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Migratory locust

The migratory locust is the most widespread locust species, the only species in the genus Locusta. It occurs throughout Africa, Asia and New Zealand, it has now become rare there. Because of the vast geographic area it occupies, which comprises many different ecological zones, numerous subspecies have been described. However, not all experts agree on the validity of some of these subspecies. Many other species of grasshopper with gregarious and migratory behaviour are referred to as'locusts' in the vernacular, including the distributed desert locust. At 6.5 Gbp, the migratory locust possesses the largest known insect genome. The migratory locust is polyphenic, it transitions between two main phenotypes in response to population density. As the density of the population increases the locust transforms progressively from the solitary phase towards the gregarious phase with intermediate phases: Solitaire = solitary phase → transiens congregans → gregarious phase → transiens dissocians → solitaire = solitary phase.

Pigmentation and size of the migratory locust vary according to its age. Gregarious larvae have a yellow to orange covering with black spots; the gregarious adult is brownish with yellow, the latter colour becoming more intense and extensive on maturation. The solitary adult is brown with varying extent of green colour depending on the colour of the vegetation. Gregarious adults vary in size between 60 mm according to the sex. Locusts are mobile, fly with the wind at a speed of about 15 to 20 kilometres per hour. Swarms can travel 5 to 130 km or more in a day. Locust swarms can vary from less than one square kilometre to several hundred square kilometres with 40 to 80 million individuals per square kilometre. An adult locust can consume its own weight in fresh food per day. For every million locusts, one ton of food is eaten. In Africa, the last serious widespread plague of L. m. migratorioides occurred from 1928 to 1942. Since environmental transformations have made the development of swarms from the African migratory locust unlikely.

Potential outbreaks are monitored as plagues can be devastating. The Malagasy migratory locust still swarms; the desert locust, similar to the African migratory locust, remains a major threat too. Locust survey and control are the responsibility of the Ministry of Agriculture in locust-affected countries and are operations undertaken by national locust units; the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations provides information on the general locust situation to all interested countries and gives warnings and forecasts to those countries in danger of invasion. The migratory locust is an edible insect. In Europe, the migratory locust is approved for the use in food in Switzerland. L. migratoria is found over a vast geographic area, its range covers many different ecological zones. Because of this, numerous subspecies have been described. L. m. burmana Ramme, 1951 L. m. capito Saussure, 1884 L. m. cinerascens Fabricius, 1781 L. m. manilensis 1 L. m. migratoria L. m. migratorioides L. m. tibetensis Chen, Yonglin, 1963 L. m. danica = L. m. migratoria L. m. gallica Remaudičre, 1947 = L. m. migratoria L. m. solitaria Carthy, 1955 = L. m. migratoria Other species of Orthoptera that display gregarious and migratory behaviour are called'locusts'.

American locust, Schistocerca americana Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera Bombay locust, Nomadacris succincta Brown locust, Locustana pardalina Desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Egyptian locust, Anacridium aegyptium Italian locust, Calliptamus italicus Moroccan locust, Dociostaurus maroccanus Red locust, Nomadacris septemfasciata Rocky Mountain locust, Melanoplus spretus – extinct Sahelian tree locusts, Anacridium melanorhodon Spur-throated locust, Austracris guttulosa Sudan plague locust, Aiolopus simulatrixThe Senegalese grasshopper often displays locust-like behaviour in the Sahel region. 2004 locust outbreak 2013 Madagascar locust infestation Australian Plague Locust Commission Walker, Annette. The Reed Handbook of Common New Zealand Insects. Auckland: Reed. ISBN 978-0-7900-0718-2. Steedman, Alison, ed.. Locust Handbook. London: Overseas Development Natural Resources Institute. ISBN 978-0-85954-232-6. Food and Agriculture Organization The phenomenon of phases Biolib Fauna Europaea Genus Locusta at Orthoptera Species File on Line Sound recordings of Migratory Locust at BioAcoustica

Veleia (Italy)

Veleia, an ancient town of Aemilia, situated about 15 km south of Placentia. It is mentioned by Pliny among the towns of the eighth region, though the Veleiates were ethnically Ligurians, its inhabitants were, in the census of Vespasian, found to be remarkable for their longevity. Nothing further was known of it until 1747, when some ploughmen found the famous Tabula alimentaria, now in National Archaeological Museum of Parma. This, the largest inscribed bronze tablet of antiquity contains the list of estates in the territories of Veleia, Placentia and Luca, in which Trajan had assigned before 102 CE 72,000 sesterces and 1,044,000 sesterces on a mortgage bond to forty-six estates; the total value of, reckoned at over 13,000,000 sesterces, the interest on which at 5% was to serve for the support of 266 boys and 6 girls, the former receiving 16, the latter 12 sesterces a month. Excavations begun on the site in 1760, were at first successful. Pre-Roman cremation tombs have been found, with objects of bronze and iron of no great value.

But excavations which were carried on at intervals up to 1876 have given less fruitful results. The oldest dated monument is a bronze tablet with a portion of the text of the Lex Rubria de Gallia cisalpina of 49 BCE which dealt with the administration of justice in Cisalpine Gaul in connection with the extension to it of the privileges of the Roman franchise, the latest an inscription of 276 CE. Most of the objects found are in the museum at Parma. How and when Veleia was abandoned is uncertain: the prevalent view that it was destroyed by a landslip was proved to be mistaken by the excavations of 1876. "The Veleia rooms at the National Archaeological Museum of Parma: Room II". Retrieved 24 April 2009. "Veleia: useful info of the archaeological park"