James M. Beck
James Montgomery Beck was an American lawyer and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was a member of the Republican Party, who served as U. S, Beck was born July 9,1861 in Philadelphia, the son of Margaretta C. and James Nathan Beck. He graduated from Moravian College in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania in 1880 and he was employed as clerk for a railway company in 1880 and studied law at night, was admitted to the bar in 1884 and commenced practice in Philadelphia. He was admitted to the bar of New York City in 1903, Beck served as assistant United States attorney for the eastern district of Pennsylvania from 1888 to 1892 and as United States attorney in Philadelphia from 1896 to 1900. In 1898, he ran for District Attorney of Philadelphia, and he was appointed by President William McKinley as assistant to the Attorney General of the United States in 1900 and served until his resignation in 1903. He returned to the practice of law, joining the firm of Shearman & Sterling in New York City. In 1917, he left that firm to become partner in Beck, Crawford & Harris.
At the outbreak of World War I, he took a stand against Germany and wrote much. He was elected a bencher of Gray’s Inn in 1914, being the first foreigner in 600 years to receive that distinction and he received decorations from France and Belgium and authored several books and articles on the First World War and on the Constitution of the United States. Among his works were The Evidence in the Case and War and he was appointed by President Warren G. Harding as Solicitor General of the United States in 1921 and served until his voluntary resignation in 1925, when he again resumed the practice of law. During his term as general, he had charge of more than 800 cases before the U. S. Supreme Court. He personally and successfully argued more than 100 of those cases, the remainder were detailed to staff. His conservative views were reflected in his 1924 book The Constitution of the United States and it was a best-seller, going through seven printings within ten months. A special edition of 10,000 copies, with a forward by President-elect Coolidge, went to schools, in response, Beck wrote The Vanishing Rights of States, in which he argued that the U. S.
Constitution didnt allow the Senate the ability to exclude a member chosen through an election, the debate that followed the books publishing raised Becks public profile and made him a prominent option to fill the House seat vacated by the resignation of James M. Hazlett. He was active in the movement to repeal the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution and he fended off legal questions about his official residence and thus eligibility to represent Philadelphia. Beck resigned his seat in the House of Representatives because of objections to President Franklin Roosevelts New Deal. In a statement released at the time of his resignation, he stated that Congress had become merely a rubber stamp for the Executive
Time is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and for decades was dominated by Henry Luce, a European edition is published in London and covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong, the South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney, Australia. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition, Time has the worlds largest circulation for a weekly news magazine, and has a readership of 26 million,20 million of which are based in the United States. As of 2012, it had a circulation of 3.3 million making it the eleventh most circulated magazine in the United States reception room circuit, as of 2015, its circulation was 3,036,602. Richard Stengel was the editor from May 2006 to October 2013. Nancy Gibbs has been the editor since October 2013. Time magazine was created in 1923 by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce, the two had previously worked together as chairman and managing editor respectively of the Yale Daily News.
They first called the proposed magazine Facts and they wanted to emphasize brevity, so that a busy man could read it in an hour. They changed the name to Time and used the slogan Take Time–Its Brief and it set out to tell the news through people, and for many decades the magazines cover depicted a single person. More recently, Time has incorporated People of the Year issues which grew in popularity over the years, notable mentions of them were Barack Obama, Steve Jobs, Matej Turk, etc. The first issue of Time was published on March 3,1923, featuring Joseph G. Cannon, the retired Speaker of the House of Representatives, on its cover, a facsimile reprint of Issue No. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28,1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazines 15th anniversary. The cover price was 15¢ On Haddens death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at Time, the Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941.
In 1929, Roy Larsen was named a Time Inc. director, J. P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over Time and Fortune. Other shareholders were Brown Brothers W. A. Harriman & Co. the Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983. According to the September 10,1979 issue of The New York Times, after Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by utilizing U. S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It often promoted both Time magazine and U. S. political and corporate interests, Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, The March of Time, to be broadcast over CBS, beginning on March 6,1931
A news magazine is a typed and published piece of paper, magazine or a radio or television program, usually weekly, consisting of articles about current events. In greater depth than do newspapers or newscasts, and aim to give the consumer an understanding of the important events beyond the basic facts, radio news magazines are similar to television news magazines. Unlike radio newscasts, which are typically five minutes in length. Television news magazines provide a service to print news magazines. These broadcasts serve as an alternative in covering certain issues more in-depth than regular newscasts, the formula, first established by Panorama on the BBC in 1953 has proved successful around the world. Television news magazines once aired five nights a week on most television networks, with the success of reality shows, news magazines have largely been supplanted
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Israel Zangwill was a British author at the forefront of cultural Zionism during the 19th century, he was a close associate of Theodor Herzl. He rejected the search for a Jewish homeland and became the prime thinker behind the territorial movement, Zangwill was born in London on 21 January 1864, in a family of Jewish immigrants from the Russian Empire. His father, Moses Zangwill, was from what is now Latvia and his brother was novelist Louis Zangwill. Zangwill received his schooling in Plymouth and Bristol. When he was nine years old, Zangwill was enrolled in the Jews Free School in Spitalfields in east London, at this school he excelled and even taught part-time, eventually becoming a full-fledged teacher. While teaching, he studied for his degree from the University of London and he initiated and edited Ariel, The London Puck, and did miscellaneous work for the London press. Zangwills work earned him the nickname the Dickens of the Ghetto and he wrote a very influential novel Children of the Ghetto, A Study of a Peculiar People.
The use of the metaphorical phrase melting pot to describe American absorption of immigrants was popularised by Zangwills play The Melting Pot, a success in the United States in 1909–10. When The Melting Pot opened in Washington D. C. on 5 October 1909, former President Theodore Roosevelt leaned over the edge of his box and shouted, Thats a great play, Mr. Zangwill, thats a great play. The protagonist of the play, emigrates to America after the Kishinev pogrom in which his family is killed. He writes a great symphony named The Crucible expressing his hope for a world in all ethnicity has melted away. The dramatic climax of the play is the moment when David meets Veras father, Veras father admits guilt, the symphony is performed to accolades and Vera live happily ever after, or, at least, agree to wed and kiss as the curtain falls. Melting Pot celebrated Americas capacity to absorb and grow from the contributions of its immigrants, Zangwill was writing as a Jew who no longer wanted to be a Jew.
His real hope was for a world in which the entire lexicon of racial, liebler & Co. produced all three plays as well as The Melting Pot. Daniel Frohman produced Zangwills 1904 play, The Serio-Comic Governess, featuring Cecilia Loftus, Kate Pattison-Selten, in 1931 Jules Furthman adapted Merely Mary Ann for a Janet Gaynor film. Zangwills simulation of Yiddish sentence structure in English aroused great interest and he wrote mystery works, such as The Big Bow Mystery, and social satire such as The King of Schnorrers, a picaresque novel. His Dreamers of the Ghetto includes essays on famous Jews such as Baruch Spinoza, Heinrich Heine, the Big Bow Mystery was the first locked room mystery novel. It has been almost continuously in print since 1891 and has used as the basis for three commercial movies
Andrew William Mellon was an American banker, industrialist, art collector, and politician. From the wealthy Mellon family of Pennsylvania, he established a vast business empire before transitioning into politics. He served as United States Secretary of the Treasury from March 9,1921 to February 12,1932, presiding over the years of the 1920s. Leaving office after the onset of the Great Depression, he served as the United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom. A conservative Republican, Mellon lowered taxes and government spending in the aftermath of World War I, Mellon was born in Pennsylvania on March 24,1855. His name is listed on the 1860 Census as William A. Mellon and his father was Thomas Mellon, a banker and judge who was a Scots-Irish immigrant from County Tyrone, his mother was Sarah Jane Negley Mellon. He had three brothers, Thomas A. James R. and Samuel, and he had a younger brother named Richard B. He was educated at the Western University of Pennsylvania and left before graduating, in 1872 his father set him up in a lumber and coal business, which he soon turned into a profitable enterprise.
He joined his fathers banking firm, T, Mellon & Sons, in 1880 and two years had ownership of the bank transferred to him. In 1889, Mellon helped organize the Union Trust Company and Union Savings Bank of Pittsburgh and he branched into industrial activities, steel and construction. Areas where Mellons backing created giant enterprises included aluminum, industrial abrasives, Mellon financed Charles Martin Hall, whose refinery grew into the Aluminum Company of America. He became the partner of Edward Goodrich Acheson in manufacturing silicon carbide and he created an entire industry through his help to Heinrich Koppers, inventor of coke ovens which transformed industrial waste into usable products such as coal-gas, coal-tar, and sulfur. He became an investor in the New York Shipbuilding Corporation. Mellon was one of the wealthiest people in the United States, while he served as Secretary of the U. S. Treasury Department his wealth peaked at around $300–$400 million in 1929–1930. Mellon was a member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club, along with his closest friends Henry Clay Frick and Philander Knox, Mellon served as a director of the Pittsburgh National Bank of Commerce.
Mellon was one-third owner with Frick and one Charles W. Mauck in the Old Overholt whiskey distillery in West Overton, at the time, Old Overholt was one of the largest and most respected whiskey producers in the country. In 1907, as prohibition became more popular across the country and Mellon removed their names from the distilling license and it is believed that Mellons connections in the Treasury Department are what allowed the company to secure a medicinal permit during Prohibition. This permit allowed Overholt to sell existing whiskey stocks to druggists for medicinal use, when Frick died in December 1919, he left his share to Mellon
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill KG OM CH TD PC DL FRS RA was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill was an officer in the British Army, a historian. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his overall, in 1963, he was the first of only eight people to be made an honorary citizen of the United States. Churchill was born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough and his father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer, his mother, Jennie Jerome, was an American socialite. As a young officer, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War. He gained fame as a war correspondent and wrote books about his campaigns, at the forefront of politics for fifty years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, during the war, he continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign caused his departure from government.
He briefly resumed active service on the Western Front as commander of the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers. He returned to government under Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, at the outbreak of the Second World War, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister and he led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured. After the Conservative Party suffered a defeat in the 1945 general election. He publicly warned of an Iron Curtain of Soviet influence in Europe, after winning the 1951 election, Churchill again became Prime Minister. His second term was preoccupied by foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, domestically his government laid great emphasis on house-building. Churchill suffered a stroke in 1953 and retired as Prime Minister in 1955. Upon his death aged ninety in 1965, Elizabeth II granted him the honour of a state funeral and his highly complex legacy continues to stimulate intense debate amongst writers and historians.
Born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough, a branch of the noble Spencer family, Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, like his father. His ancestor George Spencer had changed his surname to Spencer-Churchill in 1817 when he became Duke of Marlborough, to highlight his descent from John Churchill, Churchill was born on 30 November 1874, two months prematurely, in a bedroom in Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire. From age two to six, he lived in Dublin, where his grandfather had been appointed Viceroy, Churchills brother, John Strange Spencer-Churchill, was born during this time in Ireland
Warren G. Harding
Warren Gamaliel Harding was the 29th President of the United States, serving from March 4,1921 until his death in 1923. In historical rankings of the U. S. presidents, Harding is often rated among the worst, Harding was born in Blooming Grove, Ohio. He lived in rural Ohio all his life, except when political service took him elsewhere and he settled in Marion when not yet 20 years old and bought The Marion Star, building it into a successful newspaper. In 1899, he was elected to the Ohio State Senate and, after four years there and he was defeated for governor in 1910, but was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1914. Harding ran for the Republican nomination for president in 1920, the leading candidates, such as General Leonard Wood, could not gain a majority to secure the nomination, and the convention deadlocked. Hardings support gradually grew until he was nominated on the tenth ballot and he conducted a front porch campaign, remaining for the most part in Marion and allowing the people to come to him.
He won in a landslide over Democrat James M. Cox and Socialist Party candidate Eugene Debs, running on a theme of return to normalcy and becoming the first sitting senator to be elected president. Harding appointed a number of well-regarded figures, including Andrew Mellon at the Treasury, Herbert Hoover at Commerce, a major foreign policy achievement came with the Washington Naval Conference of 1921–1922, in which the worlds major naval powers agreed on a naval limitations program that lasted a decade. Two members of his cabinet were implicated in corruption, Interior Secretary Albert Fall, the resulting scandals did not fully emerge until after Hardings death, nor did word of his extramarital affairs, but both greatly damaged his reputation. Harding died of an attack in San Francisco while on a western speaking tour, he was succeeded by his vice president. Harding was born November 2,1865, in Blooming Grove, nicknamed Winnie as a small child, Harding was the eldest of eight children born to George Tryon Harding, Sr.
and Phoebe Elizabeth Harding. Tryon farmed and taught school near Mount Gilead, through apprenticeship, and a year of medical school, Tryon became a doctor, and started a small practice. Hardings mothers ancestors were Dutch, including the well known Van Kirk family, Harding had ancestors from England and Scotland. It was rumored in Blooming Grove that one of Hardings great-grandmothers was African American and his great-great grandfather Amos Harding claimed that a thief, who had been caught in the act by the family, started the rumor in an attempt at extortion or revenge. Nevertheless, even after Warren Hardings death in 1923, African Americans made claims of kinship, the Harding family, who were abolitionists, moved to Caledonia, where Tryon acquired The Argus, a local weekly newspaper. At The Argus, from the age of 11, in late 1879, at the age of 14, Harding enrolled at Ohio Central College in Iberia, where he proved an adept student. He and a put out a small newspaper during their final year at Ohio Central.
During his final year, the Harding family moved to Marion, about 6 miles from Caledonia, in Hardings youth, the majority of the population still lived on farms and in small towns
Joseph Conrad was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language. He joined the British merchant marine in 1878, and was granted British nationality in 1886, though he did not speak English fluently until his twenties, he was a master prose stylist who brought a non-English sensibility into English literature. He wrote stories and novels, many with a nautical setting, Conrad is considered an early modernist, though his works still contain elements of 19th-century realism. Many films have adapted from, or inspired by, Conrads works. Joseph Conrad was born on 3 December 1857 in Berdychiv, in what is now Ukraine and at the time of his birth the Russian Empire and he was the only child of Apollo Korzeniowski and his wife Ewa Bobrowska. His father was a writer, political activist, Conrad was christened Józef Teodor Konrad after his maternal grandfather Józef, his paternal grandfather Teodor, and the heroes of two poems by Adam Mickiewicz and Konrad Wallenrod.
He was subsequently known to his family as Konrad, rather than Józef, Polish literature, particularly patriotic literature, was held in high esteem by the areas Polish population. The Korzeniowski family played a significant role in Polish attempts to regain independence, Conrads paternal grandfather served under Prince Józef Poniatowski during Napoleons Russian campaign and formed his own cavalry squadron during the November 1830 Uprising. Conrads subsequent refusal to follow in Apollos footsteps, and his choice of exile over resistance, were a source of guilt for Conrad. Because of the attempts at farming and his political activism. In May 1861 they moved to Warsaw, where Apollo joined the resistance against the Russian Empire and this led to his imprisonment in Pavilion X of the Warsaw Citadel. Conrad would write, n the courtyard of this Citadel – characteristically for our nation – my childhood memories begin, on 9 May 1862 Apollo and his family were exiled to Vologda,500 kilometres north of Moscow and known for its bad climate.
In January 1863 Apollos sentence was commuted, and the family was sent to Chernihiv in northeast Ukraine, however, on 18 April 1865 Ewa died of tuberculosis. Apollo did his best to home-school Conrad, most of all, though, he read Polish Romantic poetry. Half a century he explained that The Polishness in my works comes from Mickiewicz and my father read Pan Tadeusz aloud to me and made me read it aloud. I used to prefer Konrad Wallenrod Grażyna, in December 1867, Apollo took his son to the Austrian-held part of Poland, which for two years had been enjoying considerable internal freedom and a degree of self-government. After sojourns in Lwów and several localities, on 20 February 1869 they moved to Kraków. A few months later, on 23 May 1869, Apollo Korzeniowski died, like Conrads mother, Apollo had been gravely ill with tuberculosis