Nuevo Laredo is a city in the Municipality of Nuevo Laredo in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. The city lies on the banks of the Rio Grande, across from the U. S. city of Laredo, Texas. The 2010 census population of the city was 373,725. Nuevo Laredo is part of the Laredo-Nuevo Laredo Metropolitan Area with a population of 636,516; the municipality has an area of 1,334.02 km2. Both the city and the municipality rank as the third largest in the state; the city is connected to Texas by three international bridges and a rail bridge. The city is larger and younger than its U. S. counterpart. As an indication of its economic importance, one of Mexico's banderas monumentales is in the city. Nuevo Laredo was part of the territory of the original settlement of Laredo, founded in 1755 by the Spaniard Don Tomás Sánchez in the northern part of the Rio Grande; the settlement's territory was granted to José de Escandón by the King of Spain, the settlement's territory and population remained unified for ninety years, until the war of 1846–1848, the Mexican–American War.
Early in 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo divided the territory attached to Laredo between the United States and Mexico. Nuevo Laredo was founded on June 15, 1848, by seventeen Laredo families who wished to remain Mexican and therefore moved to the Mexican side of the Rio Grande, they identified with Mexico, its history, its cultural customs, decided to keep their Mexican citizenship. The founders of Nuevo Laredo took with them the bones of their ancestors so they would continue to rest in Mexican ground; as a border town, Nuevo Laredo is known for its turf war in which drug cartels compete for control of the drug trade into the United States. Nuevo Laredo is a lucrative drug corridor because of the large volume of trucks that pass through the area, the multiple exploitable ports of entry. Nuevo Laredo is the base of Los Zetas the armed wing of the Gulf Cartel; as of 2012, Los Zetas are thought to be Mexico's largest criminal organization. Drug violence involving the Sinaloa and Gulf Cartels escalated in 2003, when the city was controlled by the Gulf Cartel.
2012 has seen an unprecedented series of mass murder attacks in the city between the Sinaloa Cartel and Gulf Cartel on one side and Los Zetas on the other. Nuevo Laredo is in the northern tip of Tamaulipas on the west end of the Rio Grande Plains. Rio Grande is the only source. El Coyote Creek supplies Nuevo Laredo's only natural lake El Laguito; the area consists of a few hills and flat land covered with grass and mesquite. Nuevo Laredo features a semi-arid climate. Nuevo Laredo's weather is influenced by its proximity to the Chihuahuan Desert to the west, by the Sierra Madre Oriental mountains to the south and west, by the Gulf of Mexico to the east. Much of the moisture from the Pacific is blocked by the Sierra Madre Oriental. Therefore, most of the moisture derives from the Gulf of Mexico, its geographic location causes Nuevo Laredo's weather to range from long periods of heat to sudden violent storms in a short period of time. Nuevo Laredo is cold for Tamaulipas standards during winter, the average daytime highs are around 66 °F and overnight lows around 43 °F.
Nuevo Laredo experiences an average high temperature of about 99 °F, an average low of about 75 °F during summer, 20 inches of rain per year. As Laredo sometimes undergoes drought, a water conservation ordinance was implemented in 2003. Nuevo Laredo is governed by an elected Cabildo, composed of the Presidente Municipal, two Síndicos, twenty Regidores; the PAN is in control of the city government. The Mayor is in charge of the municipal administration; the Síndicos supervise the municipal budget and expenditures, the Regidores are elected by the party. Public safety is provided by three municipal departments: municipal police, traffic control, the emergency services department; as well as the State Police Force Tamaulipas replacing former Acreditable State Police Because of the drug-related violence, Federal level departments take part in the security effort, SEDENA Military Police Mexican Army Troops, SEMAR Mexican Navy Troops and Federal Police. Nuevo Laredo is the most important trade border crossing of Latin America.
Its geographical position has enabled this city to grow and specialize in the international trade business. Nuevo Laredo has a developed logistics and transportation industry, complemented with a variety of hotel chains, restaurants and a cultural center where events such as the Tamaulipas International Festival take place. Nuevo Laredo is on the primary trade route connecting the United States and Mexico. Both Nuevo Laredo and Laredo, Texas are now the gateway to Mexico's burgeoning industrial complex, offering diverse markets, business opportunities and profit potential, which both business and industry cannot find anywhere else. Nuevo Laredo is the only Mexico/U. S. Border city strategically positioned at the convergence of all land trans
Texas State Highway 255
State Highway 255 is a Texas state highway that allows international traffic to bypass Laredo. Located in Webb County, the highway provides a connection between the Colombia Solidarity International Bridge to Interstate 35 at exit #24; the route opened in 2000 as the Camino Colombia Toll Road, was one of the few operating toll roads in the United States to have gone through the legal process of foreclosure. The toll designation was removed from the route in 2017. SH 255 begins at the Colombia Solidarity International Bridge on the United States–Mexico border. SH 255 heads northeast from there as a 4-lane divided highway, crosses FM 1472 merges down to a 2-lane road just west of the former toll barrier. SH 255 continues northeast to an intersection at FM 3338 and a diamond interchange with US 83, it continues to the northeast to its eastern terminus at I-35. Although the portion from the United States–Mexico border to FM 1472 is an extension of SH 255, it is still signed in the field as FM 255.
Beginning June 1, 2009, the use of the TxTag electronic toll collection system was mandatory. Motorists were able to use Laredo Trade Tags if they were connected to a TxTag account; the route was approved in 1997 as a owned toll route for truck traffic to bypass the city of Laredo for traffic congestion. The route was opened as the Camino Colombia Toll Road in October 2000, at a cost of $90 million. SH 255 inherited its number from FM 255, designated on the route between the border crossing and FM 1472 on November 30, 1989; the SH 255 designation was extended over this segment on June 30, 2005. In August 2001, landowners that were shareholders of the route filed a lawsuit, claiming that profits and traffic usage were less than expected; the failure of the route was attributed to the price for truck traffic, the continuation of U. S. government policies banning Mexican trucks from the interior of the United States, the approval of a new freeway connecting route from the World Trade International Bridge crossing along Loop 20 to Interstate 35.
The toll road was foreclosed on late in 2003, was auctioned off on the steps of the Webb County courthouse January 6, 2004. It was purchased by its main creditor, the John Hancock Life Insurance Company, for the minimum $12 million, 1/6 of the construction value; the only other bidder was the Texas Department of Transportation at $11 million. The route was subsequently closed to all traffic. On May 27, 2004, TxDOT purchased the route from John Hancock for a negotiated $20 million, reopened the route in September, dropping the toll to $2 toll for cars and $2 per additional axle. During the 2017 Texas legislative session, language was added to Senate Bill 312 that disallowed TxDOT from continuing to operate the route as a toll project.. The bill was passed by both the Texas Senate and Texas House of Representatives on May 30, 2017, was signed by the governor on June 9, 2017, took effect September 1, 2017. A previous route was designated as SH 255 on October 26, 1937, beginning in Bremond and traveling southeast to Wheelock.
This route became FM 46 on April 29, 1942. The entire route is in Webb County
Laredo is a city in and the county seat of Webb County, United States, on the north bank of the Rio Grande in South Texas, across from Nuevo Laredo, Mexico. According to the 2010 census, the city population was 236,091, making it the tenth-most populous city in the state of Texas and third-most populated on the Mexico–United States border, after San Diego, El Paso, Texas, its metropolitan area is the 178th-largest in the U. S. and includes all of Webb County, with a population of 250,304. Laredo is part of the cross-border Laredo-Nuevo Laredo Metropolitan Area with an estimated population of 636,516; because Laredo is 95.6 percent Hispanic and Latino, it is one of the least ethnically diverse cities in the United States. When economic diversity, household diversity, social class diversity are considered, Laredo is rated the 19th least diverse city overall out of the 313 largest cities in the nation. Laredo's economy is based on international trade with Mexico. Many major transportation companies have a facility in Laredo.
The city's location on the southern end of I-35, close to the manufacturers in northern Mexico, promotes its vital role in trade between the two nations. Laredo International Airport is within the Laredo city limits, while the Quetzalcoatl International Airport is nearby in Nuevo Laredo on the Mexican side. Laredo has the distinction of flying seven flags. Founded in 1755, Laredo grew from a village to the capital of the brief Republic of the Rio Grande to the largest inland port on the Mexico–United States border. Today, it has one railway bridge. Texas A&M International University and Laredo College are in Laredo; the biggest festival, Washington's Birthday Celebration, is held during the part of January and the majority of February, attracting hundreds of thousands of tourists. The Jalapeño Festival, Border Beer Fest, Stockmen's Ball, Princess Pocahontas Pageant, Mr. South Texas Luncheon, an air show, two major parades are all held in conjunction with the Washington's birthday events; the European colonial settlement of Villa de San Agustin de Laredo was founded in 1755 by Don Tomás Sánchez while the area was part of the Nuevo Santander region in the Spanish colony of New Spain.
Villa de San Agustin de Laredo was named after Laredo, Spain and in honor of Saint Augustine of Hippo. In 1840, Laredo was the capital of the independent Republic of the Rio Grande, set up in opposition to Antonio López de Santa Anna. In 1846 during the Mexican–American War, the town was occupied by the Texas Rangers. After the war, the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ceded the land to the United States. A referendum was taken in the town, which voted to petition the American military government in charge of the area to return the town to Mexico; when this petition was rejected, most of the population, who were Tejano and had been in the area for generations, moved across the river into Mexican territory, where they founded Nuevo Laredo. In 1849, the United States Army set up Fort McIntosh. Laredo was rechartered as a city in 1852. Laredo is one of the oldest crossing points along the Mexico–United States border, the nation's largest inland port of entry. In 2005, Laredo celebrated the 250th anniversary of its founding.
The origin of name of the original Spanish town of Laredo is unclear. Some scholars say the name stems from Glaretum which means "sandy, rocky place". Others state Laredo stems from a Basque word meaning "beautiful pastures". Laredo might stem from the Latin Larida which means gull. In 1946, the Plaza Theater opened in downtown Laredo, but it closed in 1999, when the municipal government purchased the property from United Artists. In 2001, the Laredo City Council authorized a feasibility study to determine what use the old theater might yet have. In 2003, a consultant recommended converting the Plaza into a multi-purpose performing arts center, with dance recitals, live theater, occasional films. In 2006, the city received an economic development grant for renovation of the Plaza. By 2008, renovations were made to the theater blade design. In 2011, a public-private partnership was attempted by two Laredo businessmen, Danny Lopez, Jr. and Victor Trevino, Jr. but that initiative never materialized.
In 2018, the city council authorized the solicitation of private entities and non-profit organizations to operate the theater. The council is seeking input from architects for the concept and design of renovations to the structure. In 1954, Laredo faced a devastating Rio Grande flood, when the water reached 61.35 feet, more than 10 feet higher than in the previous 1932 flood, which had caused great damage. According to Laredo historian Jerry D. Thompson of Texas A&M International University, the 1954 flood was "the largest in ninety-one years and the second largest according to archeological records in the last three hundred years." Many were left homeless for a time because of the calamity. Former Webb County administrative Judge Mercurio Martinez, Jr. recalls his father surveyed the depth of the water and advised residents to evacuate. Several downtown businesses had to remove their merchandise inventory or risk losing it to the rising waters; the flood caused the relocation of the Holding Institute.
The international bridge was destroyed when it was struck by the floating railroad bridge, hit by the debris of another bridge in Eagle Pass up the river. Photos of the flood by Teofilo Esquivel, Sr. are on the wall of a Danny's Restaurant on McPherson Avenue in Laredo. In 2016, the violent
Tamaulipas the Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria. Located in northeastern Mexico, it is bordered by the states of Veracruz to the southeast, San Luis Potosí to the southwest, Nuevo León to the west. To the north, it has a 370 km stretch of the U. S.–Mexico border along the state of Texas. The name Tamaulipas is derived from Tamaholipa, a Huastec term in which the tam- prefix signifies "place". No scholarly agreement exists on the meaning of holipa. Another explanation of the state name is. In addition to the capital city, Ciudad Victoria, the state's largest cities include Reynosa, Nuevo Laredo and Mante; the area known as Tamaulipas has been inhabited for at least 8,000 years. Several different cultures have gone during that period. Tamaulipas was populated by the Olmec people and by Chichimec and Huastec tribes. Between 1445 and 1466, Mexica armies commanded by Moctezuma I Ilhuicamina conquered much of the territory and transformed it into a tributary region for the Mexica empire.
However, the Aztecs never conquered certain nomadic indigenous groups in the area. Although Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztecs rather a gradual process was needed for Spain to subjugate the inhabitants of Tamaulipas in the 16th and 17th centuries; the first permanent Spanish settlement in the area was Tampico in 1554. Further settlement was done by Franciscan missionaries. Repeated indigenous rebellions weakened colonial interest in the region. What is now Tamaulipas was first incorporated as a separate province of New Spain in 1746 with the name Nuevo Santander; the local government capital during this time moved from Santander to San Carlos, to Aguayo. The territory of this time spanned from the San Antonio River to the northeast to the Gulf of Mexico south to the Pánuco River near Tampico and west to the Sierra Madre Mountains; the area became a haven for rebellious Indians who fled there after increased Spanish settlements in Nuevo León and Coahuila. In the mid-17th century, various Apache bands from the Southern Plains, after acquiring horses from Europeans in New Mexico, moved southeastward into the Edwards Plateau, displacing the native hunting and gathering groups.
One of these groups was known as Lipan. After 1750, when most Apache groups of the Central Texas highlands were displaced by Comanche and moved into the coastal plain of southern Texas, the Europeans of the San Antonio area began referring to all Apache groups in southern Texas as Lipan or Lipan Apache. Many Indian groups of missions in southern Texas and northeastern Mexico had been displaced from their territory through the southward push by the Lipan Apaches and were still hostile toward Apaches, linking arms with the local Spanish authorities against their common foe. By 1790, Europeans turned their attention from the aboriginal groups and focused on containing the Apache invaders. In northeastern Coahuila and adjacent Texas and Apache displacements created an unusual ethnic mix. Here, the local Indians mixed with displaced groups from Chihuahua and Texas; some groups, to escape the pressure and migrated north into the Central Texas highlands. In 1824, after the Mexican War of Independence from Spain, the fall of the Mexican Empire, Tamaulipas was one of the 19 founder states of the new United Mexican States.
During the fights between centralists and federalists that soon followed, the successful Texas Revolution led to the creation of the Republic of Texas in 1836. The new republic claimed as part of its territory northern Tamaulipas. In 1840, it became a part of the short-lived Republic of the Rio Grande. In 1848, after the Mexican–American War, Tamaulipas lost more than a quarter of its territory via the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, its capital was kept at Aguayo, renamed Ciudad Victoria in honor of Guadalupe Victoria, first President of Mexico. The French occupation and reign of Emperor Maximilian during the 1860s was difficult for Tamaulipas, at least on the borders and in the city of Tampico. Portions of Tamaulipas supported the republican forces led by President Benito Juarez in resisting the French in the north. Two years after French occupation began, Tamaulipas as a state acceded to Maximilian's rule, the last French soldiers left the state in 1866, leading up to Maximilian's execution and fall of the Second Mexican Empire in 1867.
However, the years after Maximilian's defeat were great growth in Tamaulipas. International trade began to blossom with the coming of the railroad to Tampico, developing as not only a port city, but as an industrial and commercial center; the railroad allowed goods to flow from the mines and cities of the interior and the Texas border to Tampico for processing and shipment. This, in turn, caused significant growth in towns such as Nuevo Laredo. Since the revolution of 1910, successive governments have dedicated themselves to building industry and infrastructure in Tamaulipas, including communications and educational systems. Norberto Treviño Zapata founded t
Texas Mexican Railway International Bridge
The Texas Mexican Railway International Bridge is the only railway international bridge that crosses the U. S.-Mexico border between the cities of Laredo and Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas. It is operated by Texas Mexican Railway and Kansas City Southern de México, it is known as the Laredo International Railway Bridge and Puente Negro. On January 1, 2005, Kansas City Southern took control of The Texas Mexican Railway Company and the U. S. portion of the International Bridge in Laredo, Texas. The railroad is a vital link in KCS's rail network, connecting The KCS and TFM, S. A. de C. V. On the U. S. side the Bridge is located in the western termini of the Texas-Mexican Railway in Texas. In Mexico it is located in the northern termini of the Kansas City Southern Railway in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas; when the Laredo International Railway Bridge 2 is completed the Texas-Mexican Railway International Bridge will be converted to either a northbound express lane for trailers and buses, or a railroad track for passenger trains
The Rio Grande is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico. The Rio Grande begins in south-central Colorado in the United States and flows to the Gulf of Mexico. Along the way, it forms part of the Mexico–United States border. According to the International Boundary and Water Commission, its total length was 1,896 miles in the late 1980s, though course shifts result in length changes. Depending on how it is measured, the Rio Grande is either the fourth- or fifth-longest river system in North America; the river serves as part of the natural border between the U. S. state of Texas and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas. A short stretch of the river serves as part of the boundary between the U. S. states of New Mexico. Since the mid–20th century, heavy water consumption by farms and cities along with many large diversion dams on the river has left only 20% of its natural discharge to flow to the Gulf. Near the river's mouth, the irrigated lower Rio Grande Valley is an important agricultural region.
The Rio Grande's watershed covers 182,200 square miles. Many endorheic basins are situated within, or adjacent to, the Rio Grande's basin, these are sometimes included in the river basin's total area, increasing its size to about 336,000 square miles; the Rio Grande rises in the western part of the Rio Grande National Forest in the U. S. state of Colorado. The river is formed by the joining of several streams at the base of Canby Mountain in the San Juan Mountains, just east of the Continental Divide. From there, it flows through the San Luis Valley south into the Middle Rio Grande Valley in New Mexico, passing through the Rio Grande Gorge near Taos toward Española, picking up additional water from the San Juan-Chama Diversion Project from the Rio Chama, it continues on a southerly route through the desert cities of Albuquerque and Las Cruces to El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. In the Albuquerque area, the river flows past a number of historic Pueblo villages, including Sandia Pueblo and Isleta Pueblo.
Below El Paso, it serves as part of the border between the United States and Mexico. The official river border measurement ranges from 889 miles to 1,248 miles, depending on how the river is measured. A major tributary, the Rio Conchos, enters at Ojinaga, below El Paso, supplies most of the water in the border segment. Other tributaries include the Pecos and the smaller Devils, which join the Rio Grande on the site of Amistad Dam. Despite its name and length, the Rio Grande is not navigable by ocean-going ships, nor do smaller passenger boats or cargo barges use it as a route, it is navigable at all, except by small boats in a few places. The Rio Grande rises in high flows for much of its length at high elevation. In New Mexico, the river flows through the Rio Grande rift from one sediment-filled basin to another, cutting canyons between the basins and supporting a fragile bosque ecosystem on its flood plain. From El Paso eastward, the river flows through desert. Although irrigated agriculture exists throughout most of its stretch, it is extensive in the subtropical Lower Rio Grande Valley.
The river ends in a sandy delta at the Gulf of Mexico. During portions of 2001 and 2002, the mouth of the Rio Grande was blocked by a sandbar. In the fall of 2003, the sandbar was cleared by high river flows around 7,063 cubic feet per second. Navigation was active during much of the 19th century, with over 200 different steamboats operating between the river's mouth close to Brownsville and Rio Grande City, Texas. Many steamboats from the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers were requisitioned by the U. S. government and moved to the Rio Grande during the Mexican–American War in 1846. They provided transport for the U. S. Army, under General Zachary Taylor, to invade Monterrey, Nuevo León, via Camargo Municipality, Tamaulipas. Army engineers recommended that with small improvements, the river could be made navigable as far north as El Paso; those recommendations were never acted upon. The Brownsville & Matamoros International Bridge, a large swing bridge, dates back to 1910 and is still in use today by automobiles connecting Brownsville with Matamoros, Tamaulipas.
The swing mechanism has not been used since the early 1900s, when the last of the big steamboats disappeared. At one point, the bridge had rail traffic. Railroad trains no longer use this bridge. A new rail bridge connecting the U. S. and Mexico was built about 15 miles west of the Matamoros International Bridge. It was inaugurated in August 2015, it moved all rail operations out of downtown Matamoros. The West Rail International Crossing is the first new international rail crossing between the U. S. and Mexico in 105 years. The Brownsville & Matamoros International Bridge is now operated by the Brownsville and Matamoros Bridge Company, a joint venture between the Mexican government and the Union Pacific Railroad. At the mouth of the Rio Grande, on the Mexican side, was the large commercial port of Bagdad, Tamaulipas. During the American Civil War, this was the only legitimate port of the Confederacy. European warships anchored offshore to maintain the port's neutrality, managed to do so throughout that conflict, despite occasional stare-downs with blockading ships from the US Navy.
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