Automotive industry in North Korea
The automotive industry in North Korea is a branch of the national economy, with much-lower production than that in South Korea. North Korean motor vehicle production is geared towards the Korean People's Army and construction goals. In addition to cars and trucks, North Korea produces buses and trams; the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is not involved with the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles or any other United Nations industrial committee, so information about its motor vehicle industry is limited. The OICA does not publicize figures for automobile production in the DPRK; as reported by a limited number of observers with first-hand knowledge, North Korea has the capability to produce 40,000 to 50,000 vehicles a year. The North Korean automobile industry had its origins during the Soviet era, the DPRK began motor-vehicle production with licenses obtained from the USSR; the Soviet Union provided assistance in building automotive plants in the country, which were equipped with technology developed by the Soviet Union.
North Korea's first domestically produced automobiles were copies of Soviet designs, such as the GAZ-51 midi-truck, GAZ 69 off-road four-wheel drive vehicle and the GAZ-M20 Pobeda passenger car. Since 1950, Sungri Motor Plant in Tokchon has been North Korea's first and largest motor vehicle plant producing urban and off-road passenger cars, it was the most capable plant of the North Korean automotive industry before being surpassed by Pyeonghwa Motors. All models are reported to be derivations of foreign cars. Vehicles are for civilian and commercial use, as government officials favour foreign imports and the armed forces have their own facilities; the Sungri Motor Plant was founded in November 1950 as the Tokchon Motor Plant. It produced its first vehicle, a Sungri-58 truck, in 1958. In 1975, the plant was renamed Sungri Motor Plant. In 1980, annual production was reported by the government to be 20,000 units per year, however the rate was more between 6,000 and 7,000 units per year. In 1996 production was crippled due to the country's economic difficulties, with 150 units produced.
The Sungri ZR 5000 Giant Dumping Truck, is powered by a W shaped 4 cylinder engine producing 1000 hp, a claimed speed of 200 km/h. Founded in 2000, Pyeonghwa Motors in Nampo is an auto manufacturing and retailing joint venture between South Korea's Pyeonghwa Motors and the North Korea's Ryonbong General Corp. Pyeonghwa Motors products are sold under the names Kia and Zunma: small and luxury cars, minivans, SUVs and pick-up trucks under license. Pyeonghwa has the exclusive rights to car production and sale of used cars in North Korea. However, most North Koreans are unable to drive a car; because of the small market for cars in the country, Pyeonghwa's output is very low. In 2003, only 314 cars were produced though the factory had the facilities to produce up to 10,000 cars a year. Erik van Ingen Schenau, author of the book Automobiles Made in North Korea, has estimated the company's total production in 2005 at not more than around 400 units. In summer 2006, the North Korean government magazine Foreign Trade, which advertises North Korean products, published a photograph of a new luxury car produced by Pyeonghwa, which appears to be a rebadged version of the South Korean SsangYong Chairman.
The Chairman bears a strong resemblance to Mercedes-Benz cars, which are favored by North Korean government officials, is indeed based on an old Mercedes E-Class design. In 2006, Pyeonghwa reached an agreement with Chinese manufacturer Brilliance China Auto to assemble its Jinbei Haise vans, which are based on a three wheeled version of the 1975 Toyota Hiace. In 2009, Pyeonghwa announced a profit on its North Korean operations; the Pregio and Pronto are sold in Vietnam by Mekong Auto. Both are based on Hyundai vehicles. Mekong Auto has sold Fiat cars in Vietnam since 1995, this relationship may have led to Pyeonghwa assembling Fiats in North Korea. Since 1968, Pyongchang Auto Works in Pyongsang took over Sungri Motor Plant's production of Kaengsaeng and Kaengsaeng NA models: a modified Sungri-4.10 4x4 car and a modified Sungri-4.25 4x4 pickup. During the 1970s, it began production of Taebaeksan and Tujaeng light aircraft. Since 1974, the Chongjin Bus Works has produced the Jipsam 74, Chongnyonjunwi and Chongjin trolleybus, the Jipsam 86 motorised trolley and the Pyongyang 9.25 and Jipsam 86 and 88 buses.
Since 1961, Pyongyang Trolleybus Works has produced Chollima 1, 2, 9.11, 9.25, 70, 72, 74 and 84, Chongnyonjunwi, Ikarus 260T, Ikarus IK187, Chollima 032 trolleybuses. Automobiles Made in North Korea. China Motor Vehicle Documentation Centre, Seventh edition: February 2010. Photos of vehicles made in North Korea compiled by Erik van Ingen Schenau, author of Automobiles Made in North Korea
An export in international trade is a good or service produced in one country, bought by someone in another country. The seller of such goods and services is an exporter. Export of goods requires involvement of customs authorities. An export's reverse counterpart is an import. Many manufacturing firms began their global expansion as exporters and only switched to another mode for serving a foreign market. Exporting refers to sending of services from the home country to foreign country. Methods of exporting a product or good or information include mail, hand delivery, air shipping, shipping by vessel, uploading to an internet site, or downloading from an internet site. Exports include distribution of information sent as email, an email attachment, fax or in a telephone conversation. Trade barriers are government laws, policy, or practices that either protect domestic products from foreign competition or artificially stimulate exports of particular domestic products. While restrictive business practices sometimes have a similar effect, they are not regarded as trade barriers.
The most common foreign trade barriers are government-imposed measures and policies that restrict, prevent, or impede the international exchange of goods and services. International agreements limit trade in and the transfer of, certain types of goods and information e.g. goods associated with weapons of mass destruction, advanced telecommunications and torture, some art and archaeological artefacts. For example: Nuclear Suppliers Group limits trade in associated goods; the Australia Group limits biological weapons and associated goods. Missile Technology Control Regime limits trade in the means of delivering weapons of mass destruction The Wassenaar Arrangement limits trade in conventional arms and technological developments. A tariff is a tax placed on a specific good or set of goods exported from or imported to a country, creating an economic barrier to trade; the tactic is used when a country's domestic output of the good is falling and imports from foreign competitors are rising if the country has strategic reasons to retain a domestic production capability.
Some failing industries receive a protection with an effect similar to subsidies. The third reason for a tariff involves addressing the issue of dumping. Dumping involves a country producing excessive amounts of goods and dumping the goods on another country at prices that are "too low", for example, pricing the good lower in the export market than in the domestic market of the country of origin. In dumping the producer sells the product at a price that returns no profit, or amounts to a loss; the purpose and expected outcome of a tariff is to encourage spending on domestic goods and services rather than imports. Tariffs can create tension between countries. Examples include the United States steel tariff of 2002 and when China placed a 14% tariff on imported auto parts; such tariffs lead to a complaint with the World Trade Organization. If that fails, the country may put a tariff of its own against the other nation in retaliation, to increase pressure to remove the tariff. Exporting has two distinct advantages.
First, it avoids the substantial cost of establishing manufacturing operations in the host country. Second, exporting may help a company achieve experience curve effects and location economies. Ownership advantages are the firm's specific assets, international experience, the ability to develop either low-cost or differentiated products within the contacts of its value chain; the locational advantages of a particular market are a combination of market potential and investment risk. Internationalization advantages are the benefits of retaining a core competence within the company and threading it though the value chain rather than to license, outsource, or sell it. In relation to the eclectic paradigm, companies that have low levels of ownership advantages do not enter foreign markets. If the company and its products are equipped with ownership advantage and internalization advantage, they enter through low-risk modes such as exporting. Exporting requires lower level of investment than other modes of international expansion, such as FDI.
The lower risk of export results in a lower rate of return on sales than possible though other modes of international business. In other words, the usual return on export sales may not be tremendous. Exporting allows managers to exercise operation control but does not provide them the option to exercise as much marketing control. An exporter resides far from the end consumer and enlists various intermediaries to manage marketing activities. After two straight months of contraction, exports from India rose by 11.64% at $25.83 billion in July 2013 against $23.14 billion in the same month of the previous year. Exporting has a number of drawbacks: Exporting from the firm's home base may not be appropriate if lower-cost locations for manufacturing the product can be found abroad, it may be preferable to manufacture where conditions are most favorable to value creation, to export to the rest of the world from that location. A second drawback to exporting, is that high transport cost can make exporting uneconomical for bulk products.
One way to fix this, is to manufacture bulk products regionally. Another drawback, is that high tariff barriers can make exporting uneconomical and risky. For small and medium enterprises with fewer than 250 employees, selling goods and
Automotive industry in Vietnam
Automotive industry in Vietnam is a fast growing sector reliant on domestic sales. All produced models are designed abroad by foreign brands, many rely on knock-down kit production. Due to high import taxes on automobiles, the Vietnamese government protects domestic manufacturing. Although Vietnam is a member of the ASEAN Free Trade Area, automobile imports fall under an exception. Since January 1 2018, the 30% import tax has been discontinued as part of ASEAN agreements; the Vietnamese motor industry is not deemed competitive enough to make exports feasible. As of April 2018, 85% of car sales in Vietnam were produced domestically from CKD kits. Before the Đổi Mới, automobile ownership in Vietnam was limited and the vehicles present were imported from Second World countries that were more politically aligned with the government. In 1995 the first automobile factories were built, using knock-down kits to produce vehicles, starting with Mitsubishi and Isuzu. Between 2003 and 2006, automobile sales tax was increased from 5% to 50%, thus slowing down car sales.
The Vietnamese car market is small, but the fastest growing in Southeast Asia. Most automobile manufacturers in Vietnam are a member of the Vietnam Automobile Manufacturers' Association. Vietnam has a 900 million USD trade surplus in car parts, totaling 4.4 billion USD of car part exports. Most of this production is by foreign owned businesses operating in Vietnam. In total the number of parts suppliers was 226 in 2018. Daihatsu subsidiary Vindaco produced the Terios from CKDs in Vietnam; the company was dissolved after four years. Ford Vietnam is a joint venture between Ford Motor Company and Song Cong Diesel Company, with assembly taking place in Hải Dương province in the north of Vietnam. Hino trucks are built in Vietnam in a joint venture with Vinamotor. Hino has been present in Vietnam since 1996. Honda Vietnam is a joint venture of Honda and the Vietnam Engine and Agricultural Machinery Corporation, it is the top selling motorcycle brand in Vietnam, operates three motorcycle factories and one car factory in Vietnam.
Hyundai models are manufactured from CKD kits by Hyundai Thanh Cong Auto, a joint venture between Hyundai and Vietnam's Thanh Cong Auto. Hyundai strongly considered building a manufacturing plant in Ninh Binh, to produce the Grand i10 model. Since 2008, Kia Motors vehicles are produced from CKD kits by THACO Kia, a joint venture with THACO, at a plant in Chu Lai. Models produced are the Kia New Morning, Kia Forte, Kia Sorento, Kia Carens, Kia Cerato, Kia Optima. Through its joint venture with THACO, Vina Mazda Automobile Manufacturing, Mazda 2 models are produced at a plant in Nui Thanh; the plant employs 300 workers. Mitsubishi Motors is active in Vietnam through its Vina Star Motors Corporation joint venture with Malaysian PROTON Holdings. In 1997 production of Mitsubishi vehicles was started with the Mitsubishi Delica van, with other vehicles being the Mitsubshi Pajero and Mitsubishi Canter. Suzuki builds cars in Vietnam through its Visuco subsidiary, operating in a factory in Bien Hoa, Dong Nai Province.
The factory produces the Super Carry, Grand Vitara and Swift, as well as the Impulse 125 Fi, Hayate 125, UA125-T, Viva 115 Fi, Raider 150 and Axelo 125 motorbikes. Annual production is 100,000 motorbikes. Toyota Motor Vietnam uses CKD kits to produce vehicles for the domestic market. Vehicles produced are the Corolla Altis, Vios and Innova, it produced 41,000 vehicles in 2017. Toyota holds the highest market share among passenger vehicle sales in Vietnam, at 23%. SAMCO produces Hyundai buses under licence. VinFast is the only domestic passenger vehicle brand in Vietnam. In August 2018, General Motors sold its Vietnam operations to Vinfast, granting the latter distribution rights of GM models in Vietnam, transferring its Hanoi plant to Vinfast. Vinfast will use the plant to produce its own developed vehicles, in addition to the planned plant in Haiphong; the CEO of Vinfast is former GM executive Jim DeLuca. Vinaxuki produced light commercial vehicles. La Dalat was a Citroen 2CV based car designed by French Citroen engineers based in Vietnam.
5,000 vehicles were produced between 1975, making it the first car produced in Vietnam. Transport in Vietnam Automotive industry Automotive industry by country List of Asian automobile manufacturers List of countries by motor vehicle production Media related to Automobiles in Vietnam at Wikimedia Commons
Automotive industry in China
The automotive industry in China has been the largest in the world measured by automobile unit production since 2008. Since 2009, the annual production of automobiles in China has exceeded that of the European Union or the United States and Japan combined. In 2016, for example, 33.9% of the world's cars were manufactured in China, over 24 million in total. The country is a huge consumer of new motor vehicles, made in-country or imported. In 2017, for example, 4.16 million passenger and commercial vehicles were sold in China, up from 3.31 million in 2009. The traditional "Big Four" domestic car manufacturers are Dongfeng, FAW and Chang' an. Other Chinese car manufacturers are Geely, Beijing Automotive Group, Brilliance Automotive, Guangzhou Automobile Group, Great Wall, BYD, Chery and Jianghuai; as of late 2018, several multinational manufacturers have partnerships with domestic manufacturers to make cars in China. Some are long-standing, such as the 30 years for Audi and FAW; the main industry group for the Chinese automotive industry is the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers.
China has its traditional “Big four” state-owned domestic car manufacturers: Shanghai General Motors, Dongfeng, FAW, Chang’an. BAIC challenge Chang'an as the fourth largest automaker. Guangzhou Automotive is state-owned. Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation known as SAIC and SAIC-GM, is a Chinese state-owned automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Shanghai operating in joint venture with US owned General Motors; the company had the largest production volume of any Chinese automaker in 2017, making more than 6.9 million vehicles. SAIC sells vehicles under a variety of brands. Brand names that are exclusive to SAIC include Maxus, MG, Yuejin. Products produced by SAIC joint venture companies are sold under marques including Baojun, Chevrolet, Iveco, Škoda and Wuling. Dongfeng Motor Corporation is a Chinese state-owned automobile manufacturer headquartered in Wuhan; the company was the second-largest Chinese vehicle maker in 2017, by production volume, manufacturing over 4.1 million vehicles that year.
Its own brands are Dongfeng and Dongfen Fengshen. Joint ventures include Cummins, Honda, Infiniti, PSA Peugeot Citroën, Renault and Yulon. FAW Group Corporation is a Chinese state-owned automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Changchun. In 2017, the company ranked third in terms of output making 3.3 million vehicles. FAW sells products under at least ten different brands including its own and Besturn/Bēnténg, Haima, Jiaxing, Jie Fang, Oley, Jie Fang and Yuan Zheng, Tianjin Xiali. FAW joint ventures sell Audi, General Motors, Mazda and Volkswagen. Chang'an Automobile Group is an automobile manufacturer headquartered in Chongqing, is a state-owned enterprise. In 2017, the company ranked fourth in terms of output making 2.8 million vehicles in 2017. Changan designs, develops and sells passenger cars sold under the Changan brand and commercial vehicles sold under the Chana brand. Foreign joint venture companies include Suzuki, Mazda and PSA Peugeot Citroën. BAIC Group known as Beiqi, is a state-owned enterprise and holding company of several Chinese automobile and machine manufacturers located in Beijing.
In 2014, the company ranked fifth in terms of output making 2.5 million vehicles. Its principal subsidiaries include the passenger car maker BAIC Motor, the military vehicle and SUV maker BAW and the truck and agricultural equipment maker Foton Motor. BAIC's parent is the Beijing Municipal Government's State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, it has foreign joint ventures with Mercedes-Benz. Other notable Chinese automotive manufacturers include:GAC, ia a Chinese state-owned automobile manufacturer headquartered in Guangzhou, they were the sixth biggest manufacturer in 2017, manufacturing over 2 million vehicles in 2017. GAC sells passenger cars under the Trumpchi brand. In China, they are more known for their foreign joint-venture with Fiat, Isuzu and Toyota. Geely, is the biggest privately-owned automobile manufacturer and seventh biggest manufacturer overall in China, their flagship brand Geely Auto became the top Chinese car brand in 2017. One of the fastest growing automotive groups in the world, Geely is known for their ownership of Swedish luxury car brand, Volvo.
In China, their passenger car brands include Geely Auto, Volvo Cars, Lynk & Co. Great Wall, the eighth biggest manufacturer in 2017 and the largest manufacturer of SUVs. Great Wall sells vehicles under the brands of Haval and WEY. Brilliance Auto, is a Chinese state-owned automobile manufacturer based in Shenyang, they were the ninth biggest manufacturer in 2017. They have a foreign joint venture with BMW and sells passenger vehicles under their own brand Brilliance. Chery, a Chinese state-owned automobile manufacturer based in Anhui, they were the tenth biggest manufacturer in 2017. They have a foreign joint venture with Jaguar Land Rover for the production of Jaguar and Land Rover cars in China, they sell cars under the Chery brand and Qoros brand. BYD Auto, is an auto manufacturer founded by BYD Company who are known for their batteries and electric buses around the world, they were the seventh best-selling Chinese car brand in 2017. Companies from other countries with joint manufacturing ventures in China include Luxgen, Daimler-Benz and General Motors.
The latter mak
Automotive industry in the Soviet Union
The automotive industry in the Soviet Union spanned the history of the state from 1929 to 1991. It started with the establishment of large car manufacturing plants and reorganisation of the AMO Factory in Moscow in the late 1920s–early 1930s, during the first five-year plan, continued until the Soviet Union's dissolution in 1991. Before its dissolution, the Soviet Union produced 2.1-2.3 million units per year of all types, was the sixth largest automotive producer, ranking ninth place in cars, third in trucks, first in buses. Soviet industry exported 300,000-400,000 cars annually to Soviet Union satellite countries, but to Northern America and Western Europe, Latin America. There were substantial numbers of highway trucks in some quantities, construction trucks, delivery trucks and urban and tourist buses imported as well. Russia had no automotive industry prior to the Soviet era. Automobiles were manufactured, but only in small quantity and by importing the main components from abroad. After the 1917 October Revolution, Russo-Balt was nationalised on August 15, 1918, renamed to Prombron by the new leadership.
It continued the production of Russo-Balt cars and launched a new model on October 8, 1922, while AMO built FIAT 15 Ter trucks under licence and released a more modern FIAT-derived truck developed by a team of AMO designers, the AMO-F-15. About 6,000–6,500 F-15s were built in the years 1924–1931. A Citroen plant built before the war was allowed to operate as a private business until 1921, when it was nationalized; the first Soviet-made vehicles were manufactured by the AMO plant in Moscow on 7 November 1924. In 1927, engineers from the Scientific Automobile & Motor Institute created the first original Soviet car NAMI-I, produced in small numbers by the Spartak State Automobile Factory in Moscow, between 1927 and 1931. In the early decades after the Revolution and Moscow became the main centers of motor vehicle manufacturing; as in Western countries, components for the industry were produced in a large number of different places. Stalinist pressure for rapid industrialization and appreciation for economies of scale brought about the construction in the late 1920s and early 1930s of massive factories manufacturing standard vehicle and changing product lines.
Construction of the Moscow, Gor‘kiy, Yaroslavl' plants or built by Western firms, increased production from a few thousand vehicles in 1928 to 200,000 vehicles in 1937, nearly all of them trucks. In 1929, due to a growing demand for automobiles and in cooperation with its trade partner, the Ford Motor Company, the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy established GAZ. A year a second automobile plant was founded in Moscow, which would become a major Soviet car maker after World War II and earn nationwide fame under the name Moskvitch. However, due to specific government aims and economic hardships of that time, cars were only a small share of all vehicles produced in the early years of Soviet production. In 1937, the Soviet Union produced over 200,000 vehicles trucks, putting the country in second place worldwide by production of trucks. Between 1932 and 1939 the amount of car production in the Soviet Union increased up to 844,6%. After the war, the Soviet automotive industry developed rapidly.
The State Defense Committee issued a number of important decisions: it established new car factories in Kutaisi and Dnepropetrovsk and on August 26, 1945, issued Resolution No. 9905 "On the Restoration and Development of the Automotive Industry", which outlined the future development of car production in the USSR. In 1947, the total number of automobiles produced in the Soviet Union was 132,968, including 9622 cars, 121,248 trucks, 2098 buses, but still did not exceed the pre-war level. Two years in 1949, it surpassed the previous record and in 1950 the production was brought up to 363,000 vehicles per year.1948 marked the beginning of Soviet export of cars. In 1950, cars from the Soviet Union were present at the international car exhibition in Poznań, soon thereafter were exported to Western Europe. By the late 1950s, the Soviet Union produced 43 car models, in 1957 the overall number of automobiles produced was 495,994, which included 113,588 cars, 369,504 trucks, 12,316 buses, in the following year reached the level of 600,000 cars per year.
In the 1960s the Soviets sought to diversify and broaden the motor vehicle industry but continued to rely on massive vertically integrated facilities. Their 15-year transportation modernization plan announced in 1965 called for increasing production of automobiles and heavy trucks to boost consumer welfare and create a larger and more balanced truck fleet. At the beginning of the 1960s, when MZMA, GAZ and ZAZ were offering a variety of cars and the popularity of having a personal automobile in the Soviet Union was on the rise, the Soviet government opted to build an larger car manufacturing plant that would produce a people's car and help to meet the demand for personal transport. For reasons of cost-efficiency, it was decided to sign a licence agreement with a foreign company and produce the car on the basis of an existing, modern model. Several options were considered, including Volkswagen, Peugeot, Renault and FIAT; the Fiat 124 was chosen because of its simple and sturdy design, being easy to manufacture and repair.
The plant was built in just 4 years in the small town of Stavropol Volzhsky, which grew to a population of more than half a million and was renamed Togliatti to commemorate Palmiro Togliatti. At the same time, the Izhmash car plant w
Automotive industry in Turkey
The automotive industry in Turkey plays an important role in the manufacturing sector of the Turkish economy. The companies operating in the Turkish automotive sector are located in the Marmara Region. In 2012, Turkey produced more than 1 million motor vehicles. With a cluster of car-makers and parts suppliers, the Turkish automotive sector has become an integral part of the global network of production bases, exporting nearly $20 billion worth of motor vehicles and components. Global car manufacturers with production plants include Fiat/Tofaş, Oyak-Renault, Toyota and Ford/Otosan; the foundations of the industry were laid in the 1950s when TOE started producing REO military truck and trucks by International Harvester. A brief foray in car production was stopped short. In 1961 the first domestic car Devrim was made by a train manufacturer TÜLOMSAŞ. With the establishment of the Otosan assembly factory in 1959, mass production of the domestic car Anadol started in 1966. In 1959 the Otosan factory was established in Istanbul to produce the models of the Ford Motor Company under licence in Turkey.
In 1961 the Devrim sedan was manufactured at the Tülomsaş factory in Eskişehir. It was the first indigenously produced Turkish automobile. In 1964 the Austin and Morris vehicles of the British Motor Corporation began to be produced under licence at the BMC factory in İzmir; the BMC brand was fully acquired by Turkey's Çukurova Group in 1989, which produces all BMC models in the world. In 1966 Anadol became the first mass-produced Turkish automobile brand. All Anadol models were produced by the Otosan factory in Istanbul. In 1968 the Tofaş factory was opened in Bursa for producing Fiat models under licence. In 1969 the Oyak-Renault factory was established in Bursa for producing Renault models. Other global automotive manufacturers such as Toyota, Opel, Mercedes-Benz and MAN Truck & Bus produce automobiles, vans and trucks in their Turkish factories. There are a number of Turkish bus and truck brands, such as BMC, Otokar and TEMSA. By 2004, Turkey was exporting 518,000 vehicles a year to the European Union member states.
In 2006, the European Investment Bank loaned Tofaş €175 million to jointly develop and produce with PSA Peugeot Citroën and Fiat Auto small commercial vehicles for the European market. The loan, part-financing for total investments estimated at €400 million, was intended to result in an important expansion of the company's production capabilities and create around 5,000 new jobs; the vehicles will be produced at the manufacturing plant of Tofaş in Bursa with an additional, annual capacity of 135.000 cars, due to roll off the assembly line in late 2007. The first official introduction of Etox Zafer took place on 30 August 2007. Like in many countries, the car manufacturing industry has been affected by the global financial crisis. In March 2009, Turkey's Automotive Industry Association said the automotive production fell by 63% on year in the first two months of 2009, as exports dropped by 61.6% in the same period. Altın Boğa BMC Diardi Erkunt Etox FNSS Defence Systems Ford Otosan Hyundai Imza Isuzu Karsan Marti Onuk Oscar Otokar Otoser Oyak-Renault TEMSA Tofaş Toyota Volkicar Anadol Askam Devrim Özaltin Turkey produced 1,124,982 motor vehicles in 2010, ranking as the 7th largest automotive producer in Europe.
In 2008 Turkey produced 1,147,110 motor vehicles, ranking as the 6th largest producer in Europe and the 15th largest producer in the world. The combined capacity of the 6 companies producing passenger cars stood at 726,000 units per year in 2002, reaching 991,621 units per year in 2006. In 2002, Fiat/Tofaş had 34% of this capacity, Oyak/Renault 31%, Hyundai/Assan and Toyota 14% each, Honda 4%, Ford/Otosan 3%. With a cluster of car-makers and parts suppliers, the Turkish automotive sector has become an integral part of the global network of production bases, exporting over $22,944,000,000 worth of motor vehicles and components in 2008. On November 2, 2017, Turkey announced that five Turkish companies, under coordination by Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey, will take part in the consortium for domestically-made car production; the expectation is that the first prototype will be released in 2019 and commercial sales by 2021. The consortium includes following domestic companies: BMC Anadolu Group Kıraça Holding Vestel Turkcell Automotive industry Economy of Turkey