Cafestol is a diterpenoid molecule present in coffee beans. It is one of the compounds that may be responsible for proposed biological and pharmacological effects of coffee. A typical bean of Coffea arabica contains about 0.4-0.7% cafestol by weight. Cafestol is present in highest quantity in unfiltered coffee drinks such as French press coffee or Turkish coffee/Greek coffee. In filtered coffee drinks such as drip brewed coffee, it is present in only negligible amounts, as the paper filter in drip filtered coffee retains the diterpenes. Coffee consumption has been associated with a number of effects on health and cafestol has been proposed to produce these through a number of biological actions. Studies have shown that regular consumption of boiled coffee increases serum cholesterol whereas filtered coffee does not. Cafestol may act as an agonist ligand for the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and pregnane X receptor, blocking cholesterol homeostasis, thus cafestol can increase cholesterol synthesis.
Cafestol has shown anticarcinogenic properties in rats. Cafestol has neuroprotective effects in a Drosophila fruit fly model of Parkinson's disease. Kahweol
Coffee wastewater known as coffee effluent, is a byproduct of coffee processing. Its treatment and disposal is an important environmental consideration for coffee processing as wastewater is a form of industrial water pollution; the unpicked fruit of the coffee tree, known as the coffee cherry, undergoes a long process to make it ready for consumption. This process entails use of large quantities of water and the production of considerable amounts of solid and liquid waste; the type of waste is a result of the type of process. The conversion of the cherry to oro or green bean is achieved through either a dry, semi-washed or washed process; the coffee cherries are dried after they are harvested through sun drying, solar drying or artificial drying. In sun drying, the coffee cherries are left to dry in the open air. In solar drying, the cherries are placed in a closed cabinet, which has ventilation holes to let moisture out. Artificial drying is used during the wet season, when the low level of sunlight extends the time needed for solar drying and the cherries are prone to mold growth.
After being dried, the cherries are hulled. In this process the dried outer layer of the cherry, known as the pericarp, is removed mechanically. In semi-washed processing, the cherries are de-pulped to remove the pericarp. After this the slimy mucilage layer which covers the bean is removed; this is done mechanically by feeding the beans into a cylindrical device. While the friction and pressure exerted on the beans by this process is enough to remove most of the mucilage, a small amount of it will still remain in the centre-cut of the beans; this technique is used in Colombia and Mexico in order to reduce the water consumption from the long fermentation process and the extensive washing. In order to reduce the contamination generated by the wet process of coffee fruits, scientists at Cenicafé developed a technology that avoids using water when not needed and uses the right water when needed; the technology, called Becolsub, controls more than 90% of the contamination generated by its predecessor.
The quality of the coffee processed this way is the same as for coffee processed by natural fermentation. The Becolsub technology consists of pulping without water, mechanical demucilaging and mixing the by-products in a screw conveyor; the technology includes a hydromechanical device to remove floating fruits and light impurities, as well as heavy and hard objects, a cylindrical screen to remove the fruits whose skin was not separated in the pulping machine. Scientists at Cenicafé discovered that a coffee fruit with mucilage has enough water inside for the skin and seeds to be separated in conventional pulping machines without water, that the liquid was only required as a conveying means and that pulping without water avoids 72% of the potential contamination. Mucilage removal has been done through a fermenting process, which takes between 14 and 18 hours, until the mucilage is degraded and can be removed with water. Washing fermented mucilage requires, in the best case, 5.0 L/kg of DPC. Scientists at Cenicafé developed a machine to remove the mucilage covering the coffee seeds.
This machine, called Deslim removes more than 98% of the total mucilage by exerting stress and generating collisions among beans, using only 0.7 L/kg of DPC. The resulting concentrated mixture of water and impurities is viscous and is added to the separated fruit skin in a screw conveyor. In the screw conveyor the retention is greater than 60%, which means a 20% additional control of potential contamination; the two by-products are used as worms' substrate to produce natural fertilizers. However, the high concentration of the mucilage obtained from the demucilager provides opportunity for industrializing the by-product; this process is used when processing Coffea arabica. After de-pulping, the beans are collected in fermentation tanks where bacterial removal of the mucilage takes place over 12 to 36 hours; the fermentation phase is important in the development of the flavour of the coffee, due to the microbiological processes that take place. The emergence of yeasts and moulds in acidic water can lead to off-flavors like sour coffee and onion-flavour.
However, wet processing is believed to yield higher quality coffee than the other processes since small amounts of off-flavors give the coffee its particular taste and "body". When fermentation is complete, the beans are washed to remove fermentation residues and any remaining mucilage. If not removed, these make the beans susceptible to yeasts. After washing, the beans are dried; when the drying process is not rapid enough earthy and musty taints, like Rio-flavor come up. The amount of water used in processing depends on the type of processing. Wet washed processing of the coffee cherries requires the most fresh water, dry processing the least. Sources indicate a wide range in water use. Recycling of water in the de-pulping process can drastically reduce the amount needed. With reuse and improved washing techniques, up to 1 to 6 m³ water per tonne of fresh coffee cherry is achievable. Water used in processing coffee leaves the coffee processing unit with high levels of pollution; the main componen
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
S795 is a coffee cultivar important for being one of the first strains of C. arabica found to be resistant to coffee leaf rust. It is a selection of the Balehonnur Coffee Research Station in India and it is believed to have originated as a natural hybrid between C. arabica and C. liberica known as S288 and the Kent variety, a hybrid of Typica and an unknown other type. Both S288 and Kent are known to be resistant to many rust races and the Kent variety is a high-yielding tree; the resultant S795 cultivar exhibits rust resistance, high yield, a good cup profile, making it a desirable cultivar. S795 is planted in India and Indonesia. In India, it represents 25-30% of the acreage of arabica coffee. S795 is a tall and vigorous shrub producing a high number of primary and secondary plagiotropic branches; the fruit are medium in size and oblong in shape and progress from green when young to dark red when ripe. Each node produces around 14 - 16 cherries. New leaves are a light bronze color List of coffee varieties
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain Coffea species. The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa and Madagascar, the Comoros, Réunion in the Indian Ocean. Coffee plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, Indian subcontinent, Africa; the two most grown are C. arabica and C. robusta. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked and dried. Dried coffee seeds are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. Roasted beans are ground and brewed with near-boiling water to produce the beverage known as coffee. Coffee is darkly colored, bitter acidic and has a stimulating effect in humans due to its caffeine content, it is one of the most popular drinks in the world, it can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways. It is served hot, although iced coffee is a popular alternative. Clinical studies indicate that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults, with continuing research on whether long-term consumption lowers the risk of some diseases, although those long-term studies are of poor quality.
The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking appears in modern-day Yemen in southern Arabia in the middle of the 15th century in Sufi shrines. It was here in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a similar way to how it is now prepared, but the coffee seeds had to be first exported from East Africa to Yemen, as the Coffea arabica plant is thought to have been indigenous to the former. The Yemenis began to cultivate the seed. By the 16th century, the drink had reached Persia and North Africa. From there, it spread to the rest of the world; as of 2016, Brazil was the leading grower of producing one-third of the world total. Coffee is a major export commodity, it is one of the most valuable commodities exported by developing countries. Green, unroasted coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world; some controversy has been associated with coffee cultivation and the way developed countries trade with developing nations, as well as the impact on the environment with regards to the clearing of land for coffee-growing and water use.
The markets for fair trade and organic coffee are expanding, notably in the USA. The word coffee appears to have derived from the name of the region where coffee beans were first used by a herder in the 6th or 9th century: kaffa derived from Kaffa Province, the name of the region in ancient Abyssinia; the word "coffee" entered the English language in 1582 via the Dutch koffie, borrowed from the Ottoman Turkish kahve, borrowed in turn from the Arabic qahwah. The Arabic word qahwah was traditionally held to refer to a type of wine whose etymology is given by Arab lexicographers as deriving from the verb qahiya, "to lack hunger", in reference to the drink's reputation as an appetite suppressant, it has been proposed that the source may be the Proto-Central Semitic root q-h-h meaning "dark". The term "coffee pot" dates from 1705; the expression "coffee break" was first attested in 1952. According to legend, ancestors of today's Oromo people in a region of Kaffa in Ethiopia were believed to have been the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee plant.
However, there is no direct evidence, found earlier than the 15th century indicating where in Africa coffee first grew or who among the native populations might have used it as a stimulant. The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee when he noticed how excited his goats became after eating the beans from a coffee plant, did not appear in writing until 1671 and is apocryphal. Other accounts attribute the discovery of coffee to Sheikh Omar. According to an ancient chronicle, known for his ability to cure the sick through prayer, was once exiled from Mocha in Yemen to a desert cave near Ousab. Starving, Omar found them to be bitter, he tried roasting the seeds to improve the flavor. He tried boiling them to soften the seed, which resulted in a fragrant brown liquid. Upon drinking the liquid Omar was sustained for days; as stories of this "miracle drug" reached Mocha, Omar was made a saint. The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century in the accounts of Ahmed al-Ghaffar in Yemen.
It was here in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed, in a similar way to how it is prepared now. Coffee was used by Sufi circles to stay awake for their religious rituals. Accounts differ on the origin of the coffee plant prior to its appearance in Yemen. From Ethiopia, coffee could have been introduced to Yemen via trade across the Red Sea. One account credits Muhammad Ibn Sa'd for bringing the beverage to Aden from the African coast. Other early accounts say Ali ben Omar of the Shadhili Sufi order was the first to introduce coffee to Arabia. According to al Shardi, Ali ben Omar may have encountered coffee during his stay with the Adal king Sadadin's companions in 1401. Famous 16th-century Islamic scholar Ibn Hajar al-Haytami notes in his