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List of counties in Oregon

The following is a list of 36 counties in the U. S. state of Oregon. The Oregon Constitution does not explicitly provide for county seats. More details on the etymologies of Oregon county names and place names in general are documented in Oregon Geographic Names. Oregon's postal abbreviation is OR and its FIPS state code is 41; the Federal Information Processing Standard code, used by the United States government to uniquely identify counties, is provided with each entry. The FIPS code for each county links to census data for that county. Umpqua County, Oregon Oregon locations by per capita income. List of U. S. county secession proposals#Oregon Lists of Oregon-related topics Historic county boundaries from the Oregon Archives Map of counties adjusted for population

Square root of 5

The square root of 5 is the positive real number that, when multiplied by itself, gives the prime number 5. It is more called the principal square root of 5, to distinguish it from the negative number with the same property; this number appears in the fractional expression for the golden ratio. It can be denoted in surd form as: 5, it is an irrational algebraic number. The first sixty significant digits of its decimal expansion are: 2.23606797749978969640917366873127623544061835961152572427089….which can be rounded down to 2.236 to within 99.99% accuracy. The approximation 161/72 for the square root of five can be used. Despite having a denominator of only 72, it differs from the correct value by less than 1/10,000; as of November 2019, its numerical value in decimal has been computed to at least 2,000,000,000,000 digits. 1. This irrationality proof for the square root of 5 uses Fermat's method of infinite descent: Suppose that √5 is rational, express it in lowest possible terms as m/n for natural numbers m and n.

√5 can be expressed in lower terms as 5n − 2m/m − 2n, a contradiction. 2. This irrationality proof is a proof by contradiction: Suppose that √5 = a/b where a/b is in reduced form, thus 5 = a2/b2 and 5b2 = a2. If b were b2, a2, a would be making the fraction a/b not in reduced form, thus b is odd, by following a similar process, a is odd. Now, let a = 2m + 1 and b = 2n + 1 where m and n are integers. Substituting into 5b2 = a2 we get: 5 2 = 2 which simplifies to: 5 = 4 m 2 + 4 m + 1 making: 20 n 2 + 20 n + 5 = 4 m 2 + 4 m + 1 By subtracting 1 from both sides, we get: 20 n 2 + 20 n + 4 = 4 m 2 + 4 m which reduces to: 5 n 2 + 5 n + 1 = m 2 + m In other words: 5 n + 1 = m The expression x is for any integer x. So this says that 5 × + 1 = or odd = even. Since there is no integer, both and odd, we have reached a contradiction and √5 is irrational, it can be expressed as the continued fraction = 2 + 1 4 + 1 4 + 1 4 + 1 4 + …. The convergents and semiconvergents of this continued fraction are as follows: 2 1, 7 3, 9 4, 20 9, 29 13, 38 17, 123 55, 161 72, 360 161, 521 233, 682 305, 2207 987, 2889 1292, … Convergents of the continued fraction are colored red.

Each of these is the best rational approximation of √5.

Bad Cannstatt

Bad Cannstatt just "Cannstatt" or "Kannstadt", is one of the outer stadtbezirke, or city districts, of Stuttgart in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Bad Cannstatt is the oldest and most populous of Stuttgart's districts, one of the most significant towns in the area of Stuttgart; the town is home to the Cannstatter Wasen and Cannstatter Volksfest beer festivals, the Mercedes-Benz Arena, the Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle, the Porsche-Arena. Bad Cannstatt's name originates from a Castra stativa, Cannstatt Castrum, the massive Roman Castra, erected on the hilly ridge in AD 90 to protect the valuable river crossing and local trade. In the past, Bad Cannstatt has been known as Cannstatt or Kannstatt, Canstatt and Condistat, its name was changed to include "Bad" to mention the town's spas on 23 July 1933. Bad Cannstatt lies on the Neckar at the convergence of various regional trails, it was founded during the Roman period, although the area was inhabited by the Seelberg mammoth hunters during the last glacial period.

The nearby Sielberg is notable for its fossils. Records survive of Roman knowledge of the area's springs; the present name first appeared as the seat of a court held by Charlemagne in the 8th century while trying the rebellious dukes of Alemannia and Bavaria. Cannstatt was the capital of the county of Württemberg into the 15th century. Cannstatt subsequently formed part of the duchy and kingdom of Württemberg, it lay about 2.5 miles from Stuttgart proper. In the 13th or 14th century, Louis the Bavarian expanded its rights and privileges to equality with Esslingen, its 15th-century cathedral was dedicated to St Uffo. In 1755, the Great Lisbon earthquake caused the town hall to subside about 3 feet. During the wars which followed the French Revolution, the town was the site on 21 July 1796 of a French victory over the Austrian Empire. In the 19th century, it boasted an attractive town hall, a royal theater, a market house, the Wilhelma and Rosenstein palaces, extensive industry including wool-spinning, dyeing and construction of machinery.

There were about 40 mineral springs, which were considered beneficial for "dyspepsia and weakness of the nervous system", as well as "diseases of the throat". Cannstatt was the site of Gottlieb Daimler's invention of the first petroleum-fueled automobile in 1886 and housed an automotive factory before the First World War. Around that time, it had notable railway and chemical works and a brewery. Cannstatt was incorporated into Stuttgart in 1904. Of the 19 surviving mineral springs, 11 are recognized as state wells. In the world, it is now second to only Újbuda in Hungary, in scale; the Mombach spring is the only one. Famous people associated with Bad-Cannstatt include: Gottlieb Daimler, inventor of the first automobile, developed in Cannstatt, part-founder of Daimler-Benz. Baynes, T. S. ed. "Canstatt", Encyclopædia Britannica, 5, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 26–27. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. "Cannstatt", Encyclopædia Britannica, 5, Cambridge University Press, p. 189

Octomom Home Alone

Octomom Home Alone is a pornographic film featuring prominent American mother Nadya Suleman known as "Octomom", masturbating. The DVD was released on 16 July 2012 by Wicked Pictures and drew media attention given Suleman's celebrity and recognition from the AVN Awards. In 2009, Suleman gave birth to the Suleman octuplets. News of the octuplets caused an international media sensation. Public response was negative, including death threats. Although under severe financial pressure from raising 14 children, Suleman had publicly stated she would not do pornography, she explained that stance, saying "I’ve been celibate for 14 years and I’m a regular church-goer." She claimed she had never masturbated. However, in 2012 Suleman filed for bankruptcy in federal court, she thus reversed her earlier position, saying "If it's a job, it's a well-paying job, it's going to allow me to get out of here and move in a safe, huge home that they deserve, I'm going to do it." She was paid monthly royalties. Under director Brad Armstrong, Suleman filmed her scenes in a San Fernando Valley mansion.

She was nervous upon her arrival, but calmed after speaking with other adult performers. The producers showed Suleman pornographic films to prepare her and gave her advice on her performance. Suleman credited her manager, pornographic actress Gina Rodriguez of DD Entertainment, for producing and marketing the video. Suleman said of the video, "It was such a positive experience for me and helped me embrace my sexuality." She described the scenes as "empowering and liberating". In January 2013, Suleman went back on welfare, leading to questions of whether she may have to make more pornography. Octomom Home Alone was nominated for four AVN Awards, namely Best Celebrity Sex Tape, Best Solo Release, Best DVD Extras and Best Marketing Campaign, it won the Best Celebrity Sex Tape category, over competition by Leola Bell and Phil Varone. However, it lost Best Solo Release to All Natural Glamour Solos, II. Suleman had said after the nominations that "I am so proud of my video Octomom Home Alone and I am more than honored to find out it was nominated so many times!"

She said she would be at the award show, but Gina Rodriguez said Suleman would not go. On her win for Best Celebrity Sex Tape, she said, what an honor; this will open the doors to more opportunities."Alexander Espinoza of XCritic gave the film one out of five stars, saying it was disappointing and didn't deserve its award nominations. Adult actress Amber Peach critiqued the film, saying "The whole video from a porn standpoint just looks awkward and uncomfortable... and don't get me started on the part where she's lying naked in a pile of baby clothes, that's just disturbing." Conversely, Rob Perez of XCritic recommended the film, stating, "Octomom looks damn good." According to The Huffington Post, the film cast doubt among the public on Suleman's parenting abilities. In October 2012, TMZ reported one of Suleman's nannies spoke with the Orange County Department of Children and Family Services about Suleman's 11-year-old son watching Octomom Home Alone on the Internet. Suleman was upset by the incident and said she would talk to her son about not accessing pornography.

Octomom Home Alone at the Internet Movie Database

Water supply and sanitation in Uganda

The Ugandan water supply and sanitation sector made substantial progress in urban areas from the mid-1990s until at least 2006, with substantial increases in coverage as well as in operational and commercial performance. Sector reforms from 1998 to 2003 included the commercialization and modernization of the National Water and Sewerage Corporation operating in cities and larger towns, as well as decentralization and private sector participation in small towns; these reforms have attracted significant international attention. Thirty-eight percent of the population, still had no access to an improved water source in 2010. Concerning access to improved sanitation, figures vary widely. According to government figures, it was 70 percent in rural areas and 81 percent in urban areas while according to the United Nations, access was only 34 percent; the water and sanitation sector was recognized as a key area under the 2004 Poverty Eradication Action Plan, Uganda's main strategy paper to fight poverty.

A comprehensive expenditure framework was introduced to coordinate financial support by external donors, the national government, non-governmental organizations. The PEAP estimated that from 2001 to 2015, about US$1.4 billion in total was needed to increase water supply coverage up to 95 percent. In 2015, around 23 percent of the population lacked access to "at least basic water" in Uganda. Access to at least basic water was 39 percent of the total population, or 73% of the urban population and 32% of the rural population. Regarding sanitation, only 19% of the total population had access to "at least basic sanitation", or 28% of the urban population and 17% of the rural population. Around 31 million people did not have access to "at least basic sanitation" in 2015; the Human Rights Measurement Initiative has given Uganda a score of 22.9% with regards to basic sanitation, 9.5% for water supply. In earlier years, access to "improved water" had increased from 43 percent in 1990 to 72 percent in 2010, according to estimates by the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation of the UN.

In the same period, access to "improved sanitation" increased from 27 percent to 34 percent. The Water and Environment Sector Performance Report of the Ugandan Ministry of Water and Irrigation, showed markedly different access figures. According to this report, in 2011, access to "safe water" was 66 percent while access to improved sanitation was 70 percent in rural areas and 81 percent in urban areas. Eighty-seven percent of the population lived in rural areas in 2010. According to the European Union, the number of people defecating in the open fell between 2000 and 2008 though the government provides no subsidies for the construction of latrines. According to the JMP's estimates, the number of people defecating in the open declined only from 3.5 million in 2000 to 3.2 million in 2010. The reasons for the different assessments are unclear; the most common technology options for rural water supply are protected springs, protected wells, gravity flow schemes. Those who do not have access to an improved source of water must rely on unsafe sources such as rivers and unprotected wells.

One consequence of poor access and quality is that water-borne diseases are a major cause of infant mortality. Access to functioning water sources varied among districts in 2007, from 12 percent to 95 percent; the national government aimed to reach universal water supply and sanitation coverage in urban areas and 77 percent water supply and 95 percent sanitation coverage by 2015. At the time these goals were set, the government defined access to improved water supply and sanitation as follows: improved water supply in urban areas is given through an improved water source within a walking distance of 1.5 kilometres in rural areas and 0.2 kilometres in urban areas. Sanitation coverage is given through sanitation facilities in the place of residence. According to Maxwell Stamp PLC, those who received a piped water supply in 2003 in the nation's capital Kampala were "usually" supplied continuously for 24 hours per day. NWSC, acknowledged that parts of Kampala such as Kyaliwajala and most places on hilltops suffered from chronic water shortages.

In addition, some areas went without water for a week. In other towns, Maxwell Stamp PLC found in 2003 that most customers were supplied more than five days per week. MWE indicated in 2006 that piped water in large towns was available for 20–24 hours per day. Under the fourth Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Assessment, based on analyses by several subsectors and NGOs carried out in 2006, it was found that 90 percent and 95 percent of the water samples taken from protected and treated water supplies met national standards for drinking water quality; this assessment comprised both urban water supply. As of 2012, 90 percent of the collected wastewater of Kampala was discharged without any treatment. NWSC operates another in Masaka. In the case of Kampala, the wastewater is discharged into the Nakivubo wetland; the wetland is estimated to provide economic benefits of up to US$1.75 million per year, removing nutrients from untreated and treated wastewater discharged from Kampala through the wetland into Lake Victoria.

As part of a Sanitation Master Plan for Kampala carried out by Fichtner Consultants with financing from Germany, four wastewater treatment plants were planned. The plans included a plant with a capacity of 45,000 cubic metres per day at Nakivubo, a plant with a capacity of 8,000 cubic metres per day at Kinawataka, a fecal sludge t

Kingston, Glasgow

Kingston is an area of Glasgow, from which the Kingston Bridge takes its name. Together with Ibrox, it forms one of the 56 neighbourhoods of Glasgow defined by Glasgow City Council for operational purposes; the area was assigned to Ward 54 until 2007. Kingston is bounded by the River Clyde to the north; the M8 motorway and the M74 extension traverse the area. To the west of the Kingston Bridge is now a commercial area, which includes the Glasgow Quay leisure complex and the Kingston Bridge Trading Estate. To the east of the bridge, several modern residential apartment developments have been constructed including: the mixed residential and commercial development within the old Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society building, on Morrison Street. Still further east is the smaller district of Tradeston, which adjoins Kingston on its boundary at West Street. Scotland Street School Museum, within the school building designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh The Kingston Halls, attributed to the architect Robert William Horn Kingston Library, the first Carnegie funded library to be opened in the city Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society Building - 1886-93, Bruce & Hay Kingston has access to two stations on the Glasgow Subway system: Shields Road, which serves Pollokshields.

There are frequent bus services along Paisley Road West. The Glasgow Quay area, developed on Springfield Quay, has in recent years become a major entertainment and leisure hub with bowling, cinema and a variety of bars & restaurants. "Between Gorbals and Govan - Scotland Street School". Retrieved 6 February 2019. Media related to Kingston, Glasgow at Wikimedia Commons "Glasgow City Plan Maps > Environmental Policy Designations > West". Glasgow City Council