Automotive industry in India
The automotive industry in India is one of the largest in the world. In 1897, the first car ran on an Indian road. Through the 1930s, cars were imports only, in small numbers. An embryonic automotive industry emerged in India in the 1940s. Hindustan Motors was launched in 1942, long-time competitor Premier in 1944, building Chrysler and Fiat products respectively. Mahindra & Mahindra was established by two brothers in 1945, began assembly of Jeep CJ-3A utility vehicles. Following independence in 1947, the Government of India and the private sector launched efforts to create an automotive-component manufacturing industry to supply to the automobile industry. In 1953, an import substitution programme was launched, the import of built-up cars began to be restricted. In 1952, the government appointed the first Tariff Commission, one of whose purposes was to come out with a feasibility plan for the indigenization of the Indian automobile industry. In 1953, the commission submitted their report, which recommended categorizing existing Indian car companies according to their manufacturing infrastructure, with licensed capacity to manufacture a certain number of vehicles, with capacity increases allowable, as per demands, in the future.
The Tariff Commission recommendations were implemented with new policies that would exclude companies that only imported parts for assembly, as well as those with no Indian partner. In 1954, following the Tariff Commission implementation, General Motors and Rootes Group, which had assembly-only plants in Mumbai, decided to move out of India; the Tariff commission policies, including similar restrictions that applied to other industries, came to be known as the "license raj", which proved to be the greatest undoing of the Indian automotive industry, where bureaucratic red tape ended up causing demand to outstrip supply, with month-long waiting periods for cars and motorcycles. Passenger Cars Hindustan Motors, Calcutta - technical collaboration with Morris Motors to manufacture Morris Oxford models that would become HM Ambassador. Addison's - An Amalgamations Group company, was the agent for Nuffield's Morris and Riley cars, Chrysler's Plymouth, De Soto cars and trucks; the first Morris Minor assembled in India and the first car assembled in Madras was driven out from Addison's twin-plants on Smith Road by Anantharamakrishnan on 15 November 1950.
Premier Automobiles, Bombay - technical collaboration with Chrysler to manufacture Dodge and Desoto models and with Fiat to manufacture the 1100D models which would with Premier Padmini range. Standard Motor Products of India, Madras - technical collaboration from Standard-Triumph to manufacture Standard Vanguard, Standard 8, 10 and Standard Herald. Utility and Light Commercial Vehicles Vehicle Factory Jabalpur - started manufacturing Jonga Light Utility Vehicles and Vahan 1 Ton in India, under license from Nissan of Japan, they were the main troop carriers of the Indian Armed Forces and much powerful than any other vehicle of their class. Mahindra & Mahindra, Bombay - technical collaboration with Willys to manufacture CJ Series Jeep. Bajaj Tempo, Poona now Force Motors - technical collaboration with Tempo to manufacture Tempo Hanseat, a three-wheeler and Tempo Viking and Hanomag known as Tempo Matador in India. Standard Motor Products of India - technical collaboration from Standard has licence to manufacture the Standard Atlas passenger van with panel van and one-tonne one tonne pickup variants.
Medium and Heavy Commercial Vehicles Vehicle Factory Jabalpur - started manufacturing Shaktiman trucks with technical assistance from MAN SE of Germany. The trucks were the main logistics vehicle of the Indian Army with several specialist variants. VFJ still is the sole supplier of B vehicles to the Indian Armed Forces. Heavy Vehicles Factory - was established in 1965 near Chennai to produce tanks in India. Since its inception, HVF has produced all the tanks of India, including Vijayanta, Ajeya and their variants for the Indian Army. HVF is the only tank manufacturing facility of India. Tata Motors, Poona known as TELCO - technical collaboration with Mercedes Benz to manufacture medium to heavy commercial vehicles both Bus and Trucks. Ashok Motors Ashok Leyland, Madras - technical collaboration with Leyland Motors to manufacture medium to heavy commercial vehicles both Bus and Trucks. Ashok Motors discontinued its Austin venture formed in 1948 to sell Austin A40 and retooled the factory to make trucks and buses.
Hindustan Motors - technical collaboration with General Motors to manufacture the Bedford range of medium lorry and bus chassis. Premier Automobiles - technical collaboration with Chrysler to manufacture the Dodge, Fargo range of medium lorry, panel vans, mini-bus and bus chassis. Simpsons & Co, Madras - part of Amalgamations Group - technical collaboration with Ford to manufacture medium lorry and bus chassis, but did not utilise that option until the 1980s. Scooters and Motorcycles known as Bajaj Chetak, by Bajaj became the largest sold scooter in the world Many of the two-wheelers manufacturers were granted licenses in the early 1960s, well after the tariff commission was enabled. Royal Enfield, Madras - technical collaboration with Royal Enfield, UK to manufacture the Enfield Bullet range of motorcycles. Bajaj Auto, Poona - technical collaboration with Piaggio, Italy to manufacture their best selling Vespa range of scooters and three wheelers with commercial option as well. Automobile Products of India, Bombay (Better known for API Lambretta - technical collaboration with Innocenti of Milan, Italy to manufacture their Lambretta range of mopeds and three-wheelers.
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Automotive industry in Bangladesh
The automotive industry in Bangladesh is the third largest in South Asia. Bangladesh has a few large car plants which assemble passenger cars from Mitsubishi and Proton, as well as commercial vehicles from Hino and Tata. Motorcycles, auto rickshaws and the locally designed Mishuk three-wheeler are manufactured in Bangladesh. Pragoti Industries Limited is among the largest automobile assemblers in Bangladesh; the company has assembled over 50,000 vehicles since its inception in 1966. In February 2010, Japanese car manufacturer Mitsubishi proposed to the Bangladesh government to locally assemble the Mitsubishi Pajero Sport in collaboration with Pragoti. Operations commenced with an annual production output of around 500 units. In 2009, the Malaysian Agate Group proposed to build a car manufacturing plant in Bangladesh in cooperation with Walton, which itself is preparing to produce motorcycles. In the same year, car manufacturing company TagAZ announced that they would build their third factory in Bangladesh, aiming for exporting.
The plant is to be completed by 2012. In March 2015, PHP Group and Proton announced plans to assemble Proton cars in Bangladesh. A new Tk 400 crore assembly plant would be constructed in Chittagong to facilitate an annual production output of 1,200 units. In May 2017, PHP Automobiles launched the Bangladeshi-built Proton Prevé; the company intends to market the Prevé as an alternative to used imported cars which dominate the local market. In August 2018, Foton Motor, a Chinese vehicle manufacturer, announced to set up a plant in Bangladesh by next year to assemble commercial vehicles in a joint venture with ACI Motors Bangladesh started manufacturing of Motorcycles in 2000's. Walton made the first production of motorcycles in the country. Runner Automobiles was the second company to manufacture motorcycles in Bangladesh, started in 2012. After many other local companies got engaged in producing of motorcycles; some local companies like RoadMaster Motors, Jamuna Automobiles are few of them In 2014, Hero MotoCorp made a re-enter in Bangladesh market with the hands of local Nitol-Niloy Group and expressed their interests to set up a manufacturing plant in couple of years.
In 2017, Hero MotoCorp launched their motorcycle manufacturing plant in a joint venture with their local partner Niloy Motors In 2016, Runner Automobiles signed a collaboration agreement with UM Motorcycles to manufacture UM motorcycles in Bangladesh under the name of UM-Runner. The motorcycles will be manufactured at Runner’s motorcycle manufacturing facilities at Bhaluka while UM International LLC will provide R&D support in technological & engineering fields as well as global component sourcing. Bangladeshi manufactured UM-Runner motorcycles entered the market in the second quadrant of 2018 In September 2012, A joint venture deal was signed between Honda and Bangladesh Steel and Engineering Corporation to form Honda's first Bangladeshi subsidiary Bangladesh Honda Private Limited. Honda has 70% stake in the joint venture. After Honda committed to set up a motorcycle manufacturing plant in the country. In November 2017, Honda made a groundbreaking ceremony to mark the start of construction of their motorcycle manufacturing plant in Munshiganj District, Dhaka Division in Bangladesh.
In November 2018, Honda launched their first motorcycle manufacturing plant in Munshiganj Pragoti Bangladesh Machine Tools Factory Walton Hi-Tech Industries Limited Runner Automobiles PHP Automobiles Bangladesh Honda Private Limited Niloy-Hero Motors RoadMaster Motors Aftab Automobiles Jamuna Automobiles
Light commercial vehicle
A light commercial vehicle is the official term used within the European Union, New Zealand, in both Canada and Ireland, for a commercial carrier vehicle with a gross vehicle weight of no more than 3.5 metric tons. Qualifying light commercial vehicles include pickup trucks and three-wheelers – all commercially based goods or passenger carrier vehicles; the LCV concept was created as a compact truck and is optimised to be tough built, have low operating costs and powerful yet fuel efficient engines, to be utilised in intra-city operations. All of the above light commercial vehicles are sold through dealer networks. A car dealer will have a franchise for the sale of a manufacturer's cars and the LCVs will be sold as an addition; the exceptions to these are Mercedes-Benz, who have a dedicated commercial vehicle network for heavy and light commercial vehicles, Volkswagen whose franchised dealers have standalone van centres and Isuzu Truck. Isuzu Truck market commercial vehicles up to 18 tonnes GVW and Iveco market their heavy truck range with their Daily van to complement this.
Many franchised dealers retail used LCVs, with the poorer quality examples sent to specialist auctions for sale. There is a large network of independent used commercial vehicle retailers who retail thousands of used commercial vehicles every month. LCV dealers are using the Internet to help sell their vehicles in addition to the traditional print media. Enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle Light Haulage Truck classification
Automotive industry in France
France was a pioneer in the automotive industry and is the 11th-largest automobile manufacturer in the world by 2015 unit production and the third-largest in Europe. It had been the 4th-largest from the end of World War II up to 2000. France is home to two major automaking companies: PSA Group the 2nd-largest automaker in Europe and the 11th-largest of the world in 2015. Renault Group the 3rd-largest automaker in Europe and the 10th-largest of the world in 2015; the France-based Renault Trucks is a major producer of commercial vehicles and is owned by Volvo AB. Both PSA and Renault produce a large number of vehicles outside France. French-designed cars have won the European Car of the Year and World Car of the Year awards numerous times; the Citroën DS took third place in Car of the Century award and has been named the most beautiful car of all time by Classic & Sports Car magazine. French automotive manufacturers were long dominant in francophone Africa, but beginning in the 1970s the Japanese were making inroads due to lower prices and the availability of suitable light offroad cars and trucks.
1769 - Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot builds the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle.1807 - François Isaac de Rivaz invents a hydrogen powered internal combustion engine. 1859 - Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir develops an internal combustion engine. 1884 - Edouard Delamare-Deboutteville is credited in France with building the first gasoline-powered automobile. 1885 - Amédée Bollée begins manufacturing steam-powered vehicles. 1887 - Léon Serpollet begins building steam-powered vehicles. 1887 - Panhard et Levassor established as a car manufacturing concern by René Panhard and Émile Levassor, with the first car produced in 1891. 1890 - Armand Peugeot produces a four-wheeled car powered by a Daimler gasoline fueled internal combustion engine. 1894 - Albert de Dion and Georges Bouton produce a single cylinder gasoline-powered engine and in 1898 produced a four-wheeler. They had built steam-powered vehicles beginning in 1883. 1894 - Delahaye is founded by Emile Delahaye. The company discontinues auto production.
1896 - Armand Peugeot starts to build and fit his own engines to his cars. 1896 - Léon Bollée builds gasoline-powered cars. 1898 - The Renault brothers, Louis and Fernand, sell their first car. 1903 - France remains the world's leading automaker, producing 30,124 cars as against 11,235 cars produced in the USA.1903 - Hotchkiss et Cie is founded. The company is bought by Peugeot in 1950, but discontinues auto production by 1955. 1905 - Delage is founded by Louis Delage. Company is bought by Delahaye in 1935 but ceases auto production in 1954. 1910 - Ettore Bugatti started the Bugatti company in Molsheim. Production ends in 1956. 1911 - The French branch of Hispano-Suiza is founded. Auto production is ended in 1938. 1919 - Avions Voisin is founded by Gabriel Voisin. Production ceases in 1939. After the war, Voisin designed the Biscuter. 1919 - Citroën founded by Andre Citroën. 1920 - Darracq merges with Sunbeam and Talbot, creating what became Talbot-Lago in 1935. Company is bought by Simca in 1959. 1921 - Amilcar is founded.
The company merges with Hotchkiss et Cie in 1937 and ceases production in 1939. 1921 - Salmson begins auto production. In 1957 the company is bought by Renault. 1929 - French annual automobile production peaked at 253,000 passenger cars, a level that would not be matched till after the Second World War.1933 - With French passenger car production at 140,635 units, France lost its place as Europe's top automobile producer to Great Britain 220,775. The French roads reflected three decades during much of which the French auto-industry had led the world, with a "car parc" of 1,448,000, ahead of Britain which had 1,210,880 cars registered and of Germany with only 510,680 cars.1934 - Simca established by Henri Pigozzi to build Fiat cars. 1934 - Citroën introduces the Traction Avant, featuring front wheel drive and unitary construction. Citroën is taken over by the Michelin Tire Company. 1934 - Matford begins building Ford cars, but ceases in 1939. In 1947, the company sells cars under the Ford name. 1936 - While the British and German economies powered ahead during the 1930s, growth in the French economy was at best tentative, with a period of destructive strikes and economic paralysis during the middle years of the decade.
In Germany the Hitler government treated the German auto-industry to a central role in a radical economic strategy driven by what can be seen as a Keynesian approach to "fiscal stimulus". In 1936 France fell from second to third place among Europe's auto-producing nations, recording production of 204,000 cars, while Germany's production amounted to 213,117 passenger cars.1945 - Renault becomes state owned and is called “Régie nationale des usines Renault ”. 1945 - The Pons Plan reflected government determination to structure the French auto-industry according to priorities identified by politicians and civil servants. A select group of auto manufacturers is favored. A punitive fiscal horsepower tax is imposed on larger engines leading to the demise of most of the Grandes Routières such as Bugatti, Delahaye, Hotchkiss et Cie and Talbot-Lago by the mid-1950s. 1946 - Renault introduces the Renault 4CV model. 1948 - Citroen introduces the Citroen 2CV model, a small front-wheel drive saloon marketed as a "people's car" in the same vein as Germany's Volkswagen Beetle.
1948 - Peugeot introduces the Peugeot 203 model. 1954 - Facel Vega
Automotive industry in Mexico
This is an article about the automotive industry in Mexico. In 1903, motorcars first arrived in Mexico City, totalling 136 cars in that year and rising to 800 by 1906; this encouraged president Porfirio Díaz, to create both the first Mexican highway code and, along with this, a tax for car owners which would be abolished in 1911 with Francisco I. Madero's successful campaign against Díaz's dictatorship at the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution. In 1910, Daimler and Renault both established small facilities for the local assembly of vehicles for the Mexican government at the behest of Porfirio Díaz, but these functioned for little more than a few months before being destroyed in the Mexican Revolution. A short time after the end of the armed struggle, Buick became the first automobile producer to be established in Mexico, beginning in 1921. In 1925, Ford Motor Company was established and began manufacturing vehicles in the country, and, as of 2016, remains the longest-running brand in the country.
In 1961, Mexico produced its first domestic vehicle, a small truck called the Rural Ramírez, produced by the Ramirez truck company. Many car makers were operational by 1961 when the first decline of the Mexican economy showed up. In the early 1960s, government regulations forced car companies to assemble cars in Mexico, using local as well as imported components; the idea was to develop a national car industry in the country, to promote employment and technological advances. Those companies that would not comply with these regulations left the country; the American Big Three remained along with American Motors, Volkswagen and Borgward. In this same year, due to the announcement of the upcoming 1968 Summer Olympics to be held in Mexico, the Government reissued Diaz's car ownership tax, purportedly to afford the construction of new facilities for such an event. However, the tax remained to finance the 1970 FIFA World Cup held in Mexico; the tax remains today in most states, it must be paid year after year.
This tax is variable depending of the car's value, number of cylinders, type of transmission, air conditioning and further features, adding up to a payment of up to 10% of the car's total value. A second tax exists as well when purchasing a new vehicle called Impuesto sobre Automóviles Nuevos or ISAN depending on a vehicle's specifications and cost. Unlike the Tenencia, this tax is paid only once. Federal law requires all listed car prices in media or dealerships to have the standard 16% VAT tax and ISAN included in the listed price. Since many Mexican drivers default on paying this tax, the Government started taking countermeasures. However, due to this being perceived as uncontrollable, politicians started making proposals to abolish this tax, remarkably Felipe Calderón. Tenencia has, as of 2011, only been abolished in Querétaro. On 4 March 2011, President Calderón announced Tenencia will be abolished by 2012 in all states, but not in the Federal District which comprises most of Mexico City.
The growth of Mexico's economy during the late'90s stimulated car sales in Mexico and most of the retired carmakers re-established themselves in the country. Makers such as Honda and Porsche arrived for the first time during the last years of the 20th Century, others such as Peugeot and Mercedes-Benz gave Mexico a "second chance", both re-establishing in 1997. Annual passenger vehicle sales in Mexico reached the one million milestone in 2005; the increasing sales figures encouraged carmakers to offer cars with alternative fuels like the Honda Civic Hybrid and the Volkswagen Jetta TDI. Such cars hadn't been available in Mexico since the first diesel-powered Volkswagen Caribe in the late 70's and early 80's; this results in a petrol ONLY car market in which drivers cannot reap the potential benefits of diesel automobiles. Diesel cars are not suited/permitted for every day driving in Mexico City. Mexican studio Mastretta Cars first announced the creation of their MXT through Automóvil Panamericano magazine in May 2007.
The vehicle is the first Mexican sports car built, features specifications similar to those of Lotus Elise and Porsche Cayman. The production of MXT started in January 2011. In 2010, Mexican bus maker Cimex announced that it was expanding into the passenger vehicle field and was developing a pickup truck called the Conin which would be Mexico's first domestic pickup truck when expected to enter production in 2013. To date, 42 makers have official representation in the country with nearly 400 different models, making Mexico one of the most varied automotive markets in the world; the automotive sector accounts for 17.6% of Mexico's manufacturing sector. Mexico is the second largest automobile manufacturing nation in the Western Hemisphere, after the United States, having produced 4 million vehicles in 2017; the industry engages in research and development. The "Big Three" have been operating in Mexico since the 1930s, while Volkswagen and Nissan built their plants in the 1960s. In Puebla alone, 70 industrial part-makers cluster around Volkswagen.
In the 2010s, expansion of
A motor vehicle known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle wheeled, that does not operate on rails and is used for the transportation of people or cargo. The vehicle propulsion is provided by an engine or motor an internal combustion engine or an electric motor, or some combination of the two, such as hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids. For legal purposes, motor vehicles are identified within a number of vehicle classes including cars, motorcycles, off-road vehicles, light trucks and regular trucks; these classifications vary according to the legal codes of each country. ISO 3833:1977 is the standard for road vehicle types and definitions. To avoid requiring handicapped persons from having to possess an operator's license to use one, or requiring tags and insurance, powered wheelchairs will be excluded by law from being considered motor vehicles; as of 2010, there were more than one billion motor vehicles in use in the world, excluding off-road vehicles and heavy construction equipment.
Global vehicle ownership per capita in 2010 was 148 vehicles in operation per 1000 people. China has the largest motor vehicle fleet in the world, with 322 million motor vehicles registered at the end of September 2018; the United States has the highest vehicle ownership per capita in the world, with 832 vehicles in operation per 1000 people in 2016. China became the world's largest new car market in 2009. In 2011, a total of 80 million cars and commercial vehicles were built, led by China, with 18.4 million motor vehicles manufactured. The US publisher Ward's estimates that as of 2010, there were 1.015 billion motor vehicles in use in the world. This figure represents the number of cars and buses, but does not include off-road vehicles or heavy construction equipment; the world vehicle population passed the 500 million-unit mark in 1986, from 250 million motor vehicles in 1970. Between 1950 and 1970, the vehicle population doubled every 10 years. Two US researchers estimate that the world's fleet will reach 2 billion motor vehicles by 2020, with cars representing at least 50% of all vehicles.
China’s and India’s automobile fleets are expected to grow at an annual rate of around 7 or 8%, while the slowest growth is expected in the United States, with less than 1% a year, Western Europe, with 1 to 2%. Navigant Consulting forecasts that the global stock of light-duty motor vehicles will reach 2 billion units in 2035. Global vehicle ownership in 2010 was 148 vehicles in operation per 1000 people, a ratio of 1:6.75 vehicles to people down from 150 vehicles per 1000 people in 2009, a rate of 1:6.63 vehicles to people. The global rate of motorization increased in 2013 to 174 vehicles per 1000 people. In developing countries vehicle ownership rates exceed 200 cars per 1,000 population; the following table summarizes the evolution of vehicle registrations in the world from 1960 to 2012: The 27 European Union member countries had a fleet of over 256 million in 2008, passenger cars accounted for 87% of the union's fleet. The five largest markets, Italy, the UK, Spain, accounted for 68% of the region's total registered fleet in 2008.
The EU-27 member countries had in 2009 an estimated ownership rate of 473 passenger cars per 1000 people. According to Ward's, Italy had the second highest vehicle ownership per capita in 2010, with 690 vehicles per 1000 people. Germany had a rate of motorization of 534 vehicles per 1000 people and the UK of 525 vehicles per 1000 people, both in 2008. France had a rate of 575 vehicles per 1000 people and Spain 608 vehicles per 1000 people in 2007. Portugal, between 1991 and 2002 grew up 220% on its motorization rate, having had in 2002, 560 cars per 1000 people. Italy leads in alternative fuel vehicles, with a fleet of 779,090 natural gas vehicles as of June 2012, the largest NGV fleet in Europe. Sweden, with 225,000 flexible-fuel vehicles, has the largest flexifuel fleet in Europe by mid-2011. More than one million plug-in electric passenger cars and vans have been registered in Europe by June 2018, the world's second largest regional plug-in stock after China. Norway is the leading plug-in market with over 296,00 units registered as of December 2018.
In October 2018, Norway became the world's first country where 10% of all passenger cars on the road are plug-in electrics. The Norwegian plug-in car segment market share has been the highest in the world for several years, achieving 39.2% in 2017, 49.1% in 2018. The United States has the second largest fleet of motor vehicles in the world after China; as of 2016, had a motor vehicles stock of 259.14 million, of which, 246 million were light duty vehicles, consisting of 112.96 million passenger cars and 133 million light trucks. A total of 11.5 million heavy trucks were registered at the end 2016 Vehicle ownership per capita in the U. S. is the highest in the world, the U. S. Department of Energy reports a motorization rate of 831.9 vehicles in operation per 1000 people in 2016, or a ratio of 1:1.2 vehicles to people. According to USDoE, the rate of motorization peaked in 2007 at 844.5 vehicles per 1000 people. In terms of licensed drivers, as of 2009 the country had 1.0 vehicle for every licensed driver, 1.87 vehicles per household.
Passenger car registrations in the United States declined -11.5% in 2017 and -12.8% in 2018. As of 2016, the stock of alternative fuel vehicles in the United States included over 20 million flex-fuel cars and light trucks, the world's second largest flexible-fuel fleet in the world after Brazil. However, actual use of ethanol fuel is limited due to the lac
Automotive industry in Slovakia
Since 2007, Slovakia has been the world's largest producer of cars per capita, with a total of 1,040,000 cars manufactured in 2016 alone in a country with 5 million people. With production of more than million cars in 2016, Slovakia was 20th in the list of worldwide car production by country and the 7th largest car producer in the European Union. Car manufacture is the largest industry in Slovakia with a share of 12% on the Slovak GDP in 2013, 41% of industrial production and 26% of Slovakia's export. 80,000 people were employed in the automotive industry in 2014. 1,500 people were employed when Jaguar Land Rover started production in Nitra in 2018. The "Drndička" was the first automobile to be constructed in Slovakia and was constructed by the blacksmith Michal Majer in 1913, he copied a car owned by the Bulgarian King, at that time travelling through Slovakia. After World War I Slovakia became a part of the newly formed Czechoslovakia. In the Czech part, the industry had been influenced by Germans - see for example the dispute about the design of Tatra T97 by Hans Ledwinka vs Volkswagen Beetle design by Ferdinand Porsche, born in Bohemia.
The long tradition of Czech car production started in 1897, when the first Czech car was produced in the factory in Kopřivnice, followed by the first lorry in 1898. Škoda Auto has an unbroken history. The first Škoda motorcycle made its debut in 1899 and in 1905 the firm started manufacturing automobiles. Before World War II the automotive industry was a significant and advanced part of the economy of the former Czechoslovakia. Post-war socialist Czechoslovakia restored auto manufacturing with the original brands and became the second largest in the Soviet block outside the USSR; the Czechoslovakian producers Skoda and Avia, Karosa Jawa and ČZ all had their production in the present-day Czech Republic, not in Slovakia. Companies in Slovakia, including Matador Púchov and VSŽ Košice, were supplying parts and components to the Czech part of the republic but some final production of Skoda cars was established in Slovakia as Bratislava Automotive Works and Trnava Automotive Works; some Tatra car production was moved to Banovce nad Bebravou.
However, following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the Czech Republic inherited most of its auto production capabilities and since has grown fast through foreign investment. Although Volkswagen bought Skoda's production sites in Slovakia in 1991, it gained full control only in 1999 when Volkswagen Slovakia was established, the real beginning of the rapid development of the auto-industry in Slovakia. Slovakia is one of the significant European and World's automaker, having an annual output of more than 1 million and exports to more than 100 countries. Auto manufacturers in Slovakia include 4 OEM automobile production plants: Volkswagen's in Bratislava, PSA Peugeot Citroën's in Trnava and Kia Motors' Žilina Plant and Jaguar Land Rover in Nitra. There are many other tier suppliers. Small car line: Volkswagen's Up family: Volkswagen up!, Škoda Citigo, SEAT Mii Regular car line: VW luxury SUVs: Volkswagen Touareg, Audi Q7, Porsche Cayenne Peugeot 207 from 2006 Citroën C3 Picasso from middle of 2008 Peugeot 208 Kia Cee'd Kia Sportage third generation K-1 Attack Land Rover Discovery Slovak Society of Automotive Engineers Professional mba Automotive Industry Faculty of Mechanical Engineering STU in Bratislava In Slovak only: Slovak automotive industry association / Zväz automobilového priemyslu SR In Slovak only: Department of automobiles and combustion engines of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering STU in Bratislava / Oddelenie automobilov, lodí a spaľovacích motorov