasury, local government was given wider powers to raise local taxes. But local representative councils became vehicles of pressure for government spending, the soaring deficits of local government bodies had to be covered by the central government. Local government was encouraged to enter into joint ventures with private investors, these ventures stimulated an alliance between government officials and the local rich that paralleled the infitah alliance at the national level. Under Mubarak decentralization and local autonomy became more of a reality, local policies reflected special local conditions. Thus, officials in Upper Egypt bowed to the powerful Islamic movement there, while those in the port cities struck alliances with importers. In recent years, Mali has undertaken an ambitious decentralization program, which involves the capital district of Bamako, seven regions subdivided into 46 cercles, 682 rural community districts; the state retains an advisory role in administrative and fiscal matters, it provides technical support and legal recourse to these levels.
Opportunities for direct political participation, increased local responsibility for development have been improved. In August–September 1998, elections were held for urban council members, who subsequently elected their mayors. In May/June 1999, citizens of the communes elected their communal council members for the first time. Female voter turnout was about 70% of the total, observers considered the process open and transparent. With mayors and boards in place at the local level, newly elected officials, civil society organizations, decentralized technical services, private sector interests, other communes, donor groups began partnering to further development; the cercles will be reinstituted with a legal and financial basis of their own. Their councils will be chosen from members of the communal councils; the regions, at the highest decentralized level, will have a similar legal and financial autonomy, will comprise a number of cercles within their geographical boundaries. Mali needs to build capacity at these levels to mobilize and manage financial resources.
South Africa has a two tiered local government system comprising local munici
Alachua County, Florida
Alachua County is a county in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 247,336; the county seat is Gainesville, the home of the University of Florida since 1906, when the campus opened with 106 students. Alachua County is included in FL Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is known for its diverse culture, local music, artisans. Much of its economy revolves around the university, which had nearly 55,000 students in fall 2016; the first people known to have entered the area of Alachua County were Paleo-Indians, who left artifacts in the Santa Fe River basin prior to 8000 BCE. Artifacts from the Archaic period have been found at several sites in Alachua County. Permanent settlements appeared in what is now Alachua County around 100 CE, as people of the wide-ranging Deptford culture developed the local Cades Pond culture; the Cades Pond culture gave way to the Alachua culture around 600 CE. The Timucua-speaking Potano tribe lived in the Alachua culture area in the 16th century, when the Spanish entered Florida.
The Potano were incorporated by the colonists in the Spanish mission system, but new infectious diseases and raids by tribes backed by the English led to severe population declines. What is now Alachua County had lost much of its indigenous population by the early 18th century. In the 17th century Francisco Menéndez Márquez, Royal Treasurer for Spanish Florida, established the La Chua ranch on the northern side of what is now known as Payne's Prairie, on a bluff overlooking the Alachua Sink. Chua may have been the Timucua language word for sinkhole. Lieutenant Diego Peña reported in 1716 that he passed by springs named Aquilachua, Usichua and Afanochua while traveling through what is now Suwannee County. In the twentieth-century, anthropologist J. Clarence Simpson assumed that the named springs were in fact sinkholes; the Spanish called the interior of Florida west of the St. Johns River Tierras de la Chua, which became "Alachua Country" in English. Around 1740 a band of Oconee people led by Ahaya, called "Cowkeeper" by the English, settled on what is now Payne's Prairie.
Ahaya's band became known as the Alachua Seminole. In 1774 botanist William Bartram visited Ahaya's town, near what Bartram called the Alachua Savanna. King Payne, who succeeded Ahaya as chief of the Alachua Seminole, established a new town known as Payne's Town. In 1812, during the Patriot War of East Florida, an attempt by American adventurers to seize Spanish Florida, a force of more than 100 volunteers from Georgia led by Colonel Daniel Newnan ran into a band of Alachua Seminole led by King Payne near Newnans Lake. After several days of intermittent fighting, Colonel Newnan's force withdrew. King Payne died two months later; the Alachua Seminole left Payne's Town and moved further west and south, but other bands of Seminole moved in. A second American expedition in 1813 of U. S. Army troops and militia from Tennessee, led by Lt. Colonel Thomas Adams Smith, found some Seminoles, killing about 20, burned every Seminole village they could find in the area. In 1814 a group of more than 100 American settlers moved to a point believed to be near the abandoned Payne's Town and declared the establishment of the District of Elotchaway of the Republic of East Florida.
The settlement collapsed a few months after its leader, Colonel Buckner Harris, was killed by Seminole. In 1817 F. M. Arredondo received the 20-mile square Arredondo Grant in the southern part of what is Alachua County. By the time Florida was formally transferred from Spain to the United States, people from the United States and from Europe were settling in the area. Wanton's Store, near the site of the abandoned King Payne's Town, attracted settlers from Europe, who founded Micanopy; the 1823 Treaty of Moultrie Creek required the Seminole to move a reservation south of what is now Ocala, the flow of settlers into the area increased. Many occupied former Seminole towns, such as Hogtown. Alachua County was created by the Florida territorial legislature in 1824; the new county stretched from the border with Georgia south to Charlotte Harbor. The original county seat was Wanton's. In 1828 the county seat was moved to Newnansville, located near the current site of the city of Alachua; as population increased in the area, Alachua County was soon reduced in size to organize new counties.
In 1832 the county's northern part, including Newnansville was separated to create Columbia County, forcing the county seat to be moved to various temporary locations. In 1834 Hillsborough County was created, which included the area around Tampa Bay down to Charlotte Harbor. In 1839 that part of Columbia County south of the Santa Fe River was returned to Alachua County, Newnansville was restored as the county seat. Hernando County was created in 1843 from that part of Alachua County south of the Withlacoochee River, it would be another 80 years. In 1854, the new railroad from Fernandina to Cedar Key bypassed Newnansville, Gainesville, a new town on the railroad, began to draw business and residents away from Newnansville. Gainesville was designated that year as the new county seat. During the post-Reconstruction period, white Democrats regained control of the state legislature and worked to restore white supremacy. Violence against blacks, including lynchings, rose in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as whites imposed Jim Crow and discriminatory laws, disenfranchising most blacks, which forced them
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Hamilton County, New York
Hamilton County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,836, its county seat is Lake Pleasant. The county is named after Alexander Hamilton, the only member of the New York State delegation who signed the United States Constitution in 1787 and the first United States Secretary of the Treasury; the county was created in 1816 and organized in 1847. Hamilton County is one of only two counties that lie within the Adirondack Park; because of its situation in the Adirondack Park, any development in the county is restricted by the New York State Constitution, which designates the park as "forever wild." There is no permanent traffic light in the county. On April 12, 1816, Hamilton County was created by partitioning 1,800 square miles from Montgomery County, but due to low population it remained unorganized and administered from Montgomery County, N. Y. until it was recognized as sufficiently prepared for self-government on January 1, 1838. The organization process was completed by summer 1847.
On April 6, 1860, Fulton County was partitioned, with 10 square miles of land in Sacandaga Park transferred to Hamilton County. On May 24, 1915, land was swapped between Hamilton and Essex counties, with Hamilton ceding Fishing Brook Mountain for Indian Lake. Hamilton gained an additional 20 square miles; this left Hamilton with its present size of 1,830 square miles. The former town of Gilman was dissolved in 1860; the original county seat was Sageville, now part of Lake Pleasant. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,808 square miles, of which 1,717 square miles is land and 90 square miles is water, it is fifth-largest by total area. Hamilton County is in state's north central part, northwest of Albany, it lies within Adirondack Park and consists of publicly owned parkland. Franklin County - northeast Essex County - northeast Warren County - east Saratoga County - southeast Fulton County - south Herkimer County - west St. Lawrence County - northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 5,379 people, 2,362 households, 1,558 families residing in the county.
The population density was 1/km². There were 7,965 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.73% White, 0.45% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.67% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. 1.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.9% were of Irish, 15.7% German, 15.2% English, 10.9% French, 7.3% American and 5.7% Italian ancestry. 97.5 % spoke 1.7 % French as their first language. There were 2,362 households out of which 23.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.70% were married couples living together, 6.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.00% were non-families. 29.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.74. In the county, the population was spread out with 19.70% under the age of 18, 5.20% from 18 to 24, 24.20% from 25 to 44, 30.90% from 45 to 64, 20.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females there were 100.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,287, the median income for a family was $39,676. Males had a median income of $29,177 versus $21,849 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,643. About 6.00% of families and 10.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.50% of those under age 18 and 8.70% of those age 65 or over. Since World War I Hamilton County has been the most Republican of New York. Since Woodrow Wilson carried the county in 1916, the Republican candidate has lost only once, when Barry Goldwater in 1964 failed to win a single county in the state. In the 2008 U. S. presidential election, John McCain carried Hamilton County by a 26.9% margin over Barack Obama, with Obama winning statewide by a equal margin over McCain. Hamilton gave McCain the highest margin of victory in the state, it was the only county won by Howard Mills over incumbent Chuck Schumer in the 2004 U.
S. Senate election, it voted for John Faso over Eliot Spitzer for governor in 2006, for John Spencer 55.5%-42.1% over incumbent Hillary Clinton for the U. S. Senate in 2006, it was one of only a handful of counties outside Western New York to have voted for Carl Paladino over eventual winner Andrew Cuomo for Governor in 2010. Democrat Kirsten Gillibrand, won the county in her bid to be elected for a full term to the U. S. Senate in 2012; the following public use airports are located in the county: Piseco Airport – Piseco Long Lake Helms Seaplane Base – Long Lake Long Lake Sagamore Seaplane Base – Long Lake Speculator Long Lake Wells Arietta Benson Blue Mountain Lake Higgins Bay Hoffmeister Hope Hope Falls Indian Lake Inlet Lake Pleasant Piseco Raquette Lake Upper Benson Sabattis List of counties in New York National Register of Historic Places listings in Hamilton County, New York Hamilton County Information More county data Hamilton County at Curlie Speculator Region Chamber of Commerce Brief history
Administrative divisions of New York (state)
The administrative divisions of New York are the various units of government that provide local government services in the state of New York. The state is divided into counties, cities and villages. Cities and villages are municipal corporations with their own governments that provide most local government services. Whether a municipality is defined as a city, town, or village is dependent not on population or land area, but rather on the form of government selected by the residents and approved by the state legislature; each such government is granted varying home rule powers as provided by the New York Constitution. New York has various corporate entities that serve single purposes that are local governments, such as school and fire districts. New York has 62 counties, which are subdivided into 62 cities. In total, the state has more than 3,400 active local governments and more than 4,200 taxing jurisdictions. Counties and incorporated municipal governments in New York State have been granted broad home rule powers enabling them to provide services to their residents and to regulate the quality of life within their jurisdictions.
They do so while adhering to the United States Constitution and the Constitution of the State of New York. Articles VIII and IX of the state constitution establish the rights and responsibilities of the municipal governments; the New York State Constitution provides for democratically elected legislative bodies for counties, cities and villages. These legislative bodies are granted the power to enact local laws as needed in order to provide services to their citizens and fulfill their various obligations; the county is the primary administrative division of New York. There are sixty-two counties in the state. Five of the counties are boroughs of the city of New York and do not have functioning county governments. While created as subdivisions of the state meant to carry out state functions, counties are now considered municipal corporations with the power and fiscal capacity to provide an array of local government services; such services include law enforcement and public safety and health services, education.
Every county outside of New York City has a county seat, the location of county government. Nineteen counties operate under county charters, while 38 operate under the general provisions of the County Law. Although all counties have a certain latitude to govern themselves, "charter counties" are afforded greater home rule powers; the charter counties are Albany, Chautauqua, Dutchess, Herkimer, Nassau, Onondaga, Putnam, Rockland, Suffolk, Tompkins and Westchester. Sixteen counties are governed through an assembly with the power of a board of supervisors, composed of the supervisors of its constituent towns and cities. In most of these counties, each supervisor's vote is weighted in accordance with the town's population in order to abide by the U. S. Supreme Court mandate of "one person, one vote". Other counties have legislative districts of equal population. Most counties in New York do not use the term "Board of Supervisors." 34 counties have a County Legislature, six counties have a Board of Legislators, one county has a Board of Representatives.
The five counties, or boroughs, of New York City are governed by a 51-member City Council. In non-charter counties, the legislative body exercises executive power as well. Although the legislature can delegate certain functions and duties to a county administrator, who acts on behalf of the legislature, the legislature must maintain ultimate control over the actions of the administrator. Many, but not all, charter counties have an elected executive, independent of the legislature. In New York, each city is a autonomous incorporated area that, with the exceptions of New York City and Geneva, is contained within one county. Cities in New York are classified by the U. S. Census Bureau as incorporated places, they provide all services to their residents and have the highest degree of home rule and taxing jurisdiction over their residents. The main difference between a city and a village is that cities are organized and governed according to their charters, which can differ among cities, while most villages are subject to a uniform statewide Village Law.
Villages are part of a town, with residents who pay taxes to and receive services from the town. Cities are neither part of nor subordinate to towns except for the city of Sherrill, which for some purposes is treated as if it were a village of the town of Vernon; some cities are surrounded by a town of the same name. There are sixty-two cities in the state; as of 2000, 54.1% of state residents were living in a city. In 1686, the English colonial governor granted the cities of New York and Albany city charters, which were recognized by the first State Constitution in 1777. All other cities have been established by act of the state legislature and have been granted a charter. Cities have been granted the power to revise the
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai