This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP. Countries are sorted by GDP PPP forecast estimates from financial and statistical institutions in the limited period January–April 2017, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates; the data given on this page are based on the international dollar, a standardized unit used by economists. Certain regions that are not considered countries such as the European Union and Hong Kong show up in the list if they are distinct jurisdiction areas or economic entities. GDP comparisons using PPP are arguably more useful than those using nominal GDP when assessing a nation's domestic market because PPP takes into account the relative cost of local goods and inflation rates of the country, rather than using international market exchange rates which may distort the real differences in per capita income, it is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries and when comparing the quality of same goods among countries.
PPP is used to gauge global poverty thresholds and is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index. These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both tradable and non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods; the first table includes estimates for the year 2018 for all current 191 International Monetary Fund members as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan. Data are in millions of international dollars. Figures were published in April 2019; the second table includes data for the year 2018, for 180 of the 193 current United Nations member states as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Data are in millions of international dollars; the third table is a tabulation of the CIA World Factbook GDP data update of 2017. The data for GDP at purchasing power parity has been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007. Non-sovereign entities and states with limited international recognition are included in the list in cases in which they appear in the sources.
These economies are listed in sequence by GDP for comparison. In addition, non-sovereign entities are marked in italics; the European Union — and its European Single Market, a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital and labour – the "four freedoms" – within its 28 to 27 member states involved in international trade negotiations — might appears in some lists. All figures are in current international dollars. List of countries by GDP List of countries by GDP per capita List of countries by GDP per capita List of IMF ranked countries by GDP, IMF ranked GDP, GDP per capita, GDP, GDP per capita, PPP List of countries by past and projected GDP List of countries by past and projected GDP List of countries by real GDP growth rate List of countries by Human Development Index List of countries by income equality List of countries by distribution of wealth Lists of countries by GDP National wealth ^2 IMF estimate. ^3 Data excludes French Polynesia. ^a China's PPP is based on prices for 11 administrative regions, extrapolated to the full country, an urban/rural breakdown.
China's entry does not include the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Macau. These are listed separately
A pennysaver is a free community periodical available in North America that advertises items for sale. Pennysavers are called The Pennysaver, it contains classified ads grouped into categories. Many pennysavers offer local news and entertainment, as well as generic advice information, various syndicated or locally written columns on various topics of interest, limited comics and primetime TV listings; the term is used in eastern North America from Ontario through New York and Maryland, though there are pennysavers elsewhere. Pennysavers are sometimes published by a locally dominant daily newspaper as a brand extension of their publication and featuring advertisements published in the same style as the parent newspaper; the PennySaver was a publication distributed in California. Owned by Harte-Hanks, it and its website, PennySaverUSA.com, were sold to OpenGate Capital in 2013. The publication went out of business in May 2015. OpenGate was subsequently sued for not providing proper notice before firing hundreds of employees.
In May 2016, a group of former PennySaver employees resurrected the publication in southern California's Inland Empire and northern Orange County. The Pennysaver plays a significant role in the 2007 film Juno, in which the main character, searches for adoptive parents for her unborn child in the publication. In a Season Six episode of The Golden Girls, Episode 18: "Older and Wiser," both Rose and Blanche are hired to model for a local pennysaver; the two begin to bicker over who has the prettier face and hands, but the joke is on them: When the pennysaver is delivered, they find out that they appear in an ad for beauty cream—as "before" models! In a Season 1 episode of the NBC comedy Save Me, Episode 6: "Heavenly Hostess", Beth Harper, played by Anne Heche, is told by God that she needs to have a garage sale. After multiple people start showing up to her address for a yard sale, advertised in the PennySaver, she comes to the realization that God placed the ad in the PennySaver to make sure that she has her garage sale on that specific day.
In a Season 6 episode of the NBC comedy Parks and Recreation, Episode 3: "The Pawnee-Eagleton Tip Off Classic", Ron Swanson, played by Nick Offerman, receives the Pawnee PennySaver in the mail at his girlfriend's residence, which sends him on an overzealous quest to get off the grid. When Ron asked “Who or what is PennySaver?”, Tom Haverford, played by Aziz Ansari responded “It’s a free circular with a bunch of coupons in it”. In a Season 5 episode of the CBS drama NCIS: Los Angeles, Episode 13: "Allegiance", while Special Agent G. Callen and Special Agent Sam Hanna were interviewing a suspect, they were surprised to find that he wasn’t a threat, but instead an ambitious entrepreneur wanting to get his brand out there with his chosen method, the PennySaver. In a Season 1 of Young Sheldon, Episode 4: Sheldon is taken to a psychiatrist to overcome his fear of eating solid food. While he and his folks sit on the couch Sheldon's father ask him if he has got a coupon from penny saver, to save same money.
Hofn Air Station is a closed United States Air Force General Surveillance Radar station. It is located 231.4 miles east of Iceland. It was closed on 30 June 1992. Hofn Air Station was established as a North Atlantic Treaty Organization radar station under Military Air Transport Service; the 933d Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron was activated at the facility on 1 July 1951. Initial radars at the station were an AN/FPS-3; the Greenland and United Kingdom air defense sector, better known as the GIUK gap, was utilized by the Soviet Union's long-range heavy bombers and maritime reconnaissance platforms as a transit point towards the Atlantic Ocean. From bases located at Archangel and Murmansk, Soviet aircraft would stream down to the North Cape in Norway towards the Gap, use as a doorway to the vast Atlantic. Most of the Soviet missions were destined to probe United States’ air defense along the North Atlantic and after 1960 in the Caribbean where Cuba, the USSR's most important satellite state outside continental Europe, was located.
Such was the perceived threat from the Soviet incursions that it became a priority for NATO to demonstrate to that the strategic Giuk passage would be monitored at all times. The mission of the station was to intercept and shadow all Soviet aircraft in transit in and from the Gap which passed through the detection range of its radars and pass the information to interceptor aircraft deployed at Keflavik Airfield; the 933d AC&W Squadron was inactivated on 30 June 1960, being replaced by the 667th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron. Beginning in 1984, information on aircraft detected by the station was relayed to the Keflavik NAS Radar Operations Control Center, operated by the 932d Air Control Squadron. In the 1980s, the radar as the station was upgraded to an AN/FPS-117v5. Hofn Air Station was inactivated on 30 June 1992; the radar is now used for air traffic control. United States general surveillance radar stations This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.
A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization 1946–1980, by Lloyd H. Cornett and Mildred W. Johnson, Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado Winkler, David F. Searching the skies: the legacy of the United States Cold War defense radar program. Prepared for United States Air Force Headquarters Air Combat Command. Information for Hofn AS, IS Hofn Air Station