Gross domestic product is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year. Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. Nominal GDP does not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, the results can vary from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency; such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next though they make little or no difference in the standard of living of its population. Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity, to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. PPP removes the exchange rate problem, but has its own drawbacks. On the whole, PPP per capita figures are less spread than nominal GDP per capita figures; the United States is the world's largest economy with a GDP of $20.513 trillion, notably due to high average incomes, a large population, capital investment, low unemployment, high consumer spending, a young population, technological innovation.
Tuvalu is the world's smallest national economy, with a GDP of about $32 million, because of its small population, a lack of natural resources, reliance on foreign aid, negligible capital investment, demographic problems, low average incomes. Although the rankings of national economies have changed over time, the United States has maintained its top position since the Gilded Age, a time period in which its economy saw rapid expansion, surpassing the British Empire and Qing dynasty in aggregate output. Since China's transition to a market-based economy through controlled privatisation and deregulation, the country has seen its ranking increase from ninth in 1978 to second to only the United States in 2016 as economic growth accelerated and its share of global nominal GDP surged from 2% in 1980 to 15% in 2016. India has experienced a similar economic boom since the implementation of economic liberalisation in the early 1990s; when supranational entities are included, the European Union is the second largest economy in the world.
It was the largest from 2004, when ten countries joined the union, to 2014, after which it was surpassed by the United States. The first list includes estimates compiled by the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook, the second list shows the World Bank's data, the third list includes data compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division; the IMF definitive data for the past year and estimates for the current year are published twice a year in April and October. Non-sovereign entities and states with limited international recognition are included in the list in cases in which they appear in the sources; these economies are listed in sequence by GDP for comparison. In addition, non-sovereign entities are marked in italics. List of countries by GDP List of countries by GDP per capita List of countries by GDP per capita List of countries by past and projected GDP List of countries by past and projected GDP
The Asyut Treasure is the name of an important Byzantine hoard of jewellery found near the city of Asyut, central Egypt. Discovered in mysterious circumstances in the early twentieth century, the treasure is now divided between the Kunstgewerbemuseum in Berlin, the British Museum in London and the Metropolitan Museum in New York City. In 1909, a large gold hoard from late antiquity was found either at Tomet near Asyut, or at the ancient site of Antinoë, on the eastern bank of the Nile in central Egypt; the exact circumstances of the find remain obscure as the treasure was not excavated by professional archaeologists. The high quality of the pieces, some of which were embossed with medallions of the Byzantine Emperor, link the Asyut Treasure to the imperial court in Constantinople; the assemblage of gold jewellery was brought from the capital to the safer environment of Egypt in the early 7th century, before it was hidden there from the Arab invasions in the mid 7th century. Thirty six objects have been attributed to the treasure that range in date from the third to the sixth century.
Twelve pieces came to Berlin, including a large bejewelled pectoral, two elaborate necklaces and several pairs of bracelets, all the gift of Friedrich Ludwig von Gans in 1912/13. Six objects were donated in 1916 to the British Museum by Mrs Burns, sister of the philanthropist J Pierpont Morgan, they include a massive body-chain, the largest piece of jewellery known from the early Byzantine period, plus a matching pair of earrings and necklace, two spiral bracelets in the form of snake. The remainder of the treasure is held by the Metropolitan Museum, many of which were donated by Pierpont Morgan in 1917, it includes one of the most famous pieces – a plain neck ring attached to a frame, set with a large central medallion of a Byzantine emperor with the obverse showing the figure of Constantinopolis seated on a throne. Other pieces in the Met include another gold pectoral set with the semissis of Emperor Maurice Tiberius, two matching pairs of bracelets. Lampsacus Treasure First Cyprus Treasure S. Marzinzik, Masterpieces: Early Medieval Art W Dennison, A Gold treasure of the Late Roman Period, London 1918 J.
P. C. Kent and K. S. Painter, Wealth of the Roman world, AD 300–700 D. Buckton, Byzantium: Treasures of Byzantine Art and Culture K. Brown, The gold breast chain from the Early Byzantine Period in the Romisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum
The Illinois Fighting Illini men's basketball team, representing the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, has had 68 players drafted into the National Basketball Association since the league began holding the yearly event in 1947. Each NBA franchise seeks to add new players through an annual draft; the NBA uses a draft lottery to determine the first three picks of the NBA draft. After the first three picks are decided, the rest of the teams pick in reverse order of their win–loss record. To be eligible for the NBA Draft, a player in the United States must be at least 19 years old during the calendar year of the draft and must be at least one year removed from the graduation of his high school class; the drafts held between 1947 and 1949 were held by the Basketball Association of America. The BAA became the National Basketball Association after absorbing teams from the National Basketball League in the fall of 1949. Official NBA publications include the BAA Drafts as part of the NBA's draft history.
From 1967 until the ABA–NBA merger in 1976, the American Basketball Association held its own draft. Through the 2018 NBA draft, a Fighting Illini has been chosen first round of the draft 15 times in the history of the event with Meyers Leonard being the latest in 2012