Page semi-protected

List of countries by GDP (nominal)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Largest economies by nominal GDP in 2018,
not counting the economies of the European Union as one,
according to International Monetary Fund estimates.[1]

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.[2] Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. Nominal GDP does not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency.[3] Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference in the standard of living of its population.[4]

Comparisons of national wealth are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem, but has its own drawbacks; it does not reflect the value of economic output in international trade, and it also requires more estimation than nominal GDP.[5] On the whole, PPP per capita figures are less spread than nominal GDP per capita figures.[6]

The United States is the world's largest economy with a GDP of approximately $18.56 trillion, notably due to high average incomes, a large population,[7] capital investment, moderate unemployment,[8] high consumer spending,[9] a relatively young population,[10] and technological innovation.[11] Tuvalu is the world's smallest national economy with a GDP of about $32 million because of its very small population, a lack of natural resources, reliance on foreign aid, negligible capital investment, demographic problems, and low average incomes.[12]

Although the rankings of national economies have changed considerably over time, the United States has maintained its top position since the Gilded Age, a time period in which its economy saw rapid expansion, surpassing the British Empire and Qing dynasty in aggregate output.[13][14] Since China's transition to a market-based economy through privatisation and deregulation,[15][16] the country has seen its ranking increase from ninth in 1978 to second to only the United States in 2016 as economic growth accelerated and its share of global nominal GDP surged from 2% in 1980 to 15% in 2016.[14][1] India has also experienced a similar economic boom since the implementation of economic liberalisation in the early 1990s.[17] When supranational entities are included, the European Union is the second largest economy in the world, it was the largest from 2004, when ten countries joined the union,[18] to 2014, after which it was surpassed by the United States.[19]

The first list includes estimates compiled by the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook, the second list shows the World Bank's data, and the third list includes data compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division. The IMF definitive data for the past year and estimates for the current year are published twice a year in April and October. Several economies which are not considered to be countries (the world, the European Union, and some dependent territories) are included in the lists because they appear in the sources as distinct economies, these economies are italicized and not ranked in the charts, but are listed where applicable.

Lists

Per the International Monetary Fund (2018)[1] Per the World Bank (2016)[20] Per the United Nations (2016)[21][22]
Rank Country GDP
(US$MM)
   World[19] 79,865,481
1  United States 20,412,870
 European Union[n 1][19] 19,669,743
2  China[n 2] 14,092,514
3  Japan 5,167,051
4  Germany 4,211,635
5  United Kingdom 2,936,286
6  France 2,925,096
7  India 2,848,231
8  Italy 2,181,970
9  Brazil 2,138,918
10  Canada 1,798,512
11  Russia[n 3] 1,719,000
12  South Korea 1,693,246
13  Spain 1,506,439
14  Australia 1,500,256
15  Mexico 1,212,831
16  Indonesia 1,074,966
17  Netherlands 945,327
18  Turkey 909,885
19  Saudi Arabia 748,003
20   Switzerland 741,688
21  Argentina 625,921
22  Poland 614,190
23  Taiwan 613,295
24  Sweden 600,771
25  Belgium 562,229
26  Thailand 483,739
27  Austria 477,672
28  Norway 443,252
29  Iran 418,875
30  United Arab Emirates 411,827
31  Nigeria 408,612
32  Ireland 385,142
33  Israel 373,751
34  South Africa 370,887
35  Denmark 369,760
36  Malaysia 364,919
37  Hong Kong 364,782
38  Singapore 332,449
39  Colombia 327,978
40  Philippines 313,419
41  Pakistan 303,993
42  Finland 289,557
43  Bangladesh 285,817
44  Chile 280,269
45  Czech Republic 251,577
46  Portugal 248,891
47  Romania 245,590
48  Vietnam 240,779
49  Egypt 237,073
50  Peru 231,567
51  Greece 226,774
52  Iraq 223,258
53  New Zealand 220,888
54  Algeria 197,629
55  Qatar 183,807
56  Kazakhstan 179,250
57  Hungary 163,541
58  Kuwait 135,305
59  Morocco 120,997
60  Angola 119,428
61  Ukraine 119,134
62  Slovakia 111,483
63  Ecuador 106,621
64  Venezuela 100,845
65  Puerto Rico 97,353
66  Sri Lanka 93,454
67  Kenya 88,271
68  Ethiopia 85,664
69  Oman 82,620
70  Guatemala 82,356
71  Dominican Republic 80,413
 Syria[n 4] 77,460/Na
72  Luxembourg 72,461
73  Myanmar 70,715
74  Uruguay 63,370
75  Panama 66,711
76  Bulgaria 64,781
77  Costa Rica 61,287
78  Croatia 61,056
79  Belarus 59,246
80  Slovenia 56,933
81  Tanzania 56,664
82  Lithuania 54,352
83  Macau 53,754
84  Lebanon 53,620
85  Ghana 51,619
86  Serbia 48,279
87  Côte d'Ivoire 48,142
88  Azerbaijan 45,483
99  Libya 43,636
90  Democratic Republic of the Congo 42,644
91  Jordan 42,553
92  Turkmenistan 42,353
93  Sudan 41,676
94  Bolivia 40,737
95  Tunisia 40,298
96  Uzbekistan 40,259
97  Cameroon 39,074
98  Bahrain 37,841
99  Latvia 35,915
100  Paraguay 32,291
101  Estonia 30,821
102  El Salvador 29,407
103  Iceland 29,109
104  Uganda 27,616
105    Nepal 27,278
106  Papua New Guinea 26,312
107  Zambia 26,228
108  Cyprus 24,620
109  Cambodia 24,360
110  Honduras 24,021
111  Trinidad and Tobago 22,158
112  Afghanistan 21,657
113  Bosnia and Herzegovina 20,340
114  Senegal 19,722
115  Zimbabwe 19,395
116  Botswana 18,620
117  Laos 18,337
118  Mali 17,907
119  Gabon 17,461
120  Georgia 16,142
121  Albania 15,289
122  Jamaica 15,256
123  Malta 14,873
124  Burkina Faso 14,607
125  Nicaragua 14,532
126  Brunei 14,438
127  Mozambique 14,321
128  Yemen 13,840
129  Namibia 13,298
130  Mauritius 13,297
131  Macedonia 13,085
132  Madagascar 12,611
133  Mongolia 12,511
134  Bahamas 12,318
135  Armenia 12,031
136  Equatorial Guinea 11,544
137  Chad 11,486
138  Benin 11,039
139  Guinea 10,854
140  Republic of Congo 10,471
141  Rwanda 9,944
142  Niger 9,869
143  Haiti 9,417
144  Moldova 9,202
145  Kosovo 8,359
146  Tajikistan 7,659
147  Kyrgyzstan 7,588
148  Malawi 6,746
149  Eritrea 6,721
150  Togo 5,590
151  Montenegro 5,547
152  Fiji 5,440
153  Mauritania 5,435
154  Barbados 5,317
155  Maldives 4,825
156  Swaziland 4,572
157  Suriname 3,857
158  Sierra Leone 3,824
159  Burundi 3,805
160  Guyana 3,747
161  Liberia 3,332
162  South Sudan 3,194
163  Lesotho 2,920
164  Timor-Leste 2,740
165  Bhutan 2,547
166  Djibouti 2,187
167  Central African Republic 2,164
168  Cape Verde 1,978
169  Belize 1,912
170  San Marino 1,809
171  St. Lucia 1,755
172  Antigua and Barbuda 1,612
173  Guinea-Bissau 1,582
174  Seychelles 1,569
175  Solomon Islands 1,377
176  Grenada 1,180
177  The Gambia 1,085
178  St. Kitts and Nevis 972
179  Vanuatu 957
180  Samoa 881
181  St. Vincent and the Grenadines 835
182  Comoros 738
183  Dominica 476
184  São Tomé and Príncipe 443
185  Tonga 433
186  Federated States of Micronesia 335
187  Palau 321
188  Kiribati 211
189  Marshall Islands 205
190  Tuvalu 43
191   Vatican City 2
Rank Country GDP
(US$MM)
   World 75,543,543
1  United States 18,624,475
 European Union[n 1][23] 16,397,980
2  China[n 5] 11,199,145
3  Japan 4,940,158
4  Germany 3,477,796
5  United Kingdom 2,647,898
6  France 2,465,453
7  India 2,263,792
8  Italy 1,858,913
9  Brazil 1,796,186
10  Canada 1,529,760
11  South Korea 1,411,246
12  Russia[n 3] 1,283,162
13  Spain 1,237,255
14  Australia 1,204,616
15  Mexico 1,046,922
16  Indonesia 932,259
17  Turkey 857,711
18  Netherlands 777,227
19   Switzerland 668,851
20  Saudi Arabia 646,438
21  Argentina 545,866
22  Sweden 511,000
23  Poland 469,509
24  Belgium 466,366
25  Iran 425,326
26  Thailand 406,840
27  Nigeria 405,083
28  Austria 386,428
29  Venezuela 371,337
30  Norway 370,557
31  United Arab Emirates 348,743
32  Egypt 336,297
33  Hong Kong 320,912
34  Israel 318,744
35  Denmark 306,143
36  Philippines 304,905
37  Singapore 296,966
38  Malaysia 296,359
39  South Africa 294,841
40  Ireland 294,054
41  Pakistan 283,660
42  Colombia 282,463
43  Chile 247,028
44  Finland 236,785
45  Bangladesh 221,415
46  Portugal 204,565
47  Vietnam 202,616
48  Greece 194,559
49  Czech Republic 192,925
50  Peru 192,094
51  Romania 186,691
52  New Zealand 185,017
53  Iraq 171,489
54  Algeria 156,080
55  Qatar 152,469
56  Kazakhstan 133,657
57  Hungary 124,343
58  Kuwait 112,812
59  Puerto Rico 103,135
60  Morocco[n 6] 101,445
61  Ecuador 97,802
62  Sudan 95,584
63  Ukraine 93,270
64  Angola 89,633
65  Slovakia 89,552
66  Sri Lanka 81,322
67  Ethiopia 72,374
68  Dominican Republic 71,584
69  Kenya 70,529
70  Guatemala 68,763
71  Myanmar 67,430
72  Uzbekistan 67,220
73  Oman 66,293
74  Luxembourg 59,948
75  Costa Rica 57,436
76  Panama 55,188
77  Uruguay 52,420
78  Bulgaria 52,395
79  Croatia 50,425
80  Lebanon 47,537
81  Belarus 47,433
82  Tanzania[n 7] 47,431
83  Macau 44,803
84  Slovenia 43,991
85  Lithuania 42,739
86  Ghana 42,690
87  Tunisia 42,063
88  Jordan 38,655
89  Azerbaijan 37,848
90  Serbia 37,745
91  Turkmenistan 36,180
92 Cote d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire 36,165
93  Democratic Republic of the Congo 34,999
94  Bolivia 33,806
95  Bahrain 31,859
96  Libya 29,153
97  Latvia 27,677
98  Paraguay 27,441
99  Yemen 27,318
100  El Salvador 26,797
101  Uganda 25,528
102  Cameroon 24,204
103  Estonia 23,137
104  Honduras 21,517
105    Nepal 21,144
106  Trinidad and Tobago 20,989
107  Iceland 20,047
108  Cambodia 20,017
109  Cyprus[n 8] 19,802
110  Zambia 19,551
111  Afghanistan 19,469
112  Papua New Guinea 16,929
113  Bosnia and Herzegovina 16,560
114  Zimbabwe 16,289
115  Laos 15,903
116  Botswana 15,275
117  Senegal 14,765
118  Georgia[n 9] 14,333
119  Gabon 14,214
120  Mali 14,045
121  Jamaica 14,027
122  South Sudan 13,282
123  Nicaragua 13,231
124  Mauritius 12,164
125  Burkina Faso 12,115
126  Albania 11,927
127  Brunei 11,400
128  Mongolia 11,160
129  Mozambique 11,015
130  Malta 10,949
131  Macedonia 10,900
132  Armenia 10,547
133  Namibia 10,267
134  Equatorial Guinea 10,179
135  Madagascar 9,991
136  Chad 9,601
137  The Bahamas 9,047
138  Benin 8,583
139  Rwanda 8,376
140  Haiti 8,023
141  Republic of the Congo 7,834
142  Niger 7,509
143  Kosovo 7,047
144  Tajikistan 6,952
145  Moldova[n 10] 6,750
146  Kyrgyzstan 6,551
147  Guinea 6,299
148  Somalia 6,217
149  Bermuda 5,574
150  Liechtenstein 5,488
151  Malawi 5,442
152  Mauritania 4,635
153  Fiji 4,632
154  Barbados 4,588
155  Togo 4,400
156  Montenegro 4,173
157  Swaziland 3,727
158  Sierra Leone 3,669
159  Suriname 3,621
160  Maldives 3,591
161  Guyana 3,446
162  Andorra 3,249
163  Burundi 3,007
164  Faroe Islands 2,613
165  Greenland 2,441
166  Bhutan 2,237
167  Lesotho 2,200
168  Liberia 2,101
169  Belize 1,765
170  Central African Republic 1,756
171  Cape Verde 1,617
172  Djibouti 1,589
173  Antigua and Barbuda 1,449
174  Seychelles 1,427
175  Timor-Leste 1,417
176  Saint Lucia 1,379
177  Solomon Islands 1,202
178  Guinea-Bissau 1,126
179  Grenada 1,016
180  The Gambia 965
181  Saint Kitts and Nevis 917
182  Samoa 786
183  Vanuatu 774
184  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 771
185  Comoros 617
186  Dominica 525
187  Tonga 395
188 Sao Tome and Principe São Tomé and Príncipe 351
189  Federated States of Micronesia 322
190  Palau 293
191  Marshall Islands 183
192  Kiribati 166
193  Nauru 102
194  Tuvalu 34
Rank Country GDP
(US$MM)
   World[24] 75,648,448
1  United States 18,624,475
 European Union[n 1][25] 16,332,631
2  China[n 5] 11,218,281
3  Japan 4,936,211
4  Germany 3,477,796
5  United Kingdom 2,647,898
6  France 2,465,453
7  India 2,259,642
8  Italy 1,858,913
9  Brazil 1,795,925
10  Canada 1,529,760
11  South Korea 1,411,245
12  Australia 1,304,463
13  Russia[n 3] 1,246,015
14  Spain 1,237,255
15  Mexico 1,076,914
16  Indonesia 932,259
17  Turkey 863,711
18  Netherlands 777,227
19   Switzerland 668,851
20  Saudi Arabia 639,617
21  Argentina 545,866
22  Sweden 514,475
23  Poland 471,402
24  Belgium 467,955
25  Iran 425,402
26  Thailand 407,026
27  Nigeria 404,649
28  Austria 390,799
29  Norway 371,068
30  United Arab Emirates 399,451
31  Colombia 377,740
32  South Africa 349,819
33  Denmark 346,119
34  Malaysia 326,933
35  Singapore 307,872
36  Israel 305,673
37  Venezuela 291,376
38  Philippines 290,896
39  Egypt 282,242
40  Hong Kong 274,027
41  Finland 272,217
42  Chile 258,062
43  Pakistan 251,255
44  Ireland 250,814
45  Greece 235,574
46  Portugal 230,117
47  Iraq 225,422
48  Kazakhstan 216,036
49  Algeria 213,518
50  Qatar 211,817
51  Czech Republic 205,270
52  Peru 201,809
53  Romania 199,045
54  New Zealand 198,652
55  Vietnam 186,205
56  Bangladesh 173,062
57  Kuwait 163,637
58  Angola 146,676
59  Hungary 138,347
60  Ukraine 131,806
61  Morocco 110,009
62  Puerto Rico 103,676
63  Ecuador 100,917
64  Slovakia 100,249
65  Cuba 89,689
66  Sudan 81,894
67  Oman 81,797
68  Belarus 76,139
69  Azerbaijan 75,193
70  Sri Lanka 74,941
71  Myanmar 66,478
72  Luxembourg 64,874
73  Dominican Republic 63,969
74  Uzbekistan 63,030
75  Kenya 60,936
76  Guatemala 58,827
77  Uruguay 57,471
78  Croatia 57,137
79  Bulgaria 56,718
80  Macau 55,502
81  Ethiopia 53,638
82  Lebanon 49,631
83  Costa Rica 49,553
84  Slovenia 49,491
85  Panama 49,166
86  Lithuania 48,392
87  Tanzania 48,030
88  Turkmenistan 47,932
89  Tunisia 47,423
90  Serbia 43,866
91  Libya 41,319
92  Ghana 37,177
93  Yemen 37,131
94  Democratic Republic of the Congo 35,909
95  Jordan 35,827
96 Cote d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire 34,254
97  Bahrain 33,850
98  Bolivia 32,996
99  Cameroon 32,051
100  Latvia 31,286
101  Paraguay 30,985
102  Trinidad and Tobago 28,069
103  Uganda 27,465
104  Zambia 26,963
105  Estonia 26,485
106  El Salvador 25,164
107  Cyprus 23,077
108  Afghanistan 21,122
109  Honduras 19,497
110    Nepal 19,489
111  Bosnia and Herzegovina 18,491
112  Gabon 17,412
113  North Korea 17,396
114  Brunei 17,104
115  Mozambique 17,081
116  Iceland 17,036
117  Cambodia 16,778
118  Equatorial Guinea 16,731
119  Papua New Guinea 16,576
120  Georgia 16,530
121  Botswana 15,813
122  Senegal 15,658
123  Zimbabwe 14,719
124  Congo, Republic of the 14,077
125  Jamaica 13,927
126  Namibia 13,429
127  Albania 13,413
128  Chad 12,791
129  Arab Palestinian areas 12,766
130  Burkina Faso 12,756
131  Mauritius 12,616
132  Mongolia 12,067
133  Mali 11,979
134  Nicaragua 11,806
135  Laos 11,749
136  Macedonia 11,319
137  South Sudan 11,007
138  Armenia 10,889
139  Madagascar 10,674
140  Malta 10,536
141  New Caledonia 10,234
142  Benin 9,575
143  Tajikistan 9,242
144  Haiti 8,599
145  The Bahamas 8,510
146  Niger 8,169
147  Moldova 7,944
148  Rwanda 7,903
149  Kyrgyzstan 7,404
150  Kosovo 7,387
151  Monaco 7,060
152  Guinea 6,579
153  Liechtenstein 5,855
154  Malawi 5,720
155  French Polynesia 5,623
156  Bermuda 5,601
157  Suriname 5,210
158  Mauritania 5,092
159  Timor-Leste 4,970
160  Sierra Leone 4,893
161  Montenegro 4,588
162  Togo 4,576
163  Fiji 4,532
164  Swaziland 4,482
165  Barbados 4,353
166  Eritrea 3,858
167  Cayman Islands 3,480
168  Andorra 3,278
169  Curaçao 3,159
170  Guyana 3,086
171  Maldives 3,032
172  Burundi 2,869
173  Aruba 2,664
174  Greenland 2,441
175  Liberia 2,122
176  Lesotho 2,081
177  Bhutan 1,965
178  Cape Verde 1,855
179  San Marino 1,845
180  Central African Republic 1,838
181  Belize 1,699
182  Djibouti 1,589
183  Seychelles 1,511
184  Saint Lucia 1,406
185  Somalia 1,375
186  Zanzibar 1,289
187  Antigua and Barbuda 1,248
188  Guinea-Bissau 1,209
189  Solomon Islands 1,103
190  Sint Maarten 1,059
191  British Virgin Islands 902
192  Grenada 884
193  Saint Kitts and Nevis 852
194  The Gambia 851
195  Samoa 824
196  Vanuatu 812
197  Turks and Caicos Islands 797
198  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 729
199  Comoros 648
200  Dominica 533
201  Tonga 435
202 Sao Tome and Principe São Tomé and Príncipe 337
203  Federated States of Micronesia 308
204  Cook Islands 311
205  Anguilla 311
206  Palau 234
207  Marshall Islands 209
208  Nauru 182
209  Kiribati 180
210  Montserrat 63
211  Tuvalu 38

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe.
  2. ^ Figures exclude Taiwan, and special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  3. ^ a b c Figures exclude Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
  4. ^ Data for Syria's 2014 GDP is from the September 2011 WEO Database, the latest available from the IMF.
  5. ^ a b Figures exclude special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  6. ^ Includes Western Sahara.
  7. ^ Covers mainland Tanzania only.
  8. ^ Data are for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
  9. ^ Excludes Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  10. ^ Excludes data for Transnistria.

References

  1. ^ a b c "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. 7 June 2018. 
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  3. ^ Moffatt, Mike. "A Beginner's Guide to Purchasing Power Parity Theory". About.com. IAC/InterActiveCorp. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  4. ^ Ito, Takatoshi; Isard, Peter; Symansky, Steven (January 1999). "Economic Growth and Real Exchange Rate: An Overview of the Balassa-Samuelson Hypothesis in Asia" (PDF). Changes in Exchange Rates in Rapidly Development Countries: Theory, Practice, and Policy Issues. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  5. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Purchasing Power Parity: Weights Matter". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 May 2014. 
  6. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Gross Domestic Product: An Economy's All". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  7. ^ Vo, Lam Thuy (30 May 2012). "The World's Richest Countries and Biggest Economies, In 2 Graphics". Planet Money. National Public Radio. Retrieved 4 June 2014. 
  8. ^ Burgen, Emily et. al. (5 April 2012). "An Elusive Relation Between Unemployment and GDP Growth: Okun's Law". Economic Trends. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Retrieved 3 June 2016. 
  9. ^ Vitez, Osmond. "The Importance of Consumer Spending". Houston Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved 4 June 2014. 
  10. ^ Koesterich, Russ (16 May 2014). "America The Youthful? Yes, On a Relative Basis". BlackRock. Retrieved 4 June 2014. 
  11. ^ Landefeld, J. Steven (11 February 2008). "The Multi-Factor Productivity Residual" (PDF). Measuring Innovation’s Role in GDP & Productivity Growth. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved 4 June 2014. 
  12. ^ "Tuvalu". Europa. European Commission. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  13. ^ Matthews, Chris (5 October 2014). "5 Most Powerful Economic Empires of All Time". Fortune. Time, Inc. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  14. ^ a b Kroeber, Arthur R. (2016). China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York, United States: Oxford University Press. 
  15. ^ Kau, Michael Ying-mao (30 September 1993). "China in the Era of Deng Xiaoping: A Decade of Reform". Studies on Contemporary China. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  16. ^ Hu, Zuliu; Khan, Mohsin S. (April 1997). "Why Is China Growing So Fast?" (PDF). Economic Issues. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  17. ^ Rodrik, Dani; et al. (March 2004). "From "Hindu Growth" to Productivity Surge: The Mystery of the Indian Growth Transition" (PDF). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 March 2016. 
  18. ^ "The economics of enlargement". Europa. European Commission. 30 October 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  19. ^ a b c "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. April 2018. 
  20. ^ "GDP (current US$)". World Development Indicators. World Bank. Retrieved 1 July 2017. 
  21. ^ "GDP and its breakdown at current prices in US Dollars". United Nations Statistics Division. December 2017. 
  22. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - National Accounts". unstats.un.org. 
  23. ^ "EU GDP (current US$)". World Development Indicators. World Bank. Retrieved 1 July 2016. 
  24. ^ "All countries and regions/subregions (totals) for all years - sorted by region/subregion". United Nations. United Nations. Retrieved September 27, 2017. 
  25. ^ "All countries for all years - sorted alphabetically". United Nations. United Nations. Retrieved September 27, 2016.