The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The germ of a cereal is the reproductive part that germinates to grow into a plant. Along with bran, germ is a by-product of the milling that produces refined grain products. Cereal grains and their components, such as wheat germ oil, rice bran oil, maize, may be used as a source from which vegetable oil is extracted, or used directly as a food ingredient; the germ is retained as an integral part of whole-grain foods. Non-whole grain methods of milling are intended to isolate the endosperm, ground into flour, with removal of both the husk and the germ. Removal of bran is aimed at producing a flour with a white rather than a brown color, eliminating fiber, which reduces nutrition; the germ is rich in polyunsaturated fats and so germ removal improves the storage qualities of flour. Wheat germ or wheatgerm is a concentrated source of several essential nutrients, including vitamin E, phosphorus, thiamin and magnesium, as well as essential fatty acids and fatty alcohols, it is a good source of fiber.
White bread is made using flour that has had the bran removed. Wheat germ can be added to protein shakes, muffins, cereals, smoothies and other goods. Wheat germ can become rancid if not properly stored in a refrigerator or freezer and away from sunlight; some manufacturers prevent rancidity by storing wheat germ in vacuum-sealed glass containers, or by placing an oxygen absorber sachet inside air-tight packaging. In molecular biology, wheat germ extract is used to carry out cell-free in vitro translation experiments since the plant embryo contains all the macromolecular components necessary for translating mRNA into amino acids but low levels of its own mRNA. Wheat germ is useful in biochemistry since it contains lectins that bind to certain glycoproteins. Endosperm Health food Wheat germ oil Samanu
Spelt known as dinkel wheat or hulled wheat, is a species of wheat cultivated since 5000 BC. Spelt was an important staple in parts of Europe from the Bronze Age to medieval times. Spelt is sometimes considered a subspecies of the related species common wheat, in which case its botanical name is considered to be Triticum aestivum subsp. Spelta, it is a hexaploid wheat. Spelt has a complex history, it is a wheat species known from genetic evidence to have originated as a occurring hybrid of a domesticated tetraploid wheat such as emmer wheat and the wild goat-grass Aegilops tauschii. This hybridisation must have taken place in the Near East because this is where Aegilops tauschii grows, it must have taken place before the appearance of common or bread wheat in the archaeological record about 8,000 years ago. Genetic evidence shows that spelt wheat can arise as the result of hybridisation of bread wheat and emmer wheat, although only at some date following the initial Aegilops–tetraploid wheat hybridisation.
The much appearance of spelt in Europe might thus be the result of a second, hybridisation between emmer and bread wheat. Recent DNA evidence supports an independent origin for European spelt through this hybridisation. Whether spelt has two separate origins in Asia and Europe, or single origin in the Near East, is unresolved. In Greek mythology spelt was a gift to the Greeks from the goddess Demeter; the earliest archaeological evidence of spelt is from the fifth millennium BC in Transcaucasia, north-east of the Black Sea, though the most abundant and best-documented archaeological evidence of spelt is in Europe. Remains of spelt have been found in some Neolithic sites in Central Europe. During the Bronze Age, spelt spread in central Europe. In the Iron Age, spelt became a principal wheat species in southern Germany and Switzerland, by 500 BC, it was in common use in southern Britain. References to the cultivation of spelt wheat in Biblical times, in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and in ancient Greece are incorrect and result from confusion with emmer wheat.
In the Middle Ages, spelt was cultivated in parts of Switzerland, Germany, northern France and the Netherlands. Spelt became a major crop in Europe in the 9th century CE because it is husked, unlike other grains, therefore more adaptable to cold climates and is more suitable for storage. Spelt was introduced to the United States in the 1890s. In the 20th century, spelt was replaced by bread wheat in all areas where it was still grown; the organic farming movement revived its popularity somewhat toward the end of the century, as spelt requires less fertilizer. Since the beginning of the 21st century, spelt became a common wheat substitute for making artisanal breads and flakes. In a 100 gram serving, uncooked spelt provides 338 calories and is an excellent source of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins and numerous dietary minerals. Richest nutrient contents include manganese and niacin. Spelt contains about 70% total carbohydrates, including 11% as dietary fibre, is low in fat. Spelt contains gluten and is therefore suitable for baking, but this component makes it unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, wheat allergy.
In comparison to hard red winter wheat, spelt has a more soluble protein matrix characterized by a higher gliadin:glutenin ratio. In Germany and Austria, spelt loaves and rolls are available in bakeries as is spelt flour in supermarkets; the unripe spelt grains are eaten as Grünkern. Dutch Jenever makers distill with spelt. Beer brewed from spelt is sometimes seen in Bavaria and Belgium and spelt is distilled to make vodka in Poland. Spelt is a specialty crop, but its popularity in the past as a peasants' staple food has been attested in literature. Although today's Russian-speaking children do not know what polba looks or tastes like, they may recognize the word as something that can be made into porridge, having heard Pushkin's well-rhymed story in which the poor workman Balda asks his employer the priest "to feed me boiled spelt". In Horace's Satire 2.6, which ends with the story of the Country Mouse and the City Mouse, the country mouse eats spelt at dinner while serving his city guest finer foods.
In The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri, Pietro della Vigna appears as a suicide in Circle VII, ring ii, Canto XIII of the Inferno. Pietro describes the fate awaiting souls guilty of suicide to Dante the Virgil. According to Pietro, the soul of the suicide grows into a wild tree and is tormented by harpies that feast upon its leaves. Pietro likens the initial growth and transformation of the soul of the suicide to the germination of a grain of spelt. Spelt is mentioned in the Bible; the seventh plague in Egypt in Exodus, did not damage the harvest of wheat and spelt, as these were "late crops". Ezekiel 4:9 says: "Take thou unto thee wheat, barley, beans, lentils, millet, spelt, put them in one vessel, make thee bread thereof...", though as noted above this is a mistranslation and should be "emmer". It is mentioned again in Isaiah 28:25: "...and put in the wheat in row
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Semolina is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat used in making upma and couscous. The word semolina can refer to sweet dessert made from semolina and milk; the term semolina is used to designate coarse middlings from other varieties of wheat, from other grains, such as rice and maize. Semolina is derived from the Italian word semola, meaning'bran'; this is derived from the ancient Latin simila, meaning'flour', itself a borrowing from Greek σεμίδαλις, "groats". The words simila, semidalis and grain may all have similar proto-Indo-European origins as two Sanskrit terms for wheat and godhuma, or may be loan words from the Semitic root smd – to grind into groats. Modern milling of wheat into flour is a process; the rollers are adjusted so that the space between them is narrower than the width of the wheat kernels. As the wheat is fed into the mill, the rollers flake off the bran and germ while the starch is cracked into coarse pieces in the process. Through sifting, these endosperm particles, the semolina, are separated from the bran.
The semolina is ground into flour. This simplifies the process of separating the endosperm from the bran and germ, as well as making it possible to separate the endosperm into different grades because the inner part of the endosperm tends to break down into smaller pieces than the outer part. Different grades of flour can thus be produced. Semolina made from durum wheat is yellow in color. Semolina is used as the base for dried products such as couscous, made by mixing 2 parts semolina with 1 part durum flour. Broadly speaking, meal produced from grains other than wheat may be referred to as semolina, e.g. rice semolina, or corn semolina. When semolina comes from softer types of wheats, it is white in color. In this case, the correct name is flour, not semolina. In the United States, coarser meal coming from softer types of wheats is known as farina, it does not hold shape as well as durum. In Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovenia and Croatia, semolina is known as Grieß and is mixed with egg to make Grießknödel, which can be added to soup.
The particles are coarse, between 0.25 and 0.75 millimeters in diameter. In South India, semolina is used to make savory foods, like Rava Upma, it is sometimes used to coat slices of fish before it is pan-fried in oil, to give it a crispy coating. In much of North Africa, durum semolina is made into the staple couscous. Semolina is a common food in West Africa among Nigerians, it is eaten as either dinner with stew or soup. It is boiled for 5 to 10 minutes. In the US, semolina is boiled to produce a porridge. In Austria, Bosnia, Slovenia, Romania and the Czech Republic semolina is cooked with water or milk and sweetened with squares of chocolate to make the breakfast dish Grießkoch or Grießbrei; the German Grießbrei and the Dutch griesmeelpap don't contain chocolate and are rather served as a dessert than a breakfast dish. In English this kind of dessert is known as semolina pudding. In Slovakia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, it is eaten as breakfast porridge, sometimes mixed with raisins and served with milk.
In Swedish it is boiled together with blueberries, as blåbärsgröt. In Sweden, Estonia and Latvia, for a dessert eaten in summer, semolina is boiled together with juice from berries and whipped into a light, airy consistency to create klappgröt known as vispipuuro or mannavaht or debessmanna. In the Middle East and North Africa, basbousa is made chiefly of semolina. In some cultures, it is served during special celebrations, or as a religious offering. In North Africa, it is used to make harcha, a kind of griddle cake eaten for breakfast with jam or honey. On the Indian subcontinent, semolina is used for such sweets as Rava Kesari; such a preparation is a popular dessert in Greece and Cyprus. In Greece, the dessert galaktoboureko is made by making a custard from the semolina and wrapping it in phyllo sheets. In Cyprus, the semolina may be mixed with almond cordial to create a light, water-based pudding. In Turkey, Iran, Bangladesh and Arab countries, halawa is sometimes made with semolina scorched with sugar, butter and pine nuts.
In Nepal, semolina is used for preparing sweet dishes like Haluwa or Puwa. As an alternative to corn meal, semolina can be used to flour the baking surface to prevent sticking. In bread making, a small proportion of durum semolina added to the usual mix of flour is said to produce a tasty crust. Bombay rava