Lists of countries and territories
This list is incomplete. You can help by expanding itThis is a list of many lists of countries and territories by various definitions, including FIFA countries and fictional countries. A country or territory in the sense of nation or state. 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Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table of elements, it is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains stannic oxide, SnO2. Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, has two main oxidation states, +2 and the more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons, it has two main allotropes: at room temperature, the stable allotrope is β-tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal, but at low temperatures it transforms into the less dense grey α-tin, which has the diamond cubic structure. Metallic tin does not oxidize in air; the first tin alloy used on a large scale was bronze, made of 1/8 tin and 7/8 copper, from as early as 3000 BC. After 600 BC, pure metallic tin was produced. Pewter, an alloy of 85–90% tin with the remainder consisting of copper and lead, was used for flatware from the Bronze Age until the 20th century.
In modern times, tin is used in many alloys, most notably tin/lead soft solders, which are 60% or more tin, in the manufacture of transparent, electrically conducting films of indium tin oxide in optoelectronic applications. Another large application for tin is corrosion-resistant tin plating of steel; because of the low toxicity of inorganic tin, tin-plated steel is used for food packaging as tin cans. However, some organotin compounds can be as toxic as cyanide. Tin is a soft, malleable and crystalline silvery-white metal; when a bar of tin is bent, a crackling sound known as the "tin cry" can be heard from the twinning of the crystals. Tin melts at low temperatures of about 232 °C, the lowest in group 14; the melting point is further lowered to 177.3 °C for 11 nm particles. Β-tin, stable at and above room temperature, is malleable. In contrast, α-tin, stable below 13.2 °C, is brittle. Α-tin has a diamond cubic crystal structure, similar to silicon or germanium. Α-tin has no metallic properties at all because its atoms form a covalent structure in which electrons cannot move freely.
It is a dull-gray powdery material with no common uses other than a few specialized semiconductor applications. These two allotropes, α-tin and β-tin, are more known as gray tin and white tin, respectively. Two more allotropes, γ and σ, exist at temperatures above 161 pressures above several GPa. In cold conditions, β-tin tends to transform spontaneously into α-tin, a phenomenon known as "tin pest". Although the α-β transformation temperature is nominally 13.2 °C, impurities lower the transition temperature well below 0 °C and, on the addition of antimony or bismuth, the transformation might not occur at all, increasing the durability of the tin. Commercial grades of tin resist transformation because of the inhibiting effect of the small amounts of bismuth, antimony and silver present as impurities. Alloying elements such as copper, bismuth and silver increase its hardness. Tin tends rather to form hard, brittle intermetallic phases, which are undesirable, it does not form wide solid solution ranges in other metals in general, few elements have appreciable solid solubility in tin.
Simple eutectic systems, occur with bismuth, lead and zinc. Tin was one of the first superconductors to be studied. Tin can be attacked by acids and alkalis. Tin can be polished and is used as a protective coat for other metals. A protective oxide layer prevents further oxidation, the same that forms on pewter and other tin alloys. Tin helps to accelerate the chemical reaction. Tin has ten stable isotopes, with atomic masses of 112, 114 through 120, 122 and 124, the greatest number of any element. Of these, the most abundant are 120Sn, 118Sn, 116Sn, while the least abundant is 115Sn; the isotopes with mass numbers have no nuclear spin, while those with odd have a spin of +1/2. Tin, with its three common isotopes 116Sn, 118Sn and 120Sn, is among the easiest elements to detect and analyze by NMR spectroscopy, its chemical shifts are referenced against SnMe4; this large number of stable isotopes is thought to be a direct result of the atomic number 50, a "magic number" in nuclear physics. Tin occurs in 29 unstable isotopes, encompassing all the remaining atomic masses from 99 to 137.
Apart from 126Sn, with a half-life of 230,000 years, all the radioisotopes have a half-life of less than a year. The radioactive 100Sn, discovered in 1994, 132Sn are one of the few nuclides with a "doubly magic" nucleus: despite being unstable, having lopsided proton–neutron ratios, they represent endpoints beyond which stability drops off rapidly. Another 30 metastable isomers have been characterized for isotopes between 111 and 131, the most stable being 121mSn with a half-life of 43.9 years. The relative differences in the abundances of tin's stable isotopes can be explained by their different modes of formation in stellar nucleosynthesis. 116Sn through 120Sn inclusive are formed in the s-process in most stars and hence they are the most common isotopes, while 122Sn and 124Sn are only formed in the r-process (rapid neutr
A washing machine is a device used to wash laundry. The term is applied to machines that use water as opposed to dry cleaning or ultrasonic cleaners; the user adds laundry detergent, sold in liquid or powder form to the wash water. Laundering by hand involves soaking, beating and rinsing dirty textiles. Before indoor plumbing, the washerwoman or housewife had to carry all the water used for washing and rinsing the laundry. Water for the laundry would be hand carried, heated on a fire for washing poured into the tub; that made the warm soapy water precious. Removal of soap and water from the clothing after washing was a separate process. First, soap would be rinsed out with clear water. After rinsing, the soaking wet clothing would be formed into a roll and twisted by hand to extract water; the entire process occupied an entire day of hard work, plus drying and ironing. It is often used in washbasins. Clothes washer technology developed as a way to reduce the manual labor spent, providing an open basin or sealed container with paddles or fingers to automatically agitate the clothing.
The earliest machines were hand-operated and constructed from wood, while machines made of metal permitted a fire to burn below the washtub, keeping the water warm throughout the day's washing. The earliest special-purpose mechanical washing device was the washboard, invented in 1797 by Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire. By the mid-1850s steam-driven commercial laundry machinery were on sale in the UK and US. Technological advances in machinery for commercial and institutional washers proceeded faster than domestic washer design for several decades in the UK. In the United States there was more emphasis on developing machines for washing at home, though machines for commercial laundry services were used in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the rotary washing machine was patented by Hamilton Smith in 1858. As electricity was not available until at least 1930, some early washing machines were operated by a low-speed, single-cylinder hit-and-miss gasoline engine. After the items were washed and rinsed, water had to be removed by twisting.
To help reduce this labor, the wringer/mangle machine was developed. As implied by the term "mangle," these early machines were quite dangerous if powered and not hand-driven. A user's fingers, arm, or hair could become entangled in the laundry being squeezed, resulting in horrific injuries. Safer mechanisms were developed over time, the more hazardous designs were outlawed; the mangle used two rollers under spring tension to squeeze water out of clothing and household linen. Each laundry item would be fed through the wringer separately; the first wringers were hand-cranked, but were included as a powered attachment above the washer tub. The wringer would be swung over the wash tub so that extracted wash water would fall back into the tub to be reused for the next load; the modern process of water removal by spinning did not come into use until electric motors were developed. Spinning requires a constant high-speed power source, was done in a separate device known as an "extractor". A load of washed laundry would be transferred from the wash tub to the extractor basket, the water spun out in a separate operation.
These early extractors were dangerous to use, since unevenly distributed loads would cause the machine to shake violently. Many efforts were made to counteract the shaking of unstable loads, such as mounting the spinning basket on a free-floating shock-absorbing frame to absorb minor imbalances, a bump switch to detect severe movement and stop the machine so that the load could be manually redistributed. What is now referred to as an automatic washer was at one time referred to as a "washer/extractor", which combined the features of these two devices into a single machine, plus the ability to fill and drain water by itself, it is possible to take this a step further, to merge the automatic washing machine and clothes dryer into a single device, called a combo washer dryer. The first English patent under the category of Washing machines was issued in 1691. A drawing of an early washing machine appeared in the January 1752 issue of The Gentleman's Magazine, a British publication. Jacob Christian Schäffer's washing machine design was published 1767 in Germany.
In 1782, Henry Sidgier issued a British patent for a rotating drum washer, in the 1790s Edward Beetham sold numerous "patent washing mills" in England. One of the first innovations in washing machine technology was the use of enclosed containers or basins that had grooves, fingers, or paddles to help with the scrubbing and rubbing of the clothes; the person using the washer would use a stick to press and rotate the clothes along the textured sides of the basin or container, agitating the clothes to remove dirt and mud. This crude agitator technology was hand-powered, but still more effective than hand-washing the clothes. More advancements were made to washing machine technology in the form of the rotative drum design; these early design patents consisted of a drum washer, hand-cranked to make the wooden drums rotate. While the technology was simple enough, it was a milestone in the history of washing machines, as it introduced the idea of "powered" washing drums; as metal drums st
Pulp and paper industry
The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce pulp, paper and other cellulose-based products. The pulp is fed to a paper machine where it is formed as a paper web and the water is removed from it by pressing and drying. Pressing the sheet removes the water by force. Once the water is forced from the sheet, a special kind of felt, not to be confused with the traditional one, is used to collect the water. Whereas, when making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used instead. Drying involves using heat to remove water from the paper sheets. In the earliest days of paper making, this was done by hanging the sheets like laundry. In more modern times, various forms of heated drying mechanisms are used. On the paper machine, the most common is the steam heated can dryer; the commercial planting of domesticated mulberry trees to make pulp for papermaking is attested as early as the 6th century. Due to advances in printing technology, the Chinese paper industry continued to grow under the Song dynasty to meet the rising demand for printed books.
Demand for paper was stimulated by the Song government, which needed a large supply of paper for printing paper money and exchange certificates. The first mechanised paper machine was installed at Frogmore Paper Mill, Hertfordshire in 1803, followed by another in 1804; the site operates as a museum. The pulp and paper industry has been criticized by environmental groups like the Natural Resources Defense Council for unsustainable deforestation and clearcutting of old-growth forest; the industry trend is to expand globally to countries like Russia and Indonesia with low wages and low environmental oversight. According to Greenpeace, farmers in Central America illegally rip up vast tracts of native forest for cattle and soybean production without any consequences, companies who buy timber from private land owners contribute to massive deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest. On the other hand, the situation is quite different where forest growth has been on the increase for a number of years, it is estimated for instance that since 1990 forests have grown in Europe by a size equivalent to that of Switzerland, supported through the practice of sustainable forest management by the industry.
In Sweden, for every tree, felled, two are planted. The industry is dominated by northern European and East Asian countries. Australasia and Brazil have significant pulp and paper enterprises; the industry has a significant presence in a number of European countries including Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Poland. The United States had been the world's leading producer of paper until it was overtaken by China in 2009. According to statistic data by RISI, main producing countries of paper and paperboard, not including pulp, in the world are as follows: The world's main paper and paperboard company groups are as follows.: In 2008, the top 10 forest and packaging products companies were, according to a report by PricewaterhouseCoopers: Leading manufacturers of capital equipment with over $1 billion in annual revenue for the pulp and paper industry include: Valmet Bellmer Andritz Metso Voith Kadant American Forest & Paper Association List of paper mills Converters Paper pollution Pulp and Paper Pulp and paper industry in Canada Pulp and paper industry in Europe Confederation of European Paper Industries Pulp and paper industry in Japan Pulp and paper industry in the United States Roll hardness tester Wood industry Forestry industry Environmental impact of paper Confederation of European Paper Industries American Forest & Paper Association Forest Products Association of Canada
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. Like nickel, cobalt is found in the Earth's crust only in chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron; the free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, silver-gray metal. Cobalt-based blue pigments have been used since ancient times for jewelry and paints, to impart a distinctive blue tint to glass, but the color was thought by alchemists to be due to the known metal bismuth. Miners had long used the name kobold ore for some of the blue-pigment producing minerals. In 1735, such ores were found to be reducible to a new metal, this was named for the kobold. Today, some cobalt is produced from one of a number of metallic-lustered ores, such as for example cobaltite; the element is however more produced as a by-product of copper and nickel mining. The copper belt in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia yields most of the global cobalt production; the DRC alone accounted for more than 50% of world production in 2016, according to Natural Resources Canada.
Cobalt is used in the manufacture of magnetic, wear-resistant and high-strength alloys. The compounds cobalt silicate and cobalt aluminate give a distinctive deep blue color to glass, inks and varnishes. Cobalt occurs as only one stable isotope, cobalt-59. Cobalt-60 is a commercially important radioisotope, used as a radioactive tracer and for the production of high energy gamma rays. Cobalt is the active center of a group of coenzymes called cobalamins. Vitamin B12, the best-known example of the type, is an essential vitamin for all animals. Cobalt in inorganic form is a micronutrient for bacteria and fungi. Cobalt is a ferromagnetic metal with a specific gravity of 8.9. The Curie temperature is 1,115 °C and the magnetic moment is 1.6–1.7 Bohr magnetons per atom. Cobalt has a relative permeability two-thirds. Metallic cobalt occurs as two crystallographic structures: fcc; the ideal transition temperature between the hcp and fcc structures is 450 °C, but in practice the energy difference between them is so small that random intergrowth of the two is common.
Cobalt is a weakly reducing metal, protected from oxidation by a passivating oxide film. It is attacked by halogens and sulfur. Heating in oxygen produces Co3O4 which loses oxygen at 900 °C to give the monoxide CoO; the metal reacts with fluorine at 520 K to give CoF3. It does not react with hydrogen gas or nitrogen gas when heated, but it does react with boron, phosphorus and sulfur. At ordinary temperatures, it reacts with mineral acids, slowly with moist, but not with dry, air. Common oxidation states of cobalt include +2 and +3, although compounds with oxidation states ranging from −3 to +5 are known. A common oxidation state for simple compounds is +2; these salts form the pink-colored metal aquo complex 2+ in water. Addition of chloride gives the intensely blue 2−. In a borax bead flame test, cobalt shows deep blue in both reducing flames. Several oxides of cobalt are known. Green cobalt oxide has rocksalt structure, it is oxidized with water and oxygen to brown cobalt hydroxide. At temperatures of 600 -- 700 °C, CoO oxidizes to the blue cobalt oxide.
Black cobalt oxide is known. Cobalt oxides are antiferromagnetic at low temperature: CoO and Co3O4, analogous to magnetite, with a mixture of +2 and +3 oxidation states; the principal chalcogenides of cobalt include the black cobalt sulfides, CoS2, which adopts a pyrite-like structure, cobalt sulfide. Four dihalides of cobalt are known: cobalt fluoride, cobalt chloride, cobalt bromide, cobalt iodide; these halides exist in hydrated forms. Whereas the anhydrous dichloride is blue, the hydrate is red; the reduction potential for the reaction Co3+ + e− → Co2+ is +1.92 V, beyond that for chlorine to chloride, +1.36 V. Consequently and chloride would result in the cobalt being reduced to cobalt; because the reduction potential for fluorine to fluoride is so high, +2.87 V, cobalt fluoride is one of the few simple stable cobalt compounds. Cobalt fluoride, used in some fluorination reactions, reacts vigorously with water; as for all metals, molecular compounds and polyatomic ions of cobalt are classified as coordination complexes, that is, molecules or ions that contain cobalt linked to several ligands.
The principles of electronegativity and hardness–softness of a series of ligands can be used to explain the usual oxidation state of cobalt. For example, Co+3 complexes tend to have ammine ligands; because phosphorus is softer than nitrogen, phosphine ligands tend to feature the softer Co2+ and Co+, an example being triscobalt chloride. The more electronegative oxide and fluoride can stabilize Co4+ and Co5+ derivatives, e.g. caesium hexafluorocobaltate and potassium percobaltate. Alfred Werner, a Nobel-prize winning pioneer in coordination chemistry, worked with compounds of empirical formula 3+. One of the isomers
A refrigerator is an appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room. Refrigeration is an essential food storage technique in developed countries; the lower temperature lowers the reproduction rate of bacteria, so the refrigerator reduces the rate of spoilage. A refrigerator maintains a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. Optimum temperature range for perishable food storage is 3 to 5 °C. A similar device that maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a freezer; the refrigerator replaced the icebox, a common household appliance for a century and a half. The first cooling systems for food involved using ice. Artificial refrigeration began in the mid-1750s, developed in the early 1800s. In 1834, the first working vapor-compression refrigeration system was built.
The first commercial ice-making machine was invented in 1854. In 1913, refrigerators for home use were invented. In 1923 Frigidaire introduced the first self-contained unit; the introduction of Freon in the 1920s expanded the refrigerator market during the 1930s. Home freezers as separate compartments were introduced in 1940. Frozen foods a luxury item, became commonplace. Freezer units are used in industry and commerce. Commercial refrigerator and freezer units were in use for 40 years prior to the common home models; the freezer-on-top-and-refrigerator-on-bottom style has been the basic style since the 1940s, until modern refrigerators broke the trend. A vapor compression cycle is used in most household refrigerators, refrigerator–freezers and freezers. Newer refrigerators may include automatic defrosting, chilled water, ice from a dispenser in the door. Domestic refrigerators and freezers for food storage are made in a range of sizes. Among the smallest is a 4 L Peltier refrigerator advertised as being able to hold 6 cans of beer.
A large domestic refrigerator stands as tall as a person and may be about 1 m wide with a capacity of 600 L. Refrigerators and freezers may be free-standing, or built into a kitchen; the refrigerator allows the modern household to keep food fresh for longer than before. Freezers allow people to buy food in bulk and eat it at leisure, bulk purchases save money. Before the invention of the refrigerator, icehouses were used to provide cool storage for most of the year. Placed near freshwater lakes or packed with snow and ice during the winter, they were once common. Natural means are still used to cool foods today. On mountainsides, runoff from melting snow is a convenient way to cool drinks, during the winter one can keep milk fresh much longer just by keeping it outdoors; the word "refrigeratory" was used at least as early as the 17th centuryThe history of artificial refrigeration began when Scottish professor William Cullen designed a small refrigerating machine in 1755. Cullen used a pump to create a partial vacuum over a container of diethyl ether, which boiled, absorbing heat from the surrounding air.
The experiment created a small amount of ice, but had no practical application at that time. In 1805, American inventor Oliver Evans described a closed vapor-compression refrigeration cycle for the production of ice by ether under vacuum. In 1820, the British scientist Michael Faraday liquefied ammonia and other gases by using high pressures and low temperatures, in 1834, an American expatriate in Great Britain, Jacob Perkins, built the first working vapor-compression refrigeration system, it was a closed-cycle device. A similar attempt was made in 1842, by American physician, John Gorrie, who built a working prototype, but it was a commercial failure. American engineer Alexander Twining took out a British patent in 1850 for a vapor compression system that used ether; the first practical vapor compression refrigeration system was built by James Harrison, a Scottish Australian. His 1856 patent was for a vapor compression system using alcohol or ammonia, he built a mechanical ice-making machine in 1851 on the banks of the Barwon River at Rocky Point in Geelong and his first commercial ice-making machine followed in 1854.
Harrison introduced commercial vapor-compression refrigeration to breweries and meat packing houses, by 1861, a dozen of his systems were in operation. The first gas absorption refrigeration system using gaseous ammonia dissolved in water was developed by Ferdinand Carré of France in 1859 and patented in 1860. Carl von Linde, an engineering professor at the Technological University Munich in Germany, patented an improved method of liquefying gases in 1876, his new process made possible the use of gases such as ammonia, sulfur dioxide and methyl chloride as refrigerants and they were used for that purpose until the late 1920s. In 1913, refrigerators for home and domestic use were invented by Fred W. Wolf of Fort Wayne, with models consisting of a unit, mounted on top of an ice box. In 1914, engineer Nathaniel B. Wales of Detroit, introduced an idea for a practical electric refrigeration unit, which became the basis for the Kelvinator. A self-contained refrigerator, with a compressor on the bottom of the cabinet was invented by Alfred Mellowes in 1916.
Mellowes produced this refrigerator commercially but was bought out by William C. Durant in 1918, who started the Frigidaire company to mass-produce refrigerators. In 1918, Kelvinator company introduced the first refrigerator with
Manufacturing is the production of products for use or sale using labour and machines, tools and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most applied to industrial design, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale; such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances, sports equipment or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who sell them to end users and consumers. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product; the manufacturing process begins with the product design, materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. The manufacturing sector is connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing and Precision Castparts. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Siemens, FCA and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Panasonic, LG, Samsung and Tata Motors. In its earliest form, manufacturing was carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the pre-industrial world, the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture. Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system.
Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm. Manufacturing Engineering Agile manufacturing American system of manufacturing British factory system of manufacturing Craft or guild system Fabrication Flexible manufacturing Just-in-time manufacturing Lean manufacturing Mass customization – 3D printing, design-your-own web sites for sneakers, fast fashion Mass production Ownership Packaging and labeling Prefabrication Putting-out system Rapid manufacturing Reconfigurable manufacturing system Soviet collectivism in manufacturing History of numerical control Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant environmental costs; the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it.
Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, eliminating harmful chemicals; the negative costs of manufacturing can be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing; these are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are lower than in "developed-world" economies.
Manufacturing has unique health and safety challenges and has been recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues. Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as: The nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth. In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development, they have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors. On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.
S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand. Further, while U. S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U. S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries. A total of 3.2 million – one in six U. S. manuf