Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Australian Defence Force
The Australian Defence Force is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia. It consists of the Royal Australian Navy, Australian Army, Royal Australian Air Force, the ADF has a strength of just over 80,000 full-time personnel and active reservists, and is supported by the Department of Defence and several other civilian agencies. During the first decades of the 20th century, the Australian Government established the armed services as separate organisations, each service had an independent chain of command. In 1976, the government made a change and established the ADF to place the services under a single headquarters. Over time, the degree of integration has increased and tri-service headquarters, the ADF is technologically sophisticated but relatively small. Although the ADFs 58,061 full-time active-duty personnel and 19,338 active reservists make it the largest military in Oceania, the ADF is supported by a significant budget by worldwide standards and is able to deploy forces in multiple locations outside Australia.
The ADFs legal standing draws on the executive government sections of the Australian Constitution, Section 51 gives the Commonwealth Government the power to make laws regarding Australias defence and defence forces. Section 68 of the Constitution sets out the ADFs command arrangements, the Section states that the command in chief of the naval and military forces of the Commonwealth is vested in the Governor-General as the Queens representative. In practice, the Governor-General does not play a part in the ADFs command structure. The Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control, the Minister acts on most matters alone, though the National Security Committee of Cabinet considers important matters. The Minister advises the Governor-General who acts as advised in the form of executive government. The Commonwealth Government has never required by the Constitution or legislation to seek parliamentary approval for decisions to deploy military forces overseas or go to war.
The ADFs current priorities are set out in the 2016 Defence White Paper, the first of these is to defend Australia from direct attack or coercion. The second priority is to contribute to the security of South East Asia, the third priority is to contribute to stability across the Indo-Pacific region and a rules-based global order which supports our interests. The white paper states that the government will place equal weight on the three priorities when developing the ADFs capabilities, Australia has maintained military forces since federation as a nation in January 1901. Shortly after Federation, the Australian Government established the Australian Army, in 1911, the Government established the Royal Australian Navy, which absorbed the Commonwealth Naval Force. The Army established the Australian Flying Corps in 1912 although this separated to form the Royal Australian Air Force in 1921, the services were not linked by a single chain of command, as they each reported to their own separate Minister and had separate administrative arrangements.
The three services saw action around the world during World War I and World War II, the importance of joint warfare was made clear to the Australian military during World War II when Australian naval and air units frequently served as part of single commands
Brazilian Armed Forces
The Brazilian Armed Forces is the unified military organization comprising the Brazilian Army, the Brazilian Navy and the Brazilian Air Force. With no serious external or internal threats, the forces are searching for a new role. They are expanding their presence in the Amazon under the Northern Corridor program, in 1994 Brazilian troops joined United Nations peacekeeping forces in five countries. Brazilian soldiers have been in Haiti since 2004 leading the United Nations Stabilization Mission, the Brazilian military, especially the army, has become more involved in civic-action programs, health care, and constructing roads and railroads across the nation. Although the 1988 constitution preserves the external and internal roles of the armed forces, the new charter changed the manner in which the military could exercise its moderating power. All military branches are part of the Ministry of Defence, the Brazilian Navy which is the oldest of the Brazilian Armed Forces, includes the Brazilian Marine Corps and the Brazilian Naval Aviation. 19–45 years of age for military service, conscript service obligation –9 to 12 months.
South America is a relatively peaceful continent in which wars are an event, as a result. Additionally, Brazil has no contested territorial disputes with any of its neighbours and neither does it have rivalries, like Chile, Brazil is the only country besides China and Russia that has land borders with 10 or more nations. Moreover, Brazil has 16,880 kilometers of borders and 7,367 km of coastline to be patrolled and defended. Overall, the Armed Forces have to defend 8.5 million km2 of land and patrol 4.4 million km2 of territorial waters – or Blue Amazon, in order to achieve this mission properly, significant quantities of both manpower and funding have to be made available. Since 1648 the Brazilian Armed Forces have been relied upon to fight in defense of Brazilian sovereignty, the Brazilian military has four times intervened militarily to overthrow the Brazilian government. It has built a tradition of participating in UN peacekeeping missions such as in Haiti, below a list of some of the historical events in which the Brazilian Armed Forces took part, First Battle of Guararapes, Decisive Brazilian victory that helped end Dutch occupation.
Due to this battle, the year 1648 is considered as the year of the foundation of the Brazilian Army. Luso-Brazilian invasion, Was an armed conflict between the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves and the partisans of José Artigas over the Banda Oriental, Brazilian War of Independence, Series of military campaigns that had as objective to cement Brazilian sovereignty and end Portuguese resistance. Confederation of the Equator, Was a short-lived rebellion that occurred in the region of Brazil during that nations struggle for independence from Portugal. Ragamuffin War, Was a Republican uprising that began in southern Brazil, in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina in 1835. The rebels, led by generals Bento Gonçalves da Silva and Antônio de Sousa Neto with the support of the Italian fighter Giuseppe Garibaldi, platine War, The Brazilian Empire and its allies went to war against the dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas of the Argentine Confederation
Russian Armed Forces
The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation are the military service of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces is the President of Russia, the Russian Armed Forces were formed in 1992. These are not normally included as branches of the Armed Forces but are used in armed conflicts. The number of personnel is specified by decree of the President of Russia, on 1 January 2008, a number of 2,019,629 units, including military of 1,134,800 units, was set. In 2010 the International Institute for Strategic Studies estimated that the Russian Armed Forces numbered about 1,027,000 active troops and in the region of 2,035,000 reserves. As opposed to personnel specified by decree, actual personnel in the forces are paid was reported by the Audit Chamber of Russia as 766,000 in October 2013, as of December 2016, the armed forces are at 93 percent of the required manpower. According to SIPRI, Russia spent $66.4 billion on arms in 2015, between the years 2005-2009 and 2010-2014, Russian exports of major weapons increased by 37 percent according to SIPRI.
According to the Russian Defense Ministry, share of weapons in the Armed Forces reached from 26 to 48% among different kinds of troops in December 2014. This was raised to 30. 5–70. 7% as of July 2015, average was 48 per cent over the first half of 2016. The Soviet Union officially dissolved on 31 December 1991, leaving the Soviet military in limbo, for the next year and a half various attempts to keep its unity and to transform it into the military of the Commonwealth of Independent States failed. Until 1995, it was planned to form at least 11 brigades numbering 3,000 to 5,000 each, National Guard military units were to be deployed in 10 regions, including in Moscow, and a number of other important cities and regions. By the end of September 1991 in Moscow the National Guard was about 15,000 strong, in the end, President Yeltsin tabled a decree On the temporary position of the Russian Guard, but it was not put into practice. On 14 February 1992 Shaposhnikov formally became Supreme Commander of the CIS Armed Forces, finally, on 7 May 1992 Yeltsin signed a decree establishing the armed forces and Yeltsin assumed the duties of the Supreme Commander.
In May 1992 General Colonel Pavel Grachev became the Minister of Defence, by August or December 1993 CIS military structures had become CIS military cooperation structures with all real influence lost. In the next few years, Russian forces withdrew from central and eastern Europe, the Armed Forces have several bases in foreign countries, especially on territory of the former Soviet Republics. A new military doctrine, promulgated in November 1993, implicitly acknowledged the contraction of the old Soviet military into a military power without global ambitions. Such change proved extremely difficult to achieve, under Pavel Grachev little military reform took place, though there was a plan to create more deployable mobile forces. Later Defence Minister Rodionov had good qualifications but did not manage to institute lasting change, only under Defence Minister Igor Sergeyev did a certain amount of limited reform begin, though attention focused upon the Strategic Rocket Forces
The Bundeswehr is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities. The States of Germany are not allowed to maintain armed forces of their own, the Bundeswehr is divided into a military part and a civil part with the armed forces administration. The military part of the defense force consists of the Heer, Luftwaffe, Streitkräftebasis, Zentraler Sanitätsdienst. In addition the Bundeswehr has approximately 27,600 reserve personnel. 2%, the Bundeswehr are in the process of integrating smaller NATO members Brigades into divisions of the German army. The Bundeswehr is to play a role as anchor army for smaller NATO states. 2 of 3 Royal Netherlands Army Brigades are now under German Command, in 2014 the 11th Airmobile Brigade, was integrated into the German Division of fast forces. Also the Dutch 43rd Mechanized Brigade, will be integrated into the 1st Panzer Division of the German army, with the integration starting at the beginning of 2016, and the unit becoming operational at the end of 2019.
The Dutch-German military cooperation are seen as an example for setting up a European defense union, the Czech Republics 4th Rapid Deployment Brigade, and Romania’s 81st Mechanized Brigade, will be integrated into Germany’s 10 Armoured Division and Rapid Response Forces Division. The name Bundeswehr was first proposed by the former Wehrmacht general and Liberal politician Hasso von Manteuffel, the Iron Cross is its official emblem. It is a symbol that has an association with the military of Germany. The Schwarzes Kreuz is derived from the black cross insignia of the medieval Teutonic knights, when the Bundeswehr was established in 1955, its founding principles were based on developing a completely new military force for the defence of West Germany. In this respect the Bundeswehr did not consider itself to be a successor to either the Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic or Hitlers Wehrmacht, neither does it adhere to the traditions of any former German military organization. One of the most visible traditions of the modern Bundeswehr is the Großer Zapfenstreich, the FRG reinstated this formal military ceremony in 1952, three years before the foundation of the Bundeswehr.
Today it is performed by a band with 4 fanfare trumpeters and timpani. The Zapfenstreich is only performed during national celebrations or solemn public commemorations and it can honour distinguished persons present such as the German federal president or provide the conclusion to large military exercises. Another important tradition in the modern German armed forces is the Gelöbnis, there are two kinds of oath, for conscripts/recruits it is a pledge but its a solemn vow for full-time personnel. The pledge is made annually on 20 July, the date on which a group of Wehrmacht officers attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler in 1944, recruits from the Bundeswehrs Wachbataillon make their vow at the Bendlerblock in Berlin. This was the headquarters of the resistance but where the officers were executed following its failure
Japan Self-Defense Forces
In recent years they have been engaged in international peacekeeping operations including UN peacekeeping. Recent tensions, particularly with North Korea, have reignited the debate over the status of the JSDF, deprived of any military capability after 1945, Japan had only the U. S. occupation forces and a minor domestic police force on which to rely for security. These sentiments were intensified in 1950 as occupation troops began to be moved to the Korean War theater and this left Japan virtually defenseless and vulnerable, and very much aware of the need to enter into a mutual defense relationship with the United States to guarantee the nations external security. Accordingly, in mid-1952, the National Police Reserve was expanded to 110,000 men, the enabling legislation for this was the 1954 Self-Defense Forces Act. In 1976 Japan ratified the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and reiterated its intention never to develop, use, on June 8,2006, the Cabinet of Japan endorsed a bill elevating the Defense Agency under the Cabinet Office to full-fledged cabinet-level Ministry of Defense.
This was passed by the Diet in December 2006 and has enforced since January 9,2007, the trauma of the last war had produced strong pacifist sentiments among the nation. Later cabinets interpreted these provisions as not denying the nation the inherent right to self-defense and, with the encouragement of the United States, antimilitarist public opinion, remained a force to be reckoned with on any defense-related issue. This was said to include the renaming of the Japan Self-Defense Forces into that of an army for national defense. Ex-ministers of the LDP, Shigeru Ishiba and Gen Nakatani were identified as the movers behind the proposed large scale rearmament of Japan. They presented a reform of the rearmament that was approved. Shigeru Ishiba called the current restrictions imposed after the Second World War on the size of the Japanese armed forces as long out of date, of course, first of all Japanese weapons would be directed against North Korea, and China. Japanese missile defense system is ramping up its power due to the increasing missile, either way the country will continue to spend billions of dollars on the military industry.
According to Japanese political analysts and politicians, it is due to the situation on the Korean peninsula. These two factors are considered a threat by Japan, and therefore the country will actively rearm, the justification is that by not defending/supporting an ally, it would weaken alliances and endanger Japan. The Prime Minister is the commander-in-chief of the Japan Self Defense Forces, the chain of Operational Authority runs from the Chief of Staff, Joint Staff to the Commanders of the several Operational Commands. Each service branches Chiefs of Staff have administrative control over their own services, the security environment around Japan has become increasingly severe as represented by nuclear and missile development by North Korea. Transnational threats grounded on technological progress including international terrorism and cyber attacks are increasing their significance, including its Self Defense Forces, has contributed to the maximum extent possible to the efforts to maintain and restore international peace and security, such as UN peacekeeping operations.
On December 17,2013, National Security Strategy was adopted by Cabinet decision, NSS sets the basic orientation of diplomatic and defense policies related to national security
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. The earliest Korean pottery dates to 8000 BC, with three kingdoms flourishing in the 1st century BC and its rich and vibrant culture left 19 UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritages of Humanity, the third largest in the world, along with 12 World Heritage Sites. Annexed into Imperial Japan in 1910, Korea was divided after its surrender in 1945, peace has since mostly continued with the two agreeing to work peacefully for reunification and the South solidifying peace as a regional power with the worlds 10th largest defence budget. South Koreas tiger economy soared at an average of 10% for over 30 years in a period of rapid transformation called the Miracle on the Han River. A long legacy of openness and focus on innovation made it successful, today, it is the worlds fifth largest exporter with the G20s largest budget surplus and highest credit rating of any country in East Asia.
It has free trade agreements with 75% of the economy and is the only G20 nation trading freely with China, the US. Since 1988, its constitution guarantees a liberal democracy with high government transparency, high personal freedoms led to the rise of a globally influential pop culture such as K-pop and K-drama, a phenomenon called the Korean Wave, known for its distinctive fashionable and trendy style. Home of the UN Green Climate Fund and GGGI, South Korea is a leader in low carbon growth, committed to helping developing countries as a major DAC. It is the third least ignorant country in the Index of Ignorance, ranking eighth highest for peaceful tolerance. It is the worlds largest spender on R&D per GDP, leading the OECD in graduates in science, the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a form of its name. The 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, and thus inherited its name, the modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Companys Hendrick Hamel.
After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the name for the entire territory. The new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon, in 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk. The name Daehan, which means great Han literally, derives from Samhan, the name Joseon was still widely used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted, there were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea. Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the part of the Korean Peninsula
Italian Armed Forces
The Italian Armed Forces encompass the Italian Army, the Italian Navy and the Italian Air Force. A fourth branch of the forces, known as the Carabinieri. These five forces have military status and are all organized along military lines, the President of the Italian Republic heads the armed forces as the President of the High Council of Defence established by article 87 of the Constitution of Italy. According to article 78, the Parliament has the authority to declare a state of war, the ground force of Italy, the Regio Esercito dates back to the unification of Italy in the 1850s and 1860s. During the Cold War the Army prepared itself to defend against a Warsaw Pact invasion from the east, since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, it has seen extensive peacekeeping service in Lebanon and Iraq. On 29 July 2004 it became a professional all-volunteer force when conscription was finally ended, the navy of Italy was created in 1861, following the proclamation of the formation of the Kingdom of Italy, as the Regia Marina.
The new navys baptism of fire came during the Third Italian War of Independence against the Austrian Empire, during the First World War, it spent its major efforts in the Adriatic Sea, fighting the Austro-Hungarian Navy. In the Second World War, it engaged the Royal Navy in a struggle for the control of the Mediterranean Sea. After the war, the new Marina Militare, being a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, has part in many coalition peacekeeping operations. The Guardia Costiera is a component of the navy, the air force of Italy was founded as an independent service arm on 28 March 1923, by King Vittorio Emanuele III as the Regia Aeronautica. During the 1930s, it was involved in its first military operations in Ethiopia in 1935, Italy entered World War II alongside Germany. After the armistice of 8 September 1943, Italy was divided two sides, and the same fate befell the Regia Aeronautica. The Air Force was split into the Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force in the south aligned with the Allies, when Italy was made a republic by referendum, the air force was given its current name Aeronautica Militare.
The Arma dei Carabinieri is the gendarmerie and military police of Italy, the corps was instituted in 1814 by King Victor Emmanuel I of Savoy with the aim of providing the Kingdom of Sardinia with a police corps, it is therefore older than Italy itself. The new force was divided into divisions on the scale of one division for each province of Italy, the Italian unification saw the number of divisions increased, and in 1861 the Carabinieri were appointed the First Force of the new national military organization. In recent years Carabinieri units have been dispatched on peacekeeping missions, including Kosovo, Italy did take part in the 1982 Multinational Force in Lebanon along with US, French and British troops. As part of Operation Enduring Freedom, Italy contributed to the operation in Afghanistan. Italian forces have contributed to ISAF, the NATO force in Afghanistan, Italian forces command a multinational engineer task force and have deployed a platoon of Carabinieri military police
British Armed Forces
They promote Britains wider interests, support international peacekeeping efforts, and provide humanitarian aid. Repeatedly emerging victorious from conflicts has allowed Britain to establish itself as one of the leading military. The Commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces is the British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, the UK Parliament approves the continued existence of the armed forces by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years, as required by the Bill of Rights 1689. The armed forces are managed by the Defence Council of the Ministry of Defence, with the Acts of Union 1707, the armed forces of England and Scotland were merged into the armed forces of the Kingdom of Great Britain. Britain feared that Russian expansionism in the region would eventually threaten the Empire in India and this ultimately led to British involvement in the Crimean War against the Russian Empire. The beginning of the twentieth century served to reduce tensions between Britain and the Russian Empire, partly due to the emergence of a unified German Empire.
Allied victory resulted in the defeat of the Central Powers, the end of the German Empire, the Treaty of Versailles, once again tensions accumulated in European relations, and following Germanys invasion of Poland in September 1939, the Second World War began. The conflict was the most widespread in British history, with British Empire and Commonwealth troops fighting in campaigns from Europe and North Africa, to the Middle East, approximately 390,000 British Empire and Commonwealth troops lost their lives. Allied victory resulted in the defeat of the Axis powers and the establishment of the United Nations, reflecting Britains new role in the world and the escalation of the Cold War, the country became a founding member of the NATO military alliance in 1949. By the mid-1970s, the forces had reconfigured to focus on the responsibilities allocated to them by NATO. While NATO obligations took increased prominence, Britain nonetheless found itself engaged in a number of low-intensity conflicts, however the Dhofar Rebellion and The Troubles emerged as the primary operational concerns of the armed forces.
Perhaps the most important conflict during the Cold War, at least in the context of British defence policy, was the Falklands War. Since the end of the Cold War, an international role for the armed forces has been pursued, with re-structuring to deliver a greater focus on expeditionary warfare. In addition to the campaign, the British Army has trained and supplied allies on the ground. Figures released by the Ministry of Defence on 31 March 2016 show that 7,185 British Armed Forces personnel have lost their lives in medal earning theatres since the end of the Second World War. As Sovereign and head of state, Queen Elizabeth II is Head of the Armed Forces, the Queen, remains the ultimate authority of the military, with officers and personnel swearing allegiance to the monarch. It has been claimed that this includes the power to prevent unconstitutional use of the armed forces, responsibility for the management of the forces is delegated to a number of committees, the Defence Council, Chiefs of Staff Committee, Defence Management Board and three single-service boards.
The Defence Council, composed of representatives of the services
Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia
The Royal Saudi Arabian Armed Forces consists of the Saudi Arabian Army, the Royal Saudi Air Force, the Royal Saudi Navy, the Royal Saudi Air Defense, and the Royal Saudi Strategic Missile Force. In addition the Saudi Arabian National Guard, which is one of the three branches of the Joint Forces of the Kingdom. The national guard is under the control of the Ministry of National Guard, instead of the Ministry of Defence, the Saudi Arabian Royal Guard. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has one of the defence forces in the Middle East. The kingdom spends 25% of its budget, or about $88 billion, on its military, in terms of manpower, Saudi Arabia has about 688,000 active personnel in its military, with 300,000 army troops. Saudi Arabia has more than 200,000 men in its national guard and 25,000 tribal levies, the navy has about 60,000 members, air defense forces and strategic rocket forces about 40,000 soldiers. In addition to the air forces with more than 63,000 active employees, there is an intelligence service.
The Saudi Arabian National Guard is not a reserve but a fully operational force, and originated out of Abdul Azizs tribal military-religious force. Its modern existence, however, is attributable to it being effectively Abdullahs private army since the 1960s and, crown Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz was Saudi Arabias Minister of Defence and Aviation from 1962 to 2011. The vice minister, Abdulrahman bin Abdulaziz, was his full brother and his oldest son, Khalid bin Sultan, was appointed assistant minister in 2001 and was in office until April 2013. In 1987, members of the air force and navy are mainly recruits from groups of people without a strong identity from the Nejd tribal system, spending on defense and security has increased significantly since the mid-1990s and was about US$67 billion in 2013. Saudi Arabia ranks among the top five nations in the world in government spending for its military and its modern, high-technology arsenal makes Saudi Arabia among the worlds most densely armed nations, with its military equipment being supplied primarily by the United States and Britain.
According to SIPRI, in 2010–14 Saudi Arabia became the second largest arms importer. Major imports in 2010–14 included 45 combat aircraft from the UK,38 combat helicopters from the USA,4 tanker aircraft from Spain and over 600 armoured vehicles from Canada. Saudi Arabia has a long list of outstanding orders for arms, including 27 more combat aircraft from the UK,154 combat aircraft from the USA, the United States sold more than $80 billion in military hardware between 1951 and 2006 to the Saudi military. In comparison, the Israel Defense Forces received $53.6 billion in U. S. military grants between 1949 and 2007. On 20 October 2010, U. S. State Department notified Congress of its intention to make the biggest arms sale in American history—an estimated $60.5 billion purchase by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The package represented an improvement in the offensive capability of the Saudi armed forces
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government